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5.1j. Memory

•  5.1j.1 Epistemology of Memory [0]
•  5.1j.2 Memory and Cognitive Science [186]
•  5.1j.3 Memory, Misc [0]
•  5.1j.4 The Nature of Memory [3]
Adams, Henry F. (1916). The relative memory values of duplication and variation in advertising. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 13 (6):141-152.
Aggleton, John P. & Brown, Malcolm W. (1999). Episodic memory, amnesia, and the hippocampal–anterior thalamic axis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (3):425-444.   (Google)
Philosophy of Science 73 (5):947-958.   (Google)
Abstract: This paper is partly a tribute to Richard Jeffrey, partly a reflection on some of his writings, The Logic of Decision in particular. I begin with a brief biography and some fond reminiscences of Dick. I turn to some of the key tenets of his version of Bayesianism. All of these tenets are deployed in my discussion of his response to the St. Petersburg paradox, a notorious problem for decision theory that involves a game of infinite expectation. Prompted by that paradox, I conclude with some suggestions of avenues for future research
Law and Philosophy 12 (1).   (Google)
Minds and Machines 16 (2).   (Google)
Ameriks, Karl (1976). Personal identity and memory transfer. Southern Journal of Philosophy 14:385-391.   (Google)
Andrade, Jackie; Deeprose, Catherine & Barker, Ian (2008). Incidence of awareness and memory priming in paediatric surgery with general anaesthesia. British Journal of Anaesthesia.   (Google)
Andrade, Jackie (1997). Investigations of hypesthesia: Using anesthetics to explore relationships between consciousness, learning, and memory. Consciousness and Cognition 5:562-80.   (Google)
Andriopoulos, Dimitri Z. (1972). The problem of method in contemporary greek aesthetics: To the memory of P. A. Michelis. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 31 (2):201-213.
Annis, David B. (1980). Memory and justification. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 40 (3):324-333.
Anschuetz, Kurt F. (2005). Landscapes as memory : Archaeological history to learn from and to live by. In Michelle Hegmon, B. Sunday Eiselt & Richard I. Ford (eds.), Engaged Anthropology: Research Essays on North American Archaeology, Ethnobotany, and Museology. University of Michigan, Museum of Anthropology.   (Google)
Apfelthaler, Vera & Köhne, Julia B. (2007). Introduction : Memory, media, gender, and transgressions in/via film and theater. In Vera Apfelthaler & Julia B. Köhne (eds.), Gendered Memories: Transgressions in German and Israeli Film and Theatre. Turia + Kant.   (Google)
Aristotle, , On memory and reminiscence.
Asquith, Clare (2007). Edmund Campion: Memory and transcription. By Gerard kilroy. Heythrop Journal 48 (3):479–480.
Atienza, Mercedes & Cantero, Jose L. (2005). Redefining memory consolidation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):64-65.   (Google)
Abstract: Based on brain state-dependent behavioral changes, consolidation of sensorimotor memories has been posited to evolve in two different functional stages. Only the second of these stages requires sleep and leads to performance benefits. Recent results, however, suggest that sleep is not always crucial for the expression of delayed behavioral gains but might be critical for enhancing automaticity in the absence of attention, another expression of memory consolidation
Abstract: In his recent (2005) book "Sweet Dreams: philosophical obstacles to a science of consciousness," Dennett renews his attack on a philosophical notion of qualia, the success of which attack is required if his brand of Functionalism is to survive. He also articulates once again what he takes to be essential to his notion of consciousness. I shall argue that his new, central argument against the philosophical concept of qualia fails. In passing I point out a difficulty that David Rosenthal's "higher-order thought" theory of consciousness also faces in accounting for qualia. I then contrast Dennett's newest account of consciousness with interestingly different conceptions by contemporary neuro-scientists, and I suggest that philosophers should take the recent suggestions by neuro-scientists more seriously as a subject for philosophical investigation
Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A.   (Google)
Baas, Nils A. (2009). Extended memory evolutive systems in a hyperstructure context. Axiomathes 19 (2).   (Google)
Abstract: This paper is just a comment to the impressive work by A. C. Ehresmann and J.-P. Vanbremeersch on the theory of Memory Evolutive Systems (MES). MES are truly higher order systems. Hyperstructures represent a new concept which I introduced in order to capture the essence of what a higher order structure is—encompassing hierarchies and emergence. Hyperstructures are motivated by cobordism theory in topology and higher category theory. The morphism concept is replaced by the concept of a bond. In the paper I briefly introduce hyperstructures motivated geometrically and suggest further developments of the MESs along these lines, which could widen up new areas of applications
Baars, Bernard J. (1997). Some essential differences between consciousness and attention, perception, and working memory. Consciousness and Cognition 6:363-371.
Babbitt, Susan E. (2009). Collective memory or knowledge of the past : "Covering reality with flowers". In Sue Campbell, Letitia Meynell & Susan Sherwin (eds.), Embodiment and Agency. Pennsylvania State University Press.   (Google)
Baier, Annette C. (1976). Mixing memory and desire. American Philosophical Quarterly 13 (July):213-20.
Banerjee, S. P. & Moitra, Shefali (eds.) (1984). Communication, Identity, and Self-Expression: Essays in Memory of S.N. Ganguly. Oxford University Press.   (Google)
Barnier, Amanda; Sutton, John; Harris, Celia & Wilson, Robert A. (2008). A conceptual and empirical framework for the social distribution of cognition: The case of memory. Cognitive Systems Research 9 (1):33-51.   (Google)
John Benjamins.
Barrouillet, Pierre & Lecas, Jean-Francois (1999). Mental models in conditional reasoning and working memory. Thinking and Reasoning 5 (4):289 – 302.   (Google)
Abstract: Johnson-Laird's mental models theory claims that reasoning is a semantic process of construction and manipulation of models in working memory of limited capacity. Accordingly, both a deduction and a given interpretation of a premise would be all the harder the higher the number of models they require. The purpose of the present experiment was twofold. First, it aimed to demonstrate that the interpretation of if...then conditional sentences in children (third, sixth, and ninth graders) evolves as a function of the number of models the children can produce. We proposed a theory of conditional reasoning development that hypothesises a developmental trend of three successive levels of interpretations underlain by one, two, and then three models, i.e. conjunctive, biconditional, and conditional respectively. Second, we aimed to show that these different levels correlate with working memory capacities: the higher the working memory span, the higher the number of models underlying the conditional interpretation. These two hypotheses were verified, supporting the mental models theory. The results are compared with the rival theory of mental logic
Baron-Cohen, Simon; Bor, D.; Billington, J.; Asher, J.; Wheelwright, S. & Ashwin, C. (2007). Savant memory in a man with colour form-number synaesthesia and asperger. Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (s 9-10):237-251.   (Google)
Abstract: Extreme conditions like savantism, autism or synaesthesia, which have a neurological 2AH, UK basis, challenge the idea that other minds are similar to our own. In this paper we report a single case study of a man in whom all three of these conditions co-occur. We suggest, on the basis of this single case, that when savantism and synaesthesia co- occur, it is worthwhile testing for an undiagnosed Autism Spectrum Condition (ASC). This is because savantism has an established association with ASC, and the combination of ASC with synaesthesia may increase the likelihood of savantism. The implications of these conditions for philosophy of mind are introduced
Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (3):315-316.   (Google)
Barton Perry, Ralph (1906). The knowledge of past events. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 3 (23):617-626.
Barrett, Jeffrey A. (2000). The persistence of memory: Surreal trajectories in Bohm's theory. Philosophy of Science 67 (4):680-703.
Beardsmore, R. W. (1989). Autobiography and the brain: Mary Warnock on memory. British Journal of Aesthetics 29 (3).   (Google)
Bechtel, William (ms). Molecules, systems, and behavior: Another view of memory consolidation.   (Google)
Abstract: From its genesis in the 1960s, the focus of inquiry in neuroscience has been on the cellular and molecular processes underlying neural activity. In this pursuit neuroscience has been enormously successful. Like any successful scientific inquiry, initial successes have raised new questions that inspire ongoing research. While there is still much that is not known about the molecular processes in brains, a great deal of very important knowledge has been secured, especially in the last 50 years. It has also attracted the attention of a number of philosophers, some of whom have viewed it as evidence for a ruthlessly reductionistic program that will eventually explain how mental processes are performed in the brain in purely molecular terms. As neuroscience developed, however, there emerged a smaller group of researchers who focused on systems, behavioral, and cognitive neuroscience. These investigators have also made impressive advances in the last 50 years and they have been the focus of an even larger group of philosophers, who have appealed to systems level understanding of the brain as providing the appropriate point of connection to the information processing accounts advanced in psychology
Bell, Duncan (2008). Agonistic democracy and the politics of memory. Constellations 15 (1):148-166.   (Google)
Beloff, John (1981). Memory. Theoria to Theory 14 (March):187-204.   (Google)
Benjamin, B. S. (1956). Remembering. Mind 65 (July):312-331.
Ben-Zeev, Aaron (1986). Two approaches to memory. Philosophical Investigations 9 (October):288-301.   (Cited by 5 | Google)
Berman, Joel; Dziobiak, Wieslaw; Pigozzi, Don & Raftery, James (2006). In memory of Willem Johannes Blok 1947-2003. Studia Logica 83 (1-3):435-437.
Bernecker, Sven (2004). Memory and externalism. Philosophical and Phenomenological Research 69 (3):605-632.
Besten, Olga N. Nikitina-den; Rozhdestvenskaya, Elena & Semenova, Victoria, Women's biographies and women's memory of war.   (Google)
Abstract:      This article is the English-language pre-print version of the chapter published in "Hitlers Sklaven" (in German). The volume "Hitlers Sklaven" (2008) is a result of a massive international oral history project aimed to study forced and slave labour for the Nazi regime during World War II. Within this volume, our article focuses specifically on the experiences of Russian women - former slave labourers. Biographical interviews with these now elderly women were carried out in 2005 in Pskov. The Russian region of Pskov borders on Latvia, Estonia and Byelorussia, and was occupied by the Germans from July, 1941 to July, 1944. This resulted, in particular, in approximately 150,000 people deported from Pskov region only (out of the estimated 3 mln people deported from the USSR as a whole).The article distinguishes between several categories of interviewees: women - civilians, deported to forced works from occupied territories; women subjected to the draft, who were then taken prisoners and forced to work; and finally, women who worked in occupation. The work could be in industry, construction, or agriculture. Girls often baby-sat for babies and younger children in a camp or at a farm. Themes of pre-war childhood memories, childhood labour, love during the war are also featured in the article.The article highlights the gender-specific nature of war memories. It is revealed in the way of constructing a biographical story around the souvenirs of feelings, rather than of particular events, and also constructing different gendered identities through such a story.The article also outlines the strategies of the respondents' adaptation to post-war life in the Soviet Union, where the interviewees were often repressed or stigmatised. Such biographical strategies include normalisation, compensation and hyper-compensation, and anonymisation. Besides, the article tells about narrative strategies of coping with a trauma, such as fragmentation (having gaps in the life story) and emotional detachment. These findings and the oral history material featured in the article are especially important in the context of Russia where public discourse was dominated, until recently, by the silence about people deported to Germany, and this didn't allow them to fully overcome their traumatic experiences
Bhattacharya, Kalidas & Sengupta, Pradip Kumar (eds.) (1988). Freedom, Transcendence, and Identity: Essays in Memory of Professor Kalidas Bhattacharyya. Indian Council of Philosophical Research in Association with Motilal Banarsidass.   (Google)
Binder, Bernd, Spacetime memory: Phase-locked geometric phases.   (Google)
Abstract: Spacetime memory is defined with a holonomic approach to information processing, where multi-state stability is introduced by a non-linear phase-locked loop. Geometric phases serve as the carrier of physical information and geometric memory (of orientation) given by a path integral measure of curvature that is periodically refreshed. Regarding the resulting spin-orbit coupling and gauge field, the geometric nature of spacetime memory suggests to assign intrinsic computational properties to the electromagnetic field
Black, James E. & Greenough, William T. (1997). How to build a brain: Multiple memory systems have evolved and only some of them are constructivist. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (4):558-559.   (Google)
Abstract: Much of our work with enriched experience and training in animals supports the Quartz & Sejnowski (Q&S) thesis that environmental information can interact with pre-existing neural structures to produce new synapses and neural structure. However, substantial data as well as an evolutionary perspective indicate that multiple information-capture systems exist: some are constructivist, some are selectionist, and some may be tightly constrained
Blair, Carole; Dickinson, Greg & Ott, Brian L. (2010). Introduction : Rhetoric/memory/place. In Greg Dickinson, Carole Blair & Brian L. Ott (eds.), Places of Public Memory: The Rhetoric of Museums and Memorials. University of Alabama Press.   (Google)
Blackmore, Susan J.; Brelstaff, Gavin; Nelson, Katherine & Troscianko, Tom (1995). Is the richness of our visual world an illusion? Transsaccadic memory for complex scenes. Perception 24:1075-81.
Blau, & Joseph L. Leon), (1969). Studies in rationalism, judaism, and universalism in memory of Leon Roth. Journal of the History of Philosophy 7 (3).   (Google)
Bloch, David (2007). Aristotle on Memory and Recollection: Text, Translation, Interpretation, and Reception in Western Scholasticism. Brill.   (Google)
Block, Richard A. (1996). Psychological time and memory systems of the brain. In J. T. Fraser & M. Soulsby (eds.), Dimensions of Time and Life: The Study of Time. , Volume 8.
Bodnar, John (2010). Memory. Bad dreams about the good war : Bataan. In Greg Dickinson, Carole Blair & Brian L. Ott (eds.), Places of Public Memory: The Rhetoric of Museums and Memorials. University of Alabama Press.   (Google)
Bogart, Aaron (2009). The metaphysics of memory. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 17 (4):622 – 627.   (Google)
Bonanno, Giacomo (2004). A characterization of Von Neumann games in terms of memory. Synthese 139 (2).
Abstract:   An information completion of an extensive game is obtained by extending the information partition of every player from the set of her decision nodes to the set of all nodes. The extended partition satisfies Memory of Past Knowledge (MPK) if at any node a player remembers what she knew at earlier nodes. It is shown that MPK can be satisfied in a game if and only if the game is von Neumann (vN) and satisfies memory at decision nodes (the restriction of MPK to a player's own decision nodes). A game is vN if any two decision nodes that belong to the same information set of a player have the same number of predecessors. By providing an axiom for MPK we also obtain a syntactic characterization of the said class of vN games
Bonke, B.; Fitch, W. & Millar, K. (eds.) (1990). Memory and Awareness In Anesthesia. Swets & Zeitlinger.   (Google)
Bonke, B.; Bovill, J. G. & Moerman, N. (eds.) (1996). Memory and Awareness in Anesthesia III. Van Gorcum.   (Google)
Bonanno, Giacomo (ms). Memory and perfect recall in extensive games.   (Google)
Abstract: ∗I am grateful to two anonymous referees for helpful and constructive comments. A first version of this paper was presented at the fifth conference on Logic and the Foundations of Game and Decision Theory (LOFT5), Torino, June 2002
Boroditsky, L. & Prinz, J. (2008). Brain embodiment of category-specific semantic memory circuits. In G. R. Semin & Eliot R. Smith (eds.), Embodied Grounding: Social, Cognitive, Affective, and Neuroscientific Approaches. Cambridge University Press.   (Google)
Abstract: The problem of cortical integration is described and various proposed solutions, including grandmother cells, cell assemblies, feed-forward structures, RAAM and synchronization, are reviewed. One method, involving complex attractors, that has received little attention in the literature, is explained and developed. I call this binding through annexation. A simulation study is then presented which suggests ways in which complex attractors could underlie our capacity to reason. The paper ends with a discussion of the efficiency and biological plausibility of the proposals as integration mechanisms for different regions and functions of the brain
Brandt, Richard B. (1954). A puzzle in Lewis's theory of memory. Philosophical Studies 5 (6).   (Google)
Bragues, George (ms). Memory and morals in memento: Hume at the movies.   (Google)
Abstract:      In the hopes of directing students to the great philosophic texts through the entertainment fare they consume, this article analyzes the philosophic significance of Memento, a 2000 film directed by Christopher Nolan. We understand the film as a thought experiment in which memory capacity is partially removed from the main character, Leonard Shelby. The experiment is run with Leonard's thoughts and behavior according with Hume's epistemology and cognitive psychology. As a result, Memento ends up illustrating Hume's positions on personal identity, the character of justice, and the intellectual limitations of the human mind
Bradley McGilvary, Evander (1933). Perceptual and memory perspectives. Journal of Philosophy 30 (12):309-330.
Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2003 (9).   (Google)
Bradley, Francis H. (1899). Some remarks on memory and inference. Mind 8 (30):145-166.
Brandt, Richard B. (1955). The epistemological status of memory beliefs. Philosophical Review 64 (1):78-95.
Brecher, Bob (2006). Reparation, responsibility and the memory game. Res Publica 12 (2).   (Google)
Brown, R. A. (1997). Consciousness in a self-learning, memory-controlled, compound machine. Neural Networks 10:1333-85.
Brooks, D. H. M. (1981). Memories and the world. Analysis 41 (June):141-145.   (Google)
Brown, Ronald (2009). Memory evolutive systems. Axiomathes 19 (3).   (Google)
Abstract: This is a review of the book ‘Memory Evolutive Systems; Hierarchy, Emergence, Cognition’, by A. Ehresmann and J.P. Vanbremeersch. I welcome the use of category theory and the notion of colimit as a way of describing how complex hierarchical systems can be organised, and the notion of categories varying with time to give a notion of an evolving system. In this review I also point out the relation of the notion of colimit to ideas of communication; the necessity of communications to be symbolic representations; and the use of an analogy with mathematics to spell out some of the necessities of such a mode of communication to be powerful, robust and efficient
Brockelman, Paul T. (1975). Of memory and things past. International Philosophical Quarterly 15 (September):309-325.
Bromwich, David (1990). Whitman and memory: A response to Kateb. Political Theory 18 (4):572-576.
Brueckner, Anthony L. (1997). Externalism and memory. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 78 (1):1-12.
Buchholz, Hans; Gmelin, Wolfgang; McHale, John & Dubach, Paul (eds.) (1979). Science and Technology and the Future: Proceedings and Joint Report of World Future Studies Conference and Dse Preconference, Held in Berlin (West), 4.-10. May 1979: [Dedicated to the Memory of John Mchale, Paul Dubach]. Saur.   (Google)
Buford, Christopher (2009). Memory, quasi-memory, and pseudo-quasi-memory. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 87 (3):465 – 478.   (Google)
Abstract: Bishop Butler objected to Locke's theory of personal identity on the grounds that memory presupposes personal identity. Most of those sympathetic with Locke's account have accepted Butler's criticism, and have sought to devise a theory of personal identity in the spirit of Locke's that avoids Butler's circularity objection. John McDowell has argued that even the more recent accounts of personal identity are vulnerable to the kind of objection Butler raised against Locke's own account. I criticize McDowell's stance, drawing on a distinction introduced by Annalisa Coliva between two types of immunity to error through misidentification
Burgess, Gregory C.; Braver, Todd S. & Gray, Jeremy R. (2006). Exactly how are fluid intelligence, working memory, and executive function related? Cognitive neuroscience approaches to investigating the mechanisms of fluid cognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2):128-129.   (Google)
Abstract: Blair proposes that fluid intelligence, working memory, and executive function form a unitary construct: fluid cognition. Recently, our group has utilized a combined correlational–experimental cognitive neuroscience approach, which we argue is beneficial for investigating relationships among these individual differences in terms of neural mechanisms underlying them. Our data do not completely support Blair's strong position. (Published Online April 5 2006)
Burge, Tyler (1997). Interlocution, perception, and memory. Philosophical Studies 86 (1):21-47.
Burge, Tyler (2004). Memory and persons. Philosophical Review 112 (3):289-337.
Burge, Tyler (1998). Memory and self-knowledge. In Peter Ludlow & N. Martin (eds.), Externalism and Self-Knowledge. Csli.
Bures, Jan & Fenton, Andre A. (1999). The gap between episodic memory and experiment: Can c-fos expression replace recognition testing? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (3):445-446.   (Google)
Abstract: The effort to identify the neural substrate of episodic recall, though ambitious, lacks experimental support. By considering the data on c-fos activation by novel and familiar stimuli in recognition studies, we illustrate how inadequate experimental designs permit alternative interpretations. We stress that interpretation of c-fos expression changes should be supported by adequate recognition tests
Burke, Patrick (2010). The memory of the promise: Martin matuštík's museum of an open future. Journal of Speculative Philosophy 23 (4):pp. 340-349.   (Google)
Campbell, Sue (2009). Inside the frame of the past : Memory, diversity, and solidarity. In Sue Campbell, Letitia Meynell & Susan Sherwin (eds.), Embodiment and Agency. Pennsylvania State University Press.   (Google)
Campbell, John (2001). Memory demonstratives. In Christoph Hoerl & Teresa McCormark (eds.), Time and Memory. Oxford University Press.   (Google)
Campbell, Sue (2006). Our faithfulness to the past: Reconstructing memory value. Philosophical Psychology 19 (3):361 – 380.   (Google)
Abstract: The reconstructive turn in memory theory challenges us to provide an account of successful remembering that is attentive to the ways in which we use memory, both individually and socially. I investigate conceptualizations of accuracy and integrity useful to memory theorists and argue that faithful recollection is often a complex epistemological/ethical achievement
Campbell, J. (1997). The realism of memory. In Richard G. Heck (ed.), Language, Thought, and Logic: Essays in Honour of Michael Dummett. Oxford University Press.   (Google)
Cantwell Smith, Brian (1966). Memory. Humanities Press.   (Google)
Caplan, David & Waters, Gloria S. (1999). Verbal working memory and sentence comprehension. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):77-94.   (Google)
Journal of Consciousness Studies 15 (s 10-11):249-263.   (Google)
Abstract: Emotions and consciousness are intimately linked and often conceived from a purely intrapersonal perspective. This paper explores the implications of considering emotions as not only intrapersonal but also as interpersonal and transpersonal heterarchical (i.e., every component has potentially equal importance) systems. It is telling that in contemplative traditions and contemporary research on hypnotic experience, deep 'inner' experience is pregnant with interpersonal and transpersonal meanings. Similarly, the propensity to have porous conscious experiences is paralleled by the tendency to be affected by the emotion of others. Anecdotal and experimental evidence on anomalous events clearly suggests that strong emotions can have non-local effects. That consciousness and emotions are embedded within interpersonal and transpersonal fields has important epistemological and ethical implications
Carr, T. H. (1979). Consciousness in models of human information processing: Primary memory, executive control, and input regulation. In G. Underwood & R. Stevens (eds.), Aspects of Consciousness, Volume 1. Academic Press.
Carrier, David (2003). Remembering the past: Art museums as memory theatres. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 61 (1):61–65.
Research in Phenomenology 6 (1):1-25.   (Google)
Casey, Edward S. (1984). Habitual body and memory in Merleau-ponty. Man and World 17:279-297.   (Google)
Casey, Edward S. (2003). Imagination, fantasy, hallucination, and memory. In J. Philips & James Morley (eds.), Imagination and its Pathologies. MIT Press.   (Google)
Casey, Edward S. (1983). Keeping the past in mind. Review of Metaphysics 37 (September):77-96.
Casey, Edward S. (1993). Mind and memory. In Phenomenology: East and West: Essays in Honor of J.N. Mohanty. Dordrecht: Kluwer.   (Google)
Minds and Machines 14 (3):387-89.
Casey, Edward S. (1979). Perceiving and remembering. Review of Metaphysics 32 (March):407-436.   (Cited by 1 | Google)
Cascardi, Anthony J. (1984). Remembering. Review of Metaphysics 38 (December):275-302.
Casey, Edward S. (1987). Remembering: A Phenomenological Study. Indiana University Press.
Casey, Edward S. (2000). Stompin' on Scott: A cursory critique of mind and memory. Research in Phenomenology 30 (1):223-239.   (Google)
Chambers, Will Grant (1906). Memory types of colorado pupils. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 3 (9):231-234.
Cheit, Ross E. (1998). Consider this, skeptics of recovered memory. Ethics and Behavior 8 (2):141 – 160.   (Google)
Abstract: Some self-proclaimed skeptics of recovered memory claim that traumatic childhood events simply cannot be forgotten at the time only to be remembered later in life. This claim has been made repeatedly by the Advisory Board members of a prominent advocacy group for parents accused of sexual abuse, the so-called False Memory Syndrome Foundation. The research project described in this article identifies and documents the growing number of cases that have been ignored or distorted by such skeptics. To date, this project has documented 35 cases in which recovered memories of traumatic childhood events were corroborated by clear and convincing evidence. This article concludes with some observations about the politics of the false memory movement, particularly the tendency to conceal or omit evidence of corroboration. Several instances of this vanishing facts syndrome are documented and analyzed
Cheit, Ross E. (1999). Junk skepticism and recovered memory: A reply to Piper. Ethics and Behavior 9 (4):295 – 318.   (Google)
Abstract:      The craft of librarianship should inform the law governing the acquisition, preservation, and transmission of knowledge. Drawing upon T.S. Eliot's works of literary criticism, part I of this article describes the contradictory role of cultural memory in a society saturated with new information. Even as the accumulation of information in a technologically explosive society heightens the value of the most prominent cultural landmarks, each distinct cultural expression commands an ever-diminishing amount of attention. Parts II and III turn from literary theory to legal doctrine. After reviewing the Supreme Court's cases on library management, part II endorses two basic principles within the law of librarianship as a branch of First Amendment jurisprudence. First, decisions to acquire material should lie beyond judicial challenge. Second, legislative mandates to exclude material should draw strict scrutiny and should be presumed unconstitutional. Part III concludes that uncertainty within the Supreme Court's jurisprudence on librarianship should be resolved in favor of more liberal access to information
Cherchi Usai, Paolo (2001). The Death of Cinema: History, Cultural Memory, and the Digital Dark Age. Bfi Pub..   (Google)
Abstract: It is estimated that about one and a half billion hours of moving images were produced in 1999, twice as many as a decade before. If that rate of growth continues, one hundred billion hours of moving images will be made in the year 2025. In 1895 there were just above forty minutes of moving images to be seen, and most of them are now preserved. Today, for every film made, thousands of them disappear forever without leaving a trace. Meanwhile, public and private institutions are struggling to save the film heritage with largely insufficient resources and ever increasing pressure from the commercial world. Are they wasting their time? Is the much feared and much touted Death of Cinema already occurring before our eyes? Is digital technology the solution to the problem, or just another illusion promoted by the industry? In a provocative essay designed as a collection of aphorisms and letters, Paolo Cherchi Usai brings an impassioned scrutiny to bear on these issues with a critique of film preservation, an indictiment of the crimes perpetuated in its name, and a proposal to give a new analytical framework to a major cultural phenomenon of our time. The Death of Cinema is published in Italian as L'ultimo spettatore . Sulla distruzione del cinema 1999, Editore Il Castoro
Child, William (2006). Memory, expression, and past-tense self-knowledge. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 73 (1):54–76.
Christensen, David & Kornblith, Hilary (1997). Testimony, memory and the limits of the a priori. Philosophical Studies 86 (1).   (Google)
Abstract: A number of philosophers, from Thomas Reid1 through C. A. J. Coady2, have argued that one is justified in relying on the testimony of others, and furthermore, that this should be taken as a basic epistemic presumption. If such a general presumption were not ultimately dependent on evidence for the reliability of other people, the ground for this presumption would be a priori. Such a presumption would then have a status like that which Roderick Chisholm claims for the epistemic principle that we are justified in believing what our senses tell us
Chrétien, Jean-Louis (2002). The Unforgettable and the Unhoped For. Fordham University Press.   (Google)
Abstract: The immemorial and recollection -- The reserve of forgetting -- The unforgettable -- The sudden and the unhoped for -- Retrospection.
Church, Alonzo; Anderson, C. Anthony & Zelëny, Michael (eds.) (2001). Logic, Meaning, and Computation: Essays in Memory of Alonzo Church. Kluwer Academic Publishers.   (Google)
Abstract: This volume began as a remembrance of Alonzo Church while he was still with us and is now finally complete. It contains papers by many well-known scholars, most of whom have been directly influenced by Church's own work. Often the emphasis is on foundational issues in logic, mathematics, computation, and philosophy - as was the case with Church's contributions, now universally recognized as having been of profound fundamental significance in those areas. The volume will be of interest to logicians, computer scientists, philosophers, and linguists. The contributions concern classical first-order logic, higher-order logic, non-classical theories of implication, set theories with universal sets, the logical and semantical paradoxes, the lambda-calculus, especially as it is used in computation, philosophical issues about meaning and ontology in the abstract sciences and in natural language, and much else. The material will be accessible to specialists in these areas and to advanced graduate students in the respective fields
Ciulla, Joanne B. (2007). The man with a hole in his heart: In memory of Robert C. Solomon 1942–2007. Business Ethics Quarterly 17 (2):185-186.   (Google)
Clark, Andy (2005). Intrinsic content, active memory, and the extended mind. Analysis 65 (285):1-11.
Abstract: In a laudable effort to move beyond simplistic "All-or-Nothing" views on the role of sleep in memory consolidation, Walker proposes that memory traces acquired during a learning episode further undergo at least two distinct sorts of modifications after practice has ended (that is, "off-line"): Consolidation-based stabilization (CBS) and consolidation-based enhancement (CBE). The first set of processes would be dependent on wakefulness, while the second would be dependent on sleep. While we certainly agree with the author that previous characterizations of the role of sleep during memory formation has tended to focus on simplistic distinctions, it also appears to us that Walker's own proposal, in which a sharp distinction is made between wake-dependent CBS and sleep-dependent CBE, falls into the same trap
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Abstract: Whoever paid the bill at the restaurant last night, will clearly remember doing it. Independently from the type of action, it is a common experience that being the agent provides a special strength to our memories. Even if it is generally agreed that personal memories (episodic memory) rely on separate neural substrates with respect to general knowledge (semantic memory), little is known on the nature of the link between memory and the sense of agency. In the present paper, we review results from two experiments investigating the effects of agency on both explicit and implicit memory traces. Performance of normal subjects is compared to that of schizophrenic patients in order to explore the role of awareness of action on memory. It is proposed that reliable first-person information is necessary to create a stable and coherent motor memory trace
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Mind and Language 22 (2):173-206.
Abstract: The following paper considers one important feature of our experiential or ‘recollective’ memories, namely their spatial perspectival characteristics. I begin by considering the ‘Past-Dependency-Claim’, which states that every recollective memory (or ‘R-memory’) has its spatial perspectival characteristics in virtue of the subject’s present awareness of the spatial perspectival characteristics of a relevant past perceptual experience. Although the Past-Dependency-Claim might for various reasons seem particularly attractive, I show that it is false. I then proceed to develop and defend the ‘Present-Dependency-Claim’, namely the claim that the spatial perspectival characteristics of an R-memory depend on the spatial perspectival characteristics of perceptual experiences that the subject has at the time at which the R-memory occurs. Lastly, I discuss the phenomenon of so-called ‘observer-memories’, which presents a special challenge for any attempt to account for the spatial perspectival characteristics of R-memories. I argue that we have no good reason to deny that the relevant experiences should count as memories, and I show that we can account for the spatial perspectival characteristics of observer-memories with the help of the ‘Present-Dependency-Claim’. More generally, the paper shows that certain events that occur in a subject’s mental life (namely, a subject’s R-memories) are necessarily dependent on other events that occur in the relevant subject’s mental life (namely, on certain perceptual experiences). This more general conclusion in turn should be relevant for any attempt to develop an appropriate account of a subject’s mental life as a whole
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Abstract: Daniel C. Dennett
Is Perception the 'Leading Edge' of Memory?
Consciousness appears to us to consist of a sequence of contentful items, arranged in a sequence, the so-called "stream of consciousness," in which each item in turn bursts quite suddenly into consciousness and thereby enters memory, perhaps only briefly to be remembered, and then forgotten. I think that hidden in this comfortable and largely innocent picture of consciousness is a deep and seductive mistake. I intend to expose and elucidate that mistake, and describe an alternative vision
De Neys, Wim; Schaeken, Walter & G, (2005). Working memory and counterexample retrieval for causal conditionals. Thinking and Reasoning 11 (2):123 – 150.   (Google)
Abstract: The present study is part of recent attempts to specify the characteristics of the counterexample retrieval process during causal conditional reasoning. The study tried to pinpoint whether the retrieval of stored counterexamples (alternative causes and disabling conditions) for a causal conditional is completely automatic in nature or whether the search process also demands executive working memory (WM) resources. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with a counterexample generation task and a measure of WM capacity. We found a positive relation between search efficiency, as measured by the number of generated counterexamples in limited time, and WM capacity. Experiment 2 examined the effects of a secondary WM load on the retrieval performance. As predicted, burdening WM with an attention-demanding secondary task decreased the retrieval efficiency. Both low and high spans were affected by the WM load but load effects were less pronounced for the most strongly associated counterexamples. Findings established that in addition to an automatic search component, the counterexample retrieval draws on WM resources
De Neys, Wim; Schaeken, Walter & G, (2005). Working memory and everyday conditional reasoning: Retrieval and inhibition of stored counterexamples. Thinking and Reasoning 11 (4):349 – 381.   (Google)
Abstract: Two experiments examined the contribution of working memory (WM) to the retrieval and inhibition of background knowledge about counterexamples (alternatives and disablers, Cummins, 1995) during conditional reasoning. Experiment 1 presented a conditional reasoning task with everyday, causal conditionals to a group of people with high and low WM spans. High spans rejected the logically invalid AC and DA inferences to a greater extent than low spans, whereas low spans accepted the logically valid MP and MT inferences less frequently than high spans. In Experiment 2, an executive-attention-demanding secondary task was imposed during the reasoning task. Findings corroborate that WM resources are used for retrieval of stored counterexamples and that people with high WM spans will use WM resources to inhibit the counterexample activation when the type of counterexample conflicts with the logical validity of the reasoning problem
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Abstract: (1) Non-projectable properties as opposed to the clamping of projectable properties play a primary role in triggering and guiding human action. (2) Embodiment in language-mediated memories should be qualified: (a) Language imposes a radical discretization on body constraints (second-order embodiment). (b) Metaphors rely on second-order embodiment. (c) Language users sometimes suspend embodiment
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Abstract: Philosophy is often depicted as generically distinct from literature, myth, and history, as a discipline that eschews narration and relies exclusively on abstract reason. This book takes issue with that assumption, arguing instead that political philosophers have commonly presented their readers with a narrative, rather than a logic, of politics. The book maintains that philosophical texts frequently persuade through the creation of a 'role' that they invite their audience to inhabit. The author also investigates the place of narrative in politics in two ways. It offers a hypothesis of a broad connection between political identity and narrative, and it analyzes three major figures in the history of political thought - Locke, Hegel, and Nietzsche - to demonstrate that their work is best understood through the hypothesis. The author argues that each of these philosophers rewrites the past in an attempt to direct the future
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Abstract: Following Karni's seminal work, Walker and other researchers have recently provided gradually convincing evidence that sleep is critical for the consolidation-based enhancement (CBE) of motor sequence learning. Studies in our laboratory using a motor adaptation paradigm, however, show that CBE can also occur after the simple passage of time, suggesting that sleep effects on memory consolidation are task-related, and possibly dependent on anatomically dissociable circuits
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Abstract: This article focuses on the politics of memory and forgetting after Auschwitz and apartheid. In the first two sections Habermas' critical contribution to the German Historikerstreit is discussed. Important in this regard is the moral dimension of our relation to the past. In the next two sections the emphasis shifts to South Africa and more specifically the work of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC). The article ends with a general discussion of the dilemma of historical 'truth' and representation in contemporary societies. Key Words: apartheid • Habermas • Historikerstreit • history • South Africa
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Abstract: In previous research, Toms, Morris, and Ward (1993) have shown that conditional reasoning is impaired by a concurrent task calling on executive functions but not by concurrent tasks that load on the slave systems of the working memory system as conceptualised by Baddeley and Hitch (1974). The present article replicates and extends this previous work by studying problems based on spatial as well as nonspatial relations. In the study 42 participants solved 16 types of spatial or nonspatial problems, both in a single-task condition and under concurrent matrix tapping, a task loading the visuo-spatial sketch pad. The findings were consistent with those of Toms et al. (1993) for problems with a nonspatial content. However, when the content was spatial, and only then, a dual-task impairment was observed: processing time of the first premise was lengthened, especially for problems with negations in the antecedent term, the consequent term, or both; moreover, the number of correctly solved problems with negations in both terms was smaller. The implications of these findings for the mental models theory and the mental logic theory are discussed
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Ehresmann, Andrée & Vanbremeersch, Jean-Paul, Semantics and communication for memory evolutive systems.
Abstract: In a series of preceding papers, the authors have developed the theory of Memory Evolutive Systems which represents a mathematical model (based on Category theory) for natural open self-organizing systems, such as biological, sociological or neural systems. In these systems, the dynamics is modulated by the cooperative or/and competitive interactions between the global system and a net of internal more or less specialized Centers of Regulation (CR) with a differential access to a central hierarchical Memory. Each CR operates at its own complexity level and time-scale, but their strategies are competitive, whence a 'dialectics between heterogeneous CRs which is at the root of higher order cognition. The problem tackled in the present paper is the emergence of a Semantics in the MES modeling a cognitive system; it relies on the detection of specific invariances by the CRs that leads to classify objects according to their main attributes, and form new formal units representing their invariance classes. The idea is that a (lower) CR, say E, classifies two objects B and C as having 'the same shape' if they activate the same pattern of its actors; however this classification remains implicit for E itself and it can be apprehended only by a higher Ievel CR which may memorize the invariance class by a higher object, called a 'E-concept'. The concepts with respect to the various CRs form the semantic memory which gives more flexibility in the evaluation, selection and memorization of appropriate strategies, as well as in internal or external communications
Ehresmann, Andrée C. & Vanbremeersch, Jean-Paul (2006). The memory evolutive systems as a model of Rosen's organisms – (metabolic, replication) systems. Axiomathes 16 (1-2).   (Google)
Abstract:   Robert Rosen has proposed several characteristics to distinguish “simple” physical systems (or “mechanisms”) from “complex” systems, such as living systems, which he calls “organisms”. The Memory Evolutive Systems (MES) introduced by the authors in preceding papers are shown to provide a mathematical model, based on category theory, which satisfies his characteristics of organisms, in particular the merger of the Aristotelian causes. Moreover they identify the condition for the emergence of objects and systems of increasing complexity. As an application, the cognitive system of an animal is modeled by the “MES of cat-neurons” obtained by successive complexifications of his neural system, in which the emergence of higher order cognitive processes gives support to Mario Bunge’s “emergentist monism.”
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Abstract:   Most cognitive scientists are committed to some version of representationalism, the view that intelligent behavior is caused by internal processes that involve computations over representations. Phenomenologists, however, argue that certain types of intelligent behavior, engaged coping skills, are nonrepresentational. Recent neuroscientific work on multiple memory systems indicates that while many types of intelligent behavior are representational, the types of intelligent behavior cited by phenomenologists are indeed nonrepresentational. This neuroscientific research thus vindicates a key phenomenological claim about the nature of intelligent behaviour. It also provides a framework for the ongoing reconciliation of cognitive science and phenomenology
Epstein, Richard A. (2006). Weak and strong conceptions of property : An essay in memory of Jim Harris. In J. W. Harris, Timothy Andrew Orville Endicott, Joshua Getzler & Edwin Peel (eds.), Properties of Law: Essays in Honour of Jim Harris. Oxford University Press.   (Google)
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Abstract: In this commentary, we challenge the claim that Freud's thinking anticipated Bartlettian reconstructive theories of remembering. Erdelyi has ignored important divergences that demonstrate it is not the case that “The constructions and reconstructions of Freud and Bartlett are the same but for motive” (target article, sect. 5)
Evans, Richard J. (2002). History, memory, and the law: The historian as expert witness. History and Theory 41 (3):326–345.
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Abstract: Using a generalized conception of experience, from which all features characteristic for higher animals (such as consciousness and thought) have been removed, allowed relating experience to adaptive processes in lower organisms. The temporal vector character of every current experience, containing as well memories of past experiences as intentions for future activities, can then be found in the adaptive response of cyanobacteria to alterations in phosphate supply, particularly in energetic manifestations of this phenomenon. A possible analogy between adaptive events as the “atomic units” of physiological adaptation and Whitehead's actual occasion of experience is discussed
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Fernández, Jordi (2006). Memory and perception: Remembering snowflake. Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 21 (2):147-164.   (Google)
Abstract: If I remember something, I tend to believe that I have perceived it. Similarly, if I remember something, I tend to believe that it happened in the past. My aim here is to propose a notion of mnemonic contentaccounts for these facts. Certain proposals build perceptual experiences into the content of memories. I argue that they Have trouble with the second belief. Other proposals build references to temporal locations into mnemonic content. I argue that they have trouble with the second one. I propose a notion of mnemonic Content that can account for the rationality of both beliefs
Fernandez, Jordi (2008). Memory, past and self. Synthese 160 (1).
Abstract: The purpose of this essay is to determine how we should construe the content of memories. First, I distinguish two features of memory that a construal of mnemic content should respect. These are the ‘attribution of pastness’ feature (a subject is inclined to believe of those events that she remembers that they happened in the past) and the ‘attribution of existence’ feature (a subject is inclined to believe that she existed at the time that those events that she remembers took place). Next, I distinguish two kinds of theories of memory, which I call ‘perceptual’ and ‘self-based’ theories. I argue that those theories that belong to the first kind but not the second one have trouble accommodating the attribution of existence. And theories that belong to the second kind but not the first one leave the attribution of pastness unexplained. I then discuss two different theories that are both perceptual and self-based, which I eventually reject. Finally, I propose a perceptual, self-based theory that can account for both the attribution of pastness and the attribution of past existence
Ferber, Susanne & Emrich, Stephen M. (2007). Maintaining the ties that bind: The role of an intermediate visual memory store in the persistence of awareness. Cognitive Neuropsychology 24 (2):187-210.   (Google)
Feyerabend, Paul; Preston, John; Munévar, Gonzalo & Lamb, David (eds.) (2000). The Worst Enemy of Science?: Essays in Memory of Paul Feyerabend. Oxford University Press.   (Google)
Abstract: This stimulating collection is devoted to the life and work of the most flamboyant of twentieth-century philosophers, Paul Feyerabend. Feyerabend's radical epistemological claims, and his stunning argument that there is no such thing as scientific method, were highly influential during his life and have only gained attention since his death in 1994. The essays that make up this volume, written by some of today's most respected philosophers of science, many of whom knew Feyerabend as students and colleagues, cover the diverse themes in his extensive body of work and present a personal account of this fascinating thinker
Forrest, Peter (1978). Reincarnation without survival of memory or character. Philosophy East and West 28 (1):91-97.
Foucault, Michel (1977). Language, Counter-Memory, Practice: Selected Essays and Interviews. Cornell University Press.   (Google)
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Abstract: This book is the outgrowth of a panel of papers on the theme of "memory," presented at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the Buddhism Section of the American Academy of Religion. Four of the contributors to this volume, including Western phenomenologist Edward Casey from SUNY Stony Brook, participated in that panel, though the papers were obviously further developed since that inceptional presentation. The book focusses on the crucial but heretofore almost entirely overlooked topic of memory and remembrance as it appears in the Indian and Tibetan Buddhist traditions. There are 11 papers here, plus an editor's introduction, and though some of them seem to overlap somewhat, none makes any of the others completely redundant or unnecessary. The result is a very thorough and novel treatment of a crucially important subject for Buddhologists, and is further a fine example of Comparative Philosophy
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Abstract: Empirical results suggest that defocusing attention results in primary process or associative thought , conducive to finding unusual connections, while focusing attention results in secondary process or analytic thought , conducive to rule-based operations. Creativity appears to involve both. It is widely believed that it is possible to escape mental fixation by spontaneously and temporarily engaging in a more divergent or associative mode of thought. The resulting insight (if found) may be refined in a more analytic mode of thought. The question addressed here is: how does the architecture of memory support these two modes of thought, and what is happening at the neural level when one shifts between them? Recent advances in neuroscience shed light on this. It was demonstrated that activated cell assemblies are composed of multiple ‘neural cliques’, groups of neurons that respond differentially to general or context-specific aspects of a situation. I refer to neural cliques that would not be included in the assembly if one were in an analytic mode, but would be if one were in an associative mode, as ‘neurds’. It is posited that the shift to a more associative mode of thought conducive to insight is accomplished by recruiting neurds that respond to abstract or atypical subsymbolic microfeatures of the problem or situation. Since memory is distributed and content-addressable this fosters remindings and the forging of creative connections to potentially relevant items previously encoded in those neurons. Thus it is proposed that creative thought involves neither randomness, nor search through a space of predefined alternatives, but emerges naturally through the recruitment of neurds. It is suggested this occurs when there is a need to resolve conceptual gaps in ones’ internal model of the world, and resolution involves context-driven actualization of the potentiality afforded by its fine-grained associative structure
Gallagher, Tess (1998). A nightshine beyond memory: Ten more years with Ray. Philosophy and Literature 22 (2).   (Google)
Gallagher, Victoria J. & LaWare, Margaret R. (2010). Sparring with public memory : The rhetorical embodiment of race, power, and conflict in the monument to Joe Louis. In Greg Dickinson, Carole Blair & Brian L. Ott (eds.), Places of Public Memory: The Rhetoric of Museums and Memorials. University of Alabama Press.   (Google)
Ganeri, Jonardon (1999). Self-intimation, memory and personal identity. Journal of Indian Philosophy 27 (5).   (Google)
Gardiner, J. M.; Ramponi, C. & Richardson-Klavehn, A. (1999). Response deadline and subjective awareness in recognition memory. Consciousness and Cognition 8 (4):484-496.   (Google)
Abstract: Level of processing and generation effects were replicated in separate experiments in which recognition memory was tested using either short (500 ms) or long (1500 ms) response deadlines. These effects were similar at each deadline. Moreover, at each deadline these effects were associated with subsequent reports of remembering, not of knowing. And reports of both knowing and remembering increased following the longer deadline. These results imply that knowing does not index an automatic familiarity process, as conceived in some dual-process models of recognition, and that both remembering and knowing increase with the slower, more controlled processing permitted by the longer response time
Gardiner, J. M.; Ramponi, C. & Richardson-Klavehn, A. (2000). Response deadline and subjective awareness in recognition memory - volume 8, number 4 (1999), pages 484-496. Consciousness and Cognition 9 (2):327-327.   (Google)
Abstract: On pages 490-491, in describing the results of Experiment 2, the authors state that out of a total of 3840 responses, only 355 (or 9%) fell outside the response deadlines. In fact, the total number of responses in Experiment 2 was 3200 and so the 355 responses represented 11%, not 9%, of the total. This error has no other implications. The authors are grateful to Peter Graf (personal communication, March 12, 2000) for pointing out the error
García Düttmann, Alexander (2000). The Gift of Language: Memory and Promise in Adorno, Benjamin, Heidegger, and Rosenzweig. Syracuse University Press.   (Google)
Garlick, Dennis & Sejnowski, Terrence J. (2006). There is more to fluid intelligence than working memory capacity and executive function. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2):134-135.   (Google)
Abstract: Although working memory capacity and executive function contribute to human intelligence, we question whether there is an equivalence between them and fluid intelligence. We contend that any satisfactory neurobiological explanation of fluid intelligence needs to include abstraction as an important computational component of brain processing. (Published Online April 5 2006)
García Düttmann, Alexander (2002). The Memory of Thought: An Essay on Heidegger and Adorno. Continuum.   (Google)
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Gerrans, Philip (forthcoming). Mental time travel, somatic markers and myopia for the future. Synthese.
Abstract: Patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) are often described as having impaired ability for planning and decision making despite retaining intact capacities for explicit reasoning. The somatic marker hypothesis is that the VMPFC associates implicitly represented affective information with explicit representations of actions or outcomes. Consequently, when the VMPFC is damaged explicit reasoning is no longer scaffolded by affective information, leading to characteristic deficits. These deficits are exemplified in performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) in which subjects with VMPFC perform significantly worse than neurotypicals in a task which requires them learn from rewarding and punishing experience to make decisions. The somatic marker theory adopts a canonical theory of emotion, in which emotions function as part of a valencing system, to explain the role of affective processes. The first part of the paper argues against this canonical account. The second part provides a different account of the role of the role of the VMPFC in decision-making which does not depend on the canonical account of emotion. Together the first and second parts of the paper provide the basis for a different interpretation of results on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). In fact the IGT may be probing a deficit in what has been called mental time travel: the ability to access and use information from previous experience and imaginatively rehearse future experiences as part of the process of deliberation
Giberman, Daniel (2009). Who they are and what de se: Burge on quasi-memory. Philosophical Studies 144 (2).   (Google)
Abstract: Tyler Burge has recently argued that quasi-memory-based psychological reductionist accounts of diachronic personal identity are deeply problematic. According to Burge, these accounts either fail to include appropriately de se elements or presuppose facts about diachronic personal identity—facts of the very kind that the accounts are supposed to explain. Neither of these objections is compelling. The first is based in confusion about the version of reductionism to which it putatively applies. The second loses its force when we recognize that reductionism is a metaphysical thesis, not an epistemological one
Journal of Applied Philosophy 26 (4):420-422.   (Google)
Goldsmith, Morris & Koriat, Asher (2003). Dolphins on the witness stand? The comparative psychology of strategic memory regulation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (3):345-346.   (Google)
Abstract: Smith et al. show that monkeys and dolphins can respond adaptively under conditions of uncertainty, suggesting that they monitor subjective uncertainty and control their behavior accordingly. Drawing on our own work with humans on the strategic regulation of memory reporting, we argue that, so far, the distinction between monitoring and control has not been addressed sufficiently in metacognitive animal research
Goldberg, Sanford C. (1997). Self-ascription, self-knowledge, and the memory argument. Analysis 57 (3):211-19.
Abstract: is tendentious. (Throughout this paper I shall refer to this claim as
Goldberg, Sanford C. (2005). The dialectical context of Boghossian's memory argument. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 35 (1):135-48.
Abstract: Externalism1 is the thesis that some propositional attitudes depend for their individuation on features of the thinker’s (social and/or physical) environment. The doctrine of self-knowledge of thoughts is the thesis that for all thinkers S and occurrent thoughts that p, S has authoritative and non-empirical knowledge of her thought that p. A much-discussed question in the literature is whether these two doctrines are compatible. In this paper I attempt to respond to one argument for an incompatibilist conclusion, Boghossian’s 1989 ‘Memory Argument.’
Ågotnes, Thomas & Walther, Dirk (2009). A logic of strategic ability under bounded memory. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 18 (1).   (Google)
Abstract: We study the logic of strategic ability of coalitions of agents with bounded memory by introducing Alternating-time Temporal Logic with Bounded Memory (ATLBM), a variant of Alternating-time Temporal Logic (ATL). ATLBM accounts for two main consequences of the assumption that agents have bounded memory. First, an agent can only remember a strategy that specifies actions in a bounded number of different circumstances. While the ATL-formula means that coalition C has a joint strategy which will make φ true forever, the ATLBM-formula means that C has a joint strategy which for each agent in C specifies what to do in no more than n different circumstances and which will make φ true forever. Second, an agent has bounded recall—a strategy can only take the last m states of the system into account. We use the logic to study the interaction between strategic ability, bounded number of decisions, bounded recall and incomplete information. We discuss the logical properties and expressiveness of ATLBM, and its relationship to ATL. We show that ATLBM can express properties of strategic ability under bounded memory which cannot be expressed in ATL
Grau, Christopher (2006). Eternal sunshine of the spotless mind and the morality of memory. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 64 (1):119–133.
Gray, J. Glenn & Fuller, Timothy (eds.) (1979). Something of Great Constancy: Essays in Honor of the Memory of J. Glenn Gray, 1913-1977. Colorado College.   (Google)
Abstract: Lang, B. Philosophy and the manners of art.--Hofstadter, A. Freedom, enownment, and philosophy.--Mehta, J. L. A stranger from Asia.--Fox, D. A. A passage past India.--Rucker, D. Philosophy and the constitution of Emerson's world.--Schneider, H. W. The pragmatic movement in historical perspective.--Barnes, H. E. Reflections on myth and magic.--Cauvel, J. The imperious presence of theater.--Seay, A. Musical conservatism in the fourteenth century.--Hochman, W. R. The enduring fascination of war.--Davenport, M. M. J. Glenn Gray and the promise of wisdom.
Greenwood, Terence (1967). Personal identity and memory. Philosophical Quarterly 17 (October):334-344.
Greene, A. J.; Easton, R. D. & LaShell, L. S. R. (2001). Visual-auditory events: Cross-modal perceptual priming and recognition memory. Consciousness and Cognition 10 (3):425-435.   (Google)
Abstract: Modality specificity in priming is taken as evidence for independent perceptual systems. However, Easton, Greene, and Srinivas (1997) showed that visual and haptic cross-modal priming is comparable in magnitude to within-modal priming. Where appropriate, perceptual systems might share like information. To test this, we assessed priming and recognition for visual and auditory events, within- and across- modalities. On the visual test, auditory study resulted in no priming. On the auditory priming test, visual study resulted in priming that was only marginally less than within-modal priming. The priming results show that visual study facilitates identification on both visual and auditory tests, but auditory study only facilitates performance on the auditory test. For both recognition tests, within-modal recognition exceeded cross-modal recognition. The results have two novel implications for the understanding of perceptual priming: First, we introduce visual and auditory priming for spatio-temporal events as a new priming paradigm chosen for its ecological validity and potential for information exchange. Second, we propose that the asymmetry of the cross-modal priming observed here may reflect the capacity of these perceptual modalities to provide cross-modal constraints on ambiguity. We argue that visual perception might inform and constrain auditory processing, while auditory perception corresponds to too many potential visual events to usefully inform and constrain visual perception
Grosz, E. A. (ed.) (1999). Becomings: Explorations in Time, Memory, and Futures. Cornell University Press.   (Google)
Gunter, Pete A. Y. (2008). Perception, memory, and duration: The binding problem and the synthesis of the past. World Futures 64 (2):125 – 132.
Abstract: Theories of perception and of memory are closely allied. The binding problem (which considers how bits of perception are reassembled by the brain) leads to neurophysiological subjectivism. This could be outflanked by arguing with Bergson that perceiving consciousness is out in the world. Thus the brain would bind only behavioral “maps.” In turn, consciousness would retain our personal pasts. Such personal (episodic) memories both help us to recognize present objects and to perform creative acts. Memory, although retentive, is also creative. This is important in rethinking biological and evolutionary memory
Gurney, Edmund (1888). Hallucination of memory and telepathy'. Mind 13 (51):415-417.
Hacking, Ian (1995). Rewriting the Soul: Multiple Personality and the Sciences of Memory. Princeton University Press.
Abstract: Here the distinguished philosopher Ian Hacking uses the MPD epidemic and its links with the contemporary concept of child abuse to scrutinize today's moral...
Hafner, Carole D. & Rissland, Edwina L. (2002). Editor's introduction: Special issue in memory of Donald H. Berman. Artificial Intelligence and Law 10 (1-3).   (Google)
Hagen, Fred & Mahlendorf, Ursula (1963). Commitment, concern and memory in Goethe's Faust. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 21 (4):473-484.
Haight, David F. & Haight, M. R. (1989). Time, memory, and self-remembering. Journal of Speculative Philosophy 3:1-11.   (Google)
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Halford, Graeme S.; Phillips, Steven & Wilson, William H. (2008). The missing link: Dynamic, modifiable representations in working memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (2):137-138.   (Google)
Heythrop Journal 47 (4):644–645.
Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 5 (4):283-297.
Hamilton, Andy (2009). Memory and self-consciousness: Immunity to error through misidentification. Synthese 171 (3).   (Google)
Abstract: In The Blue Book, Wittgenstein defined a category of uses of “I” which he termed “I”-as-subject, contrasting them with “I”-as-object uses. The hallmark of this category is immunity to error through misidentification (IEM). This article extends Wittgenstein’s characterisation to the case of memory-judgments, discusses the significance of IEM for self-consciousness—developing the idea that having a first-person thought involves thinking about oneself in a distinctive way in which one cannot think of anyone or anything else—and refutes a common objection to the claim that memory-judgments exhibit IEM
Australasian Journal of Philosophy 81 (2):229-245.
Abstract: Reid rejects the image theory --the representative or indirect realist position--that memory-judgements are inferred from or otherwise justified by a present image or introspectible state. He also rejects the trace theory , which regards memories as essentially traces in the brain. In contrast he argues for a direct knowledge account in which personal memory yields unmediated knowledge of the past. He asserts the reliability of memory, not in currently fashionable terms as a reliable belief-forming process, but more elusively as a principle of Commonsense. There remains a contemporary consensus against Reid's position. I argue that Reid's critique is essentially sound, and that the consensus is mistaken; personal memory judgements are spontaneous and non-inferential in the same way as perceptual judgements. But I question Reid's account of the connection between personal memory and personal identity. My primary concern is rationally reconstructive rather than scholarly, and downplays recent interpretations of Reid's faculty psychology as a precursor of functionalism and other scientific philosophies of mind
Hamber, Brandon (1999). Symbolic Closure Through Memory, Reparation and Revenge in Post-Conflict Societies. Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.   (Google)
Hanly, Charles & Nichols, Christopher (2001). A disturbance of psychoanalytic memory: The case of John Rickman's three-person psychology. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 31 (3).   (Google)
Abstract: This article deals with two aspects of psychoanalytic history. The first is the history of ideas, specifically the notions of a one- and two-person psychology that are in such wide use today. Second, the authors attend, much more critically, to a disturbance of memory (repeated distortion, omission, selective representation, and misrepresentation) that has accompanied scholarly discussion of these ideas for the past 50 years. Finally, the authors attempt to restore the original meaning of the person-psychology concept and illustrate its relevance for contemporary psychoanalytic debate
Handley, Dr Simon J.; Capon, A.; Beveridge, M.; Dennis, I. & Evans, J. St BT (2004). Working memory, inhibitory control and the development of children's reasoning. Thinking and Reasoning 10 (2):175 – 195.   (Google)
Abstract: The ability to reason independently from one's own goals or beliefs has long been recognised as a key characteristic of the development of formal operational thought. In this article we present the results of a study that examined the correlates of this ability in a group of 10-year-old children ( N  = 61). Participants were presented with conditional and relational reasoning items, where the content was manipulated such that the conclusion to the arguments were either congruent, neutral, or incongruent with beliefs, and either logically valid or logically invalid. Participants also received a measure of working memory capacity (the counting span task) and a measure of inhibitory control (the stop signal task). Indices of belief bias and logical reasoning on belief-based problems were predicted independently by both measures. In contrast logical reasoning on belief neutral problems was predicted by working memory alone. The findings suggest that executive functions play a key role in the development of children's ability to decontextualise their thinking
Hartshorne, Charles (1966). Determinism, memory, and the metaphysics of becoming. Pacific Philosophy Forum 4 (May):81-85.   (Google)
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Harrell, Jean G. (1986). Soundtracks: A Study of Auditory Perception, Memory, and Valuation. Prometheus Books.   (Google)
Haug, Frigga (1992). Beyond Female Masochism: Memory-Work and Politics. Verso.   (Google)
Hauser, Gerard A. (2005). In memory:. Philosophy and Rhetoric 38 (1).   (Google)
Hauser, Gerard A. (2006). In memory: Thomas Farrell. Philosophy and Rhetoric 39 (4).   (Google)
Heath, Richard A. (2001). Control of chaos and memory dynamics. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (5):817-818.   (Google)
Abstract: Neurally inspired models of human cognition exude explanatory power without necessarily making predictions that can be verified behaviorally. This is the case for Tsuda's dynamic model. It is suggested that a simpler principle based on the nonlinear dynamic interaction between modules based on control of chaos, can achieve a similar theoretical goal in a cognitively verifiable way
Heal, Jane (1998). Externalism and memory. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 72 (72):77-94.
Heil, John (1978). Traces of things past. Philosophy of Science 45 (March):60-72.
Heitz, Richard P.; Redick, Thomas S.; Hambrick, David Z.; Kane, Michael J.; Conway, Andrew R. A. & Engle, Randall W. (2006). Working memory, executive function, and general fluid intelligence are not the same. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2):135-136.   (Google)
Abstract: Blair equates the constructs of working memory (WM), executive function, and general fluid intelligence (gF). We argue that there is good reason not to equate these constructs. We view WM and gF as separable but highly related, and suggest that the mechanism behind the relationship is controlled attention – an ability that is dependent on normal functioning of the prefrontal cortex. (Published Online April 5 2006)
Henry, Patrick (2007). Crises of memory and the second world war. Philosophy and Literature 31 (1).   (Google)
Herzog, Annabel (2005). Levinas, memory, and the art of writing. Philosophical Forum 36 (3):333–343.
Hershenov, David B. (2007). The memory criterion and the problem of backward causation. International Philosophical Quarterly 47 (2):181-185.   (Google)
Abstract: Lockeans, as well as their critics, have pointed out that the memory criterion is likely to mean that none of us were ever fetuses or even infants due to the lack of direct psychological connections between then and now. But what has been overlooked is that the memory criterion leads to either backward causation and a violation of Locke’s own very plausible principle that we can have only one origin, or backward causation and a number of overlapping people where we thought there was just one. I will argue that such problems cannot be avoided by replacing direct psychological connections with overlapping chains of connectedness—what has been called “psychological continuity.”
Heywood, Ellis (1972). Il Moro; Ellis Heywood's Dialogue in Memory of Thomas More. Cambridge, Mass.,Harvard University Press.   (Google)
Hoerl, Christoph & McCormack, Teresa (2005). Joint reminiscing as joint attention to the past. In Naomi Eilan, Christoph Hoerl, Johannes Roessler & Teresa McCormack (eds.), Joint Attention: Communication and Other Minds: Issues in Philosophy and Psychology. Oxford: Clarendon Press.   (Google)
Abstract: We identify a particular type of causal reasoning ability that we believe is required for the possession of episodic memories, as it is needed to give substance to the distinction between the past and the present. We also argue that the same causal reasoning ability is required for grasping the point that another person's appeal to particular past events can have in conversation. We connect this to claims in developmental psychology that participation in joint reminiscing plays a key role in memory development.
Hoerl, Christoph (2000). John Sutton philosophy and memory traces: Descartes to connectionism. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 51 (4).   (Google)
Hoerl, Christoph (1999). Memory, amnesia, and the past. Mind and Language 14 (2):227-51.
Abstract: This paper defends the claim that, in order to have a concept of time, subjects must have memories of particular events they once witnessed. Some patients with severe amnesia arguably still have a concept of time. Two possible explanations of their grasp of this concept are discussed. They take as their respective starting points abilities preserved in the patients in question: (1) the ability to retain factual information over time despite being unable to recall the past event or situation that information stems from, and (2) the ability to remember at least some past events or situations themselves (typically because retrograde amnesia is not complete). It is argued that a satisfactory explanation of what it is for subjects to have a concept of time must make reference to their having episodic memories such as those mentioned under (2). It is also shown how the question as to whether subjects have such memories, and thus whether they possess a concept of time, enters into our explanation of their actions
Hoerl, Christoph & McCormack, Teresa (2001). Perspectives on time and memory: an introduction. In Christoph Hoerl & Teresa McCormack (eds.), Time and memory: Issues in Philosophy and Psychology. Oxford University Press.   (Google)
Abstract: What is the connection between the way we represent time and things in time, on the one hand, and our capacity to remember particular past events, on the other? This is the substantive question that has stood behind the project of putting together this volume. The methodological assumption that has informed this project is that any progress with the difficult and fascinating set of issues that are raised by this question must draw on the resources of various areas both in philos- ophy and in psychology
Hoerl, Christoph & McCormack, Teresa (eds.) (2001). Time and Memory: Philosophical Perspectives. Oxford University Press.   (Google)
Hoens, Dominiek; Jottkandt, Sigi & Buelens, Gert (eds.) (2009). The Catastrophic Imperative: Subjectivity, Time and Memory in Contemporary Thought. Palgrave Macmillan.   (Google)
Abstract: Machine generated contents note: List of illustrations * Notes On Contributors * Introduction: B.Biebuyck, G.Buelens, O.de Graef, D.Hoens, S.Jttkandt * Who or What Decides: For Derrida: A Catastrophic Theory of Decision--J.Hillis Miller * Catastrophic Narratives and Why the Catastrophe to Catastrophe Might Have Already Happened--E.Vogt * Breath of Relief: Sloterdijk and the Politics of the Intimate--S.van Tuinen * Man is a swarm animal--J.Clemens * Notes on the Bird War: Biopolitics of the Visible (in the Era of Climate Change)--T.Cohen * Dialectical Catastrophe: Hegels Allegory of Physiognomy and the Ethics of Survival--P.Moll * Catastrophe, Citationality and the Limits of Responsibility in Disgrace--G.Buelens * Unpredictable Inevitability and the Boundaries of Psychic Life; D.Nobus * Who is Nietzsche?--A.Badiou * Is Pleasure a Rotten Idea?--A.Schuster * Nationalist Ext(im)asy: Maurice Barrs and the Roots of Fascist Enjoyment--G.Chaitin * Topography of the Border: Derrida Rewriting Transcendental Aesthetics--J.Hodge * Index List of illustrations * Notes On Contributors * Introduction: B.Biebuyck, G.Buelens, O.de Graef, D.Hoens, S.Jttkandt * Who or What Decides: For Derrida: A Catastrophic Theory of Decision--J.Hillis Miller * Catastrophic Narratives and Why the Catastrophe to Catastrophe Might Have Already Happened--E.Vogt * Breath of Relief: Sloterdijk and the Politics of the Intimate--S.van Tuinen * Man is a swarm animal--J.Clemens * Notes on the Bird War: Biopolitics of the Visible (in the Era of Climate Change)--T.Cohen * Dialectical Catastrophe: Hegels Allegory of Physiognomy and the Ethics of Survival--P.Moll * Catastrophe, Citationality and the Limits of Responsibility in Disgrace--G.Buelens * Unpredictable Inevitability and the Boundaries of Psychic Life; D.Nobus * Who is Nietzsche?--A.Badiou * Is Pleasure a Rotten Idea?--A.Schuster * Nationalist Ext(im)asy: Maurice Barrs and the Roots of Fascist Enjoyment--G.Chaitin * Topography of the Border: Derrida Rewriting Transcendental Aesthetics--J.Hodge * Index.
Hoerl, Christoph (2001). The phenomenology of episodic recall. In Christoph Hoerl & Teresa McCormark (eds.), Time and Memory. Oxford University Press.
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Hoskins, Gregory (2007). The politics of memory and the world trade center memorial site. Journal of Social Philosophy 38 (2):242–254.
Houlgate, Stephen (1996). Hegel, Derrida, and restricted economy: The case of mechanical memory. Journal of the History of Philosophy 34 (1).   (Google)
Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):681-682.   (Google)
Abstract: Jackendoff's criticisms of the current state of theorization in cognitive neuroscience are defused by recent work on the computational complementarity of the hippocampus and neocortex. Such considerations lead to a grounding of Jackendoff's processing model in the complementary methods of pattern analysis effected by independent component analysis (ICA) and principle component analysis (PCA)
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Abstract: both the initial justification for adopting it and the justification for retaining it provided by seeming memories. This view captures our intuitions about justification in several cases, while none of the alternative views can
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Abstract: Book Information Time and Memory: Issues in Philosophy and Psychology. Time and Memory: Issues in Philosophy and Psychology Christoph Hoerl and McCormack Teresa , eds., Oxford: Clarendon Press , 2001 , xiii + 419 , £45 ( cloth ), £17.99 ( paper ) Edited by Christoph Hoerl; and McCormack Teresa . Oxford: Clarendon Press. Pp. xiii + 419. £45 (cloth:), £17.99 (paper:)
Hunter, Michael (1999). The problem of memory knowledge. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 80 (4):346–357.
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Abstract: To date, 1.7 million US military service personnel have been deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan. Of those, one in five are suffering from diagnosable combat-stress related psychological injuries including Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). All indications are that the mental health toll of the current conflicts on US troops and the medical systems that care for them will only increase. Against this backdrop, research suggesting that the common class of drugs known as beta-blockers might prevent the onset of PTSD is drawing much interest. I urge caution against accepting too quickly the use of beta-blockers for dealing with the psychological injuries that combat experiences can wreak. Beta-blockers are thought to work by disrupting the formation of emotionally disturbing memories that typically occur in the wake of traumatic events and that in some people manifest as PTSD. Focusing on a single dimension of soldiers' experience in combat, namely, their perpetration of other-directed violence, I argue that some of the emotional memories blunted by beta-blockers play important roles in the recovery of moral aspects of soldiers' selves damaged by experiences of combat violence — specifically, in the achievement of a state of grace — and, therefore, that the use of beta-blockers may come with distinct moral costs
Husserl, Edmund & Farber, Marvin (eds.) (1940). Philosophical Essays in Memory of Edmund Husserl. New York, Greenwood Press.   (Google)
Abstract: An approach to phenomenology, by D. Cairns.--Husserl's critique of psychologism: its historic roots and contemporary relevance, by J. Wild.--The ideal of a presuppositionless philosophy, by M. Farber.--On the intentionality of consciousness, by A. Gurwitsch.--The "reality-phenomenon" and reality, by H. Spiegelberg.--The phenomenological concept of "horizon", by H. Kuhn.--Phenomenology and logical empiricism, by F. Kaufmann.--Phenomenology and the history of science, by J. Klein.--Phenomenology and the social sciences, by A. Schuetz.--Art and phenomenology, by F. Kaufmann.--The relation of science to philosophy in the light of Husserl's thought, by L. O. Kattsoff.--Husserl and the social structure of immediacy, by C. Hartshorne.--A materialist approach to Husserl's philosophy, by V. J. McGill.--Outline-sketch of a system of metaphysics, by W. E. Hocking.--Men and the law, by G. Husserl.--The ghost of modality, by H. Weyl.--Supplement: Grundlegende untersuchungen zum phänomenologischen ursprung der räumlichkeit der natur, by E. Husserl
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Huyssen, Andreas (2003). Present Pasts: Urban Palimpsests and the Politics of Memory. Stanford University Press.   (Google)
Abstract: Memory of historical trauma has a unique power to generate works of art. This book analyzes the relation of public memory to history, forgetting, and selective memory in Berlin, Buenos Aires, and New York—three late-twentieth-century cities that have confronted major social or political traumas. Berlin experienced the fall of the Berlin Wall and the city’s reemergence as the German capital; Buenos Aires lived through the dictatorships of the 1970s and 1980s and their legacy of state terror and disappearances; and New York City faces a set of public memory issues concerning the symbolic value of Times Square as threatened public space and the daunting task of commemorating and rebuilding after the attack on the World Trade Center. Focusing on the issue of monumentalization in divergent artistic and media practices, the book demonstrates that the transformation of spatial and temporal experience by memory politics is a major cultural effect of globalization
American Journal of Bioethics 8 (1):30 – 32.   (Google)
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Abstract: A concert pianist the second author videotaped herself learning J.S. Bach's Italian Concerto Presto , and commented on the problems she encountered as she practised. Approximately two years later the pianist wrote out the first page of the score from memory. The pianist's verbal reports indicated that in the early sessions she identified and memorised the formal structure of the piece, and in the later sessions she practised using this organisation to retrieve the memory cues that controlled her playing. The practice and recall data supported this account. Both were organised by the formal structure of the music. Practice segments were more likely to start and stop at boundaries of the formal structure than at other locations, and recall was higher for the beginnings of sections than for later portions. Like other forms of expert memory, pianistic memory appears to be based on use of a highly practised retrieval scheme which permits rapid retrieval of information from long-term memory
Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (3):403-405.   (Google)
Abstract: This commentary focuses on how bottom-up neocortical models can be developed into eigenfunction expansions of probability distributions appropriate to describe short-term memory in the context of scalp EEG. The mathematics of eigenfunctions are similar to the top-down eigenfunctions developed by Nunez, despite different physical manifestations. The bottom-up eigenfunctions are at the local mesocolumnar scale, whereas the top-down eigenfunctions are at the global regional scale. Our respective approaches have regions of substantial overlap, and future studies may expand top-down eigenfunctions into the bottom-up eigenfunctions, yielding a model of scalp EEG expressed in terms of columnar states of neocortical processing of attention and short-term memory. Footnotes1 The author is also affiliated with DRW Investments LLC, 311 S. Wacker Drive, Chicago, IL 60606
Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 8 (4):425-437.   (Google)
Abstract: While Q ian Mu intentionally avoided systematic philosophical arguments, his references to memory, language, and emotions, as expressed in a book he wrote in 1948, were suggestive of new interpretations of traditional Chinese, and especially Confucian, ideas such as human autonomy, mind, human nature, morality, immortality, and spirituality. The foremost contribution of Qian’s humanist synthesis rests in its articulation of the idea of the person. Across the context of memory, language, and emotions, the tiyong dynamics of mind and human nature recreate, in modern terms, the traditional Chinese concept of the person who is individually unique and simultaneously interrelated. Avoiding the extreme polarities of individualism and collectivism, he stresses rather their coexistence. His synthesis explains to the Chinese people something about who they are, the meaning in life in the framework of their culture, and how their (revitalized) way of life is at its best in the most important area, that of human relations
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Abstract: Bickle argues for both a narrow causal reductionism, and a broader ontological-explanatory reductionism. The former is more successful than the latter. I argue that the central and unsolved problem in Bickle's approach to reductionism involves the nature of psychological terms. Investigating why the broader reductionism fails indicates ways in which phenomenology remains more than a handmaiden of neuroscience
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Abstract: Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
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Abstract: Whitehead does not provide us with a systematic account of the various types of experience to which the word “memory” is applied. Nevertheless, he does provide us with a way of understanding the world, and living creatures who inhabit it, that places the discussion in a different context from the usual one: the diverse features of human experience that we call memory are developed forms of basic patterns of relationship that characterize all actual entities. I will first review the relevant features of Whitehead's conceptuality, then contrast the resulting view with its usual formulation, and then speculate about some forms of memory in Whiteheadian categories
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Abstract: One of the peculiar characteristics of the vast body of Jain commentarial literature is the primacy given to artha , meaning, over sūtra , the root text itself. It is the task of the commentator—or, in a pedagogical context, the teacher—to retrieve and explain a text’s true, hidden meaning, which often appears to stretch and even contradict its apparent meaning. This article examines the interpretive processes in one of the most important Jain commentaries on monastic discipline, the Bṛhatkalpabhāṣya attributed to the sixth-century CE Śvetāmbara Jain exegete Saṅghadāsa. An examination of passages where the commentator claims to uncover the real—but sometimes less-than-apparent—meaning of monastic rules enables us to detect the interpretive moves involved and the underlying assumptions about the nature of text and the work of commentary. I argue that this commentarial tradition presupposes particular practices of memory, and a degree of internalizing the traditional hermeneutical methods, on the part of a monastic practitioner who wants to understand the text correctly and live according to its true meaning
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Abstract: ces, learning facts and gaining conceptual knowlge, recognizing objects and people, and acquiring ills and habits. Scientific thinking about memory was minated for many years by the assumption that mory is a unitary or monolithic entityRi2;a single ulty of the mind and brain. However, the assumpri of a unitary memory has been challenged by conging evidence from psychology and neuroscience inting toward multiple memory systems that can be sociated from one another. This chapter provides a torical introduction to the issue and summarizes..
Kerdeman, Deborah (1999). Between memory and différance: (Radically) understanding the other. Educational Philosophy and Theory 31 (2):225–229.
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Abstract: Introduction : cinema, memory, modernity: the return of memory as film -- No escape from time : memory and redemption in the international postwar art film -- The "crisis" of memory : "traumatic identity" in the contemporary memory film -- "Global memory" : cinema as lingua franca and the commodification of the image -- The eye of history : memory, surveillance and ethicality in the contemporary art film -- "Prosthetic memory" and transnational cinema : globalized identity and narrative recursivity in City of God -- Conclusion: remembering to forget: the catachreses of modernity.
Abstract: Decay gradients are usually drawn facing the wrong direction. Righting them emphasizes the role of stimuli that mark the response, and leads to different inferences concerning the factors controlling response–reinforcer associations. A simple model of the concatenation of stimulus traces provides some insight to the problems of impulse control relevant to ADHD
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Abstract: Four experiments assessed the relative involvement of different working memory components in two types of reasoning tasks: propositional and spatial reasoning. Using the secondary-task methodology, visual, central-executive, and phonological loads were realised. Although the involvement of visuospatial resources in propositional reasoning has traditionally been considered to be small, an overall analysis of the present data suggests an alternative account. A theoretical analysis of the pattern of results in terms of Evans' (1984, 1989) twostage theory of reasoning is proposed and tested in Experiments 3 and 4, in which direct evidence for the alternative account was obtained: significant disruption of propositional reasoning by a concurrent spatial load
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Abstract:   Emerging technologies raise the possibility that we may be able to treat trauma victims by pharmaceutically dampening factual or emotional aspects of their memories. Such technologies raise a panoply of legal and ethical issues. While many of these issues remain off in the distance, some have already arisen. In this brief commentary, I discuss a real-life case of memory erasure. The case reveals why the contours of our freedom of memory—our limited bundle of rights to control our memories and be free of outside control—already merit some attention
Kourany, Janet A. (1965). Memory. Journal of Philosophy 62 (August):387-397.
Krell, David Farrell (1982). Phenomenology of memory from Husserl to Merleau-ponty. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 42 (4):492-505.
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Abstract: "The main spine of this book stems from a comprehensive series of interviews with subjects recalling their experiences of 1930s cinemagoing. Your feel the breath of life in these spectators, a rarity in film studies, thanks to the painstaking work contracting the interview subjects and recording and tabulating their testimony."- JUMPCUT In the 1930s, Britain had the highest annual per capita cinema attendance in the world, far surpassing ballroom dancing as the nation's favorite pastime. It was, as historian A.J.P. Taylor said, the "essential social habit of the age." And yet, although we know something about the demographics of British cinemagoers, we know almost nothing of their experience of film, how film affected them, how it fit into their daily lives, what role cinema played in the larger culture of the time, and in what ways cinemagoing shaped the generation that came of age in the 1930s. In Dreaming of Fred and Ginger , Annette Kuhn draws upon contemporary publications, extensive interviews with cinemagoers themselves, and readings of selected film, to produce a provocative and perspective-altering ethno-historical study. Taking cinemagoers' accounts of their own experiences as both "the engine and product of investigation," Kuhn enters imaginatively into the world of 1930s cinema culture and analyzes its place in popular memory. Among the topics she examines are the physical space of the cinemas; the role film played in growing up; the experience of being a member of a cinema audience; film-inspired fantasies of American life; the importance of cinema to adolescence in offering role models, ideals of romance, as well as practical opportunities for courtship; and the sheer pleasure of watching such film stars as Fred Astaire, Ginger Rogers, Nelson Eddy, Ronald Colman, and many others. Engagingly written and painstakingly researched, with contributions to film history, cultural studies, and social history, Dreaming of Fred and Ginger offers an illuminating account of a key moment in British cultural memory
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Abstract: An action-oriented theory of embodied memory is favorable for many reasons, but it will not provide a quick yet clean solution to the grounding problem in the way Glenberg (1997t) envisages. Although structural mapping via analogical representations may be an adequate mechanism of cognitive representation, it will not suffice to explain representation as such
Kutz, Christopher (2004). Justice in reparations: The cost of memory and the value of talk. Philosophy and Public Affairs 32 (3):277–312.
Lackey, Jennifer (2007). Why memory really is a generative epistemic source: A reply to Senor. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 74 (1):209–219.
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Abstract:   The prospect of using memory modifying technologies raises interesting and important normative concerns. We first point out that those developing desirable memory modifying technologies should keep in mind certain technical and user-limitation issues. We next discuss certain normative issues that the use of these technologies can raise such as truthfulness, appropriate moral reaction, self-knowledge, agency, and moral obligations. Finally, we propose that as long as individuals using these technologies do not harm others and themselves in certain ways, and as long as there is no prima facie duty to retain particular memories, it is up to individuals to determine the permissibility of particular uses of these technologies
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Abstract: Glenberg focuses on conceptualizations that change from moment to moment, yet he dismisses the concept of working memory (sect. 4.3), which offers an account of temporary storage and on-line cognition. This commentary questions whether Glenberg's account adequately caters for observations of consistent data patterns in temporary storage of verbal and visuospatial information in healthy adults and in brain-damaged patients with deficits in temporary retention
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Abstract: Values are critical for intelligent behavior, since values determine interests, and interests determine relevance. Therefore we address relevance and its role in intelligent behavior in animals and machines. Animals avoid exhaustive enumeration of possibilities by focusing on relevant aspects of the environment, which emerge into the (cognitive) foreground, while suppressing irrelevant aspects, which submerge into the background. Nevertheless, the background is not invisible, and aspects of it can pop into the foreground if background processing deems them potentially relevant. Essential to these ideas are questions of how contexts are switched, which defines cognitive/behavioral episodes, and how new contexts are created, which allows the efficiency of foreground/background processing to be extended to new behaviors and cognitive domains. Next we consider mathematical characterizations of the foreground/background distinction, which we treat as a dynamic separation of the concrete space into (approximately) orthogonal subspaces, which are processed differently. Background processing is characterized by large receptive fields which project into a space of relatively low dimension to accomplish rough categorization of a novel stimulus and its approximate location. Such background processing is partly innate and partly learned, and we discuss possible correlational (Hebbian) learning mechanisms. Foreground processing is characterized by small receptive fields which project into a space of comparatively high dimension to accomplish precise categorization and localization of the stimuli relevant to the context. We also consider mathematical models of valences and affordances, which are an aspect of the foreground. Cells processing foregound information have no fixed meaning (i.e., their meaning is contextual), so it is necessary to explain how the processing accomplished by foreground neurons can be made relative to the context. Thus we consider the properties of several simple mathematical models of how the contextual representation controls foreground processing. We show how simple correlational processes accomplish the contextual separation of foreground from background on the basis of differential reinforcement. That is, these processes account for the contextual separation of the concrete space into disjoint subspaces corresponding to the foreground and background. Since an episode may comprise the activation of several contexts (at varying levels of activity) we consider models, suggested by quantum mechanics, of foreground processing in superposition. That is, the contextual state may be a weighted superposition of several pure contexts, with a corresponding superposition of the foreground representations and the processes operating on them. This leads us to a consideration of the nature and origin of contexts. Although some contexts are innate, many are learned. We discuss a mathematical model of contexts which allows a context to split into several contexts, agglutinate from several contexts, or to constellate out of relatively acontextual processing. Finally, we consider the acontextual processing which occurs when the current context is no longer relevant, and may trigger the switch to another context or the formation of a new context. We relate this to the situation known as "breakdown" in phenomenology
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Abstract: Lorazepam has been repeatedly shown to induce memory impairments. The effects of this benzodiazepine on the processes involved in the strategic regulation of memory accuracy have not as yet been explored. An experimental procedure that delineates the role of monitoring and control processes was used. Fifteen lorazepam and 15 placebo subjects were examined using a semantic memory task that combined both a forced- and a free-report option and a no-incentive and an incentive condition. Memory accuracy was lower in the lorazepam than in the placebo group. Lorazepam impaired control sensitivity (the extent to which volunteering of answers is affected by the confidence judgments). While the absolute aspect of monitoring was impaired (calibration scores), both the discriminative aspect (the ability to distinguish between correct and incorrect answers) and the response criterion setting (the confidence threshold set for volunteering a report) were spared. The pharmacological dissociation between monitoring effectiveness and control sensitivity indicates that these two components involve distinct processes
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Abstract: I want to know whether I consumed the Canada Health recommended portion of fruits and vegetables yesterday. I try to remember, and I conclude that I ate five servings of fruits and vegetables during the course of the day. Presumably, propositions like the following figure in my calculations: 1. For lunch yesterday, I ate a grilled tomato with my hamburger. Usually, the remembered image of eating the tomato will figure in the provenance of remembering 1
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Abstract: The essays in this collection were written by an international body of scholars in memory of Professor Bimal K. Matilal. They discuss Vedanta, Nyaya, and Buddhism; thematically they deal with problems of relativism, evil, suffering, emotions, and value judgement
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Abstract: The mathematical approach to such essentially biological phenomena as perseverative reaching is most welcome. To extend these results and make them more accurate, levels of analysis and neural centers should he distinguished. The navigational nature of sensorimotor control should be characterized more clearly, including the continuous dynamics of neural processes hut not limited to it. In particular, discrete conditions should be formalized mathematically as part of the biological process
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Abstract:   Much of the plausibility of epistemic conservatism derives from its prospects of explaining our rationality in holding memory beliefs. In the first two parts of this paper, I argue for the inadequacy of the two standard approaches to the epistemology of memory beliefs, preservationism and evidentialism. In the third, I point out the advantages of the conservative approach and consider how well conservatism survives three of the strongest objections against it. Conservatism does survive, I claim, but only if qualified in certain ways. Appropriately qualified, conservatism is no longer the powerful anti-skeptical tool some have hoped for, but a doctrine closely connected with memory
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Abstract: Semantic priming has been a focus of research in the cognitive sciences for more than 30 years and is commonly used as a tool for investigating other aspects of perception and cognition, such as word recognition, language comprehension, and knowledge representations. Semantic Priming: Perspectives from Memory and Word Recognition examines empirical and theoretical advancements in the understanding of semantic priming, providing a succinct, in-depth review of this important phenomenon, framed in terms of models of memory and models of word recognition. The first section examines models of semantic priming, including spreading activation models, the verification model, compound-cue models, distributed network models, and multistage activation models (e.g. interactive-activation model). The second section examines issues and findings that have played an especially important role in testing models of priming and includes chapters on the following topics: methodological issues (e.g. counterbalancing of materials, choice of priming baselines); automatic vs. strategic priming; associative vs. "pure" semantic priming; mediated priming; long-term semantic priming; backward priming; unconscious priming; the prime-task effect; list context effects; effects of word frequency, stimulus quality, and stimulus repetition; and the cognitive neuroscience of semantic priming. The book closes with a summary and a discussion of promising new research directions. The volume will be of interest to a wide range of researchers and students in the cognitive sciences and neurosciences
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Abstract: Intimacy and Alienation puts forward the author's unique paradigm for psychotherapy and counselling based on the assumption that each patient has suffered a disruption of the self', and that the goal of the therapist is to identify and work with that disruption. Using many clinical illustrations, and drawing on self psychology, attachment therapy and theories of trauma, Russell Meares looks at the nature of self and how it develops, before going on to explore the form and feeling of experience when self is disrupted in a traumatic way, and focusing on ways towards the restoration of the self. Written in an accessible style from the author's singular perspective, Intimacy and Alienation will appeal to professionals in the fields of psychotherapy, counseling, social work and psychiatry, as well as to students and the lay reader
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Abstract: There is considerable interest in the use of neuroimaging techniques for forensic purposes. Memory detection techniques, including the well-publicized Brain Fingerprinting technique (Brain Fingerprinting Laboratories, Inc., Seattle WA), exploit the fact that the brain responds differently to sensory stimuli to which it has been exposed before. When a stimulus is specifically associated with a crime, the resulting brain activity should differentiate between someone who was present at the crime and someone who was not. This article reviews the scientific literature on three such techniques: priming, old/new, and P300 effects. The forensic potential of these techniques is evaluated based on four criteria: specificity, automaticity, encoding flexibility, and longevity. This article concludes that none of the techniques are devoid of forensic potential, although much research is yet to be done. Ethical issues, including rights to privacy and against self-incrimination, are discussed. A discussion of legal issues concludes that current memory detection techniques do not yet meet United States standards of legal admissibility
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Abstract: Preface/Introduction

The question under discussion is metaphysical and truly elemental. It emerges in two aspects – how did we come to be conscious of our own existence, and, as a deeper corollary, do existence and awareness necessitate each other? I am bold enough to explore these questions and I invite you to come along; I make no claim to have discovered absolute answers. However, I do believe I have created here a compelling interpretation. You’ll have to judge for yourself.

What follows is the presentation of three essays I have worked on over the past several years seeing publication for the first time. “Hollows of Experience” was written first as an invited chapter for a collection on the ontology of consciousness. However, when cuts became necessary, my chapter got the knife. Its length has prohibited it from publication in any print journal. “Myth and Mind” was written next as a journal article, but as my involvement with it grew so did its length, so it has also idled on my websty awaiting its call. “From Panexperiential-ism to Conscious Experience” was written most recently, but it is the only one to have been available to the public elsewhere than my own website. Under the name, “The Continuum of Experience”, it was Target Article #95 on the recently closed Karl Jaspers Forum (for discussion purposes only).

I have put them in a different sequence here, for reasons of logical sense. Up first, “Panexperientialism” deals with an idea difficult for many to accept, namely that conscious experience is a particular mode of symbolically reflected experience that is largely unique to our species. However, I aver that experienced sensation in itself (as found, for example, in autonomic sensory response systems) goes “all the way down” into nature, and thus the title, panexperientialism.

Understanding this idea is helpful to dealing with the focus on language in Part I of “Hollows”, next, since here speech and general symbolic interaction in general are found to be the catalysts for the creation of our consciously experienced world (our “lived reality”). In Part II, however, I explore how experienced sensations must be coeval with existence, and, with even greater temerity, how all this sensational existence might have arisen within some literally inconceivable background of awareness-in-itself that yet has a dynamism that occasionally breaks into existence as experiential events and entities. (The latter may sound wacky, but physicists and cosmologists are themselves attempting to come to terms with that which seethes with vast potential energy in what they refer to as the quantum vacuum.)

“Myth and Mind” was put third since it deals with a major lacuna in “Hollows” – that presumed prehistoric period when members of our species made the painful crossing of the symbolic threshold into the beginnings of cultural consciousness. Speech plays a central role here, too, but I look more at narrative structures from the dawn of self-awareness when ritual and myth became vital to human survival. Why would fantastic stories and bizarre rituals be necessary? I speculate that growing foresight led to the unavoidable realization of certain mortality, from which, in turn, emerged the secondary realization that we were now alive. In contrast to our yet-to-come death, we have life here and now, and by ritually identifying with a symbolically expanded mythic, i.e., sacred, reality, we may continue to live on after bodily death, just as our ancestors and loved ones must also do. Language and mythmaking are necessary to avoid mortal despair and they remain at the core of human consciousness.

As Ernst Cassirer (1944) has noted, language and myth are “twin creatures”, both metaphoric webs over a reality we can never wholly comprehend. We live in the symbolic and construct our works of imagination and wars of conquest to make life meaningful, to feel immortal, and to sense that we ourselves participate in a reality greater than ourselves. No doubt we do, but this does not mean our culturally constructed self-identities survive the death of our bodies, and it does not imply that our symbolic concepts can ever indicate the ultimate truth. We simply must symbolize an extended reality that was sacred to our ancestors: “Is it not our way, as illusory as it may be, to force continuance on our world and our life in the face of their inevitable ending? Are we not compelled to extend those imagi-nary horizons as far as we can despite the terror and the sometime joy their extension incites? Is their closure not a form of death?” (Crapanzano, p. 210)

Of course, this leaves me in the uncomfortable position of being forced to admit that this venture of mine must inevitably be another attempt at meaningful mythmaking. But what else could it be? This is certainly not a scientific proof though it is indeed an academically rigorous exploration. (Just try to count the citations!) I hope the reader will judge my thesis on the basis of its coherence, the sense of meaning it evokes, my intellectual responsibility, and, finally, the engagement it inspires. If you have read my expositions and found yourself immersed in the timeless questions I here call forth, I would call these writings successful (even if you violently disagree with my answers).

I am very grateful to Huping Hu for granting me this special issue of JCER in which to present my ideas in some detail. He has patiently dealt with my exuberant approach and allowed the many changes I kept coming up with right until the final publication date. I also wish to thank the many potential commentators who politely replied to my invitation, and, even more, I thank those who made time to write actual commentaries.

References

Cassirer, E. (1944). An Essay on Man: An Introduction to a Philosophy of Hu-man Culture. New Haven/London: Yale UP.

Crapanzano, V. (2004). Imaginative Horizons: An Essay in Literary-Philosophical Anthropology. Chicago: U of Chicago Press.

Gregory M. Nixon

University of Northern British Columbia

Email: doknyx@shaw.ca

Websty: http://members.shaw.ca/doknyx

Contents

Preface/Introduction 213

From Panexperientialism to Conscious Experience:

The Continuum of Experience 216

Hollows of Experience 234

Myth and Mind:

The Origin of Human Consciousness in the Discovery of the Sacred 289

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Abstract:   In this paper I argue that internalistic foundationalist theories of the justification of memory belief are inadequate. Taking a discussion of John Pollock as a starting point, I argue against any theory that requires a memory belief to be based on a phenomenal state in order to be justified. I then consider another version of internalistic foundationalism and claim that it, too, is open to important objections. Finally, I note that both varieties of foundationalism fail to account for the epistemic status of our justified nonoccurrent beliefs, and hence are drastically incomplete
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Sharpe, R. A. (1968). Factual memory. Mind 77 (January):131-132.
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Shen, Vincent (2008). Introduction: In memory of and in dialogue with Antonio Cua. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 35 (1):3–8.
Shestov, Leon (1962). In memory of a great philosopher: Edmund Husserl. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 22 (4):449-471.
Shepherdson, Charles (1993). Vital signs: The place of memory in psychoanalysis. Research in Phenomenology 23 (1):22-72.   (Google)
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Smith, Sidonie A. (2003). Material Selves: Bodies, Memory, and Autobiographical Narrating. In Gary D. Fireman, Ted E. Jr. McVay & Owen J. Flanagan (eds.), Narrative and Consciousness: Literature, Psychology, and the Brain. Oxford University Press.
Smith, Leonard V. (2001). Paul fussell's the great war and modern memory: Twenty-five years later. History and Theory 40 (2):241–260.
Smith, R. D. (1983). The use of memory. Journal of Philosophy of Education 17 (1):85–96.
Smith, Cynthia Duquette & Bergman, Teresa (2010). You were on indian land : Alcatraz island as recalcitrant memory space. In Greg Dickinson, Carole Blair & Brian L. Ott (eds.), Places of Public Memory: The Rhetoric of Museums and Memorials. University of Alabama Press.   (Google)
Snodgrass, Michael (2004). The dissociation paradigm and its discontents: How can unconscious perception or memory be inferred? Consciousness and Cognition 13 (1):107-116.
Sorabji, Richard (2004). Aristotle on Memory. Duckworth.   (Google)
Spencer, Marlene (ms). An exploratory study in altered consciousness and auditory memory in critically ill patients.   (Google)
Spiegel, Gabrielle M. (2002). Memory and history: Liturgical time and historical time. History and Theory 41 (2):149–162.
Stawarska, Beata (2002). Memory and subjectivity: Sartre in dialogue with Husserl. Sartre Studies International 8 (2):94-111.   (Google)
Stanford, Michael (1994). Rewriting the self: History, memory, narrative. Cogito 8 (2):192-194.   (Google)
Stiffler, Eric (1980). Malcolm on impure memory. Philosophical Studies 38 (October):299-304.
Stocker, Michael A. G. (1966). Memory and the private language argument. Philosophical Quarterly 16 (62):47-53.
Strong, Gary W. (1997). Real and virtual environments, real and virtual memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (4):756-757.   (Google)
Abstract: What is encoded in working memory may be a content-addressable pointer, but a critical portion of the information that is addressed includes the motor information to achieve deictic reference in the environment. Additionally, the same strategy that is used to access environment information just in time for its use may also be used to access long-term memory via the pre-frontal cortex
Stuart, Susan A. J. (2010). Conscious machines: Memory, melody and muscular imagination. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 9 (1).   (Google)
Abstract: A great deal of effort has been, and continues to be, devoted to developing consciousness artificially (A small selection of the many authors writing in this area includes: Cotterill (J Conscious Stud 2:290–311, 1995 , 1998 ), Haikonen ( 2003 ), Aleksander and Dunmall (J Conscious Stud 10:7–18, 2003 ), Sloman ( 2004 , 2005 ), Aleksander ( 2005 ), Holland and Knight ( 2006 ), and Chella and Manzotti ( 2007 )), and yet a similar amount of effort has gone in to demonstrating the infeasibility of the whole enterprise (Most notably: Dreyfus ( 1972/1979 , 1992 , 1998 ), Searle ( 1980 ), Harnad (J Conscious Stud 10:67–75, 2003 ), and Sternberg ( 2007 ), but there are a great many others). My concern in this paper is to steer some navigable channel between the two positions, laying out the necessary pre-conditions for consciousness in an artificial system, and concentrating on what needs to hold for the system to perform as a human being or other phenomenally conscious agent in an intersubjectively-demanding social and moral environment. By adopting a thick notion of embodiment—one that is bound up with the concepts of the lived body and autopoiesis (Maturana and Varela 1980 ; Varela et al. 2003 ; and Ziemke 2003 , 2007a , J Conscious Stud 14(7):167–179, 2007b )—I will argue that machine phenomenology is only possible within an embodied distributed system that possesses a richly affective musculature and a nervous system such that it can, through action and repetition, develop its tactile-kinaesthetic memory, individual kinaesthetic melodies pertaining to habitual practices, and an anticipatory enactive kinaesthetic imagination. Without these capacities the system would remain unconscious, unaware of itself embodied within a world. Finally, and following on from Damasio’s ( 1991 , 1994 , 1999 , 2003 ) claims for the necessity of pre-reflective conscious, emotional, bodily responses for the development of an organism’s core and extended consciousness, I will argue that without these capacities any agent would be incapable of developing the sorts of somatic markers or saliency tags that enable affective reactions, and which are indispensable for effective decision-making and subsequent survival. My position, as presented here, remains agnostic about whether or not the creation of artificial consciousness is an attainable goal
Abstract: This paper deals with the sudden change in the mood, themes and style of Korean literature in the 1990s, which was brought on by the inauguration of the first civilian government in three decades and the lifting of the oppressive shadow of military dictatorship. Under military dictatorship, serious Korean writers all felt obligated to be the conscience of the nation, so the emphasis of their works tended to be on social and political injustice and the lives of the exploited workers or helpless and powerless citizens. Their tone, therefore, was that of harsh protest. However, with the demise of military dictatorship, Korean writers felt free to focus on personal relationships and the inner psyche. Shin Kyoung-suuk and Choi Yoon are just two among the many new talents who emerged in the Korean literary scene since the end of the 1980s. They awakened the deep-seated repression of the Korean psyche and fueled the exuberance of psychic liberation
Sullivan, Jacqueline Anne (2008). Memory consolidation, multiple realizations, and modest reductions. Philosophy of Science 75 (5).   (Google)
Abstract: This article investigates several consequences of a recent trend in philosophy of mind to shift the relata of realization from mental state–physical state to function‐mechanism. It is shown, by applying both frameworks to the neuroscientific case study of memory consolidation, that, although this shift can be used to avoid the immediate antireductionist consequences of the traditional argument from multiple realizability, what is gained is a far more modest form of reductionism than recent philosophical accounts have intimated and neuroscientists themselves have claimed. †To contact the author, please write to: Department of Philosophy, University of Alabama at Birmingham, HB 414A, 900 13th Street South, Birmingham, AL 35294‐1260; e‐mail: jas1@uab.edu
Abstract: Historical Cognitive Science I am lucky to strike three reviewers who extract so clearly my book's spirit as well as its substance. They all both accept and act on my central methodological assumption; that detailed historical research, and consideration of difficult contemporary questions about cognition and culture, can be mutually illuminating. It's gratifying to find many themes which recur in different contexts throughout _Philosophy and Memory_ _Traces_ so well articulated here. The reviews catch my desires to interweave discussion of cognitive theories of memory with moral questions of psychological control and self-mastery, to evoke the virtues and the pleasures of strange, baroque beliefs about fickle 'animal spirits' coursing through the nerves and the brain, to demonstrate that mechanistic explanation (even in its blunt old Cartesian form) can acknowledge complexity, and to develop scientific conceptions of dynamic memory traces and representations which can survive uncharitable philosophical criticism. The book's insistent interdisciplinarity is just an inchoate quest to acknowledge the daunting variety of the phenomena: remembering is both natural and cultural, and is studied by narrative theorists as well as neurobiologists, by physicists as well as psychologists. By fusing the rangy detail of a history of early modern neurophysiology with the committed, even gullible fervor of a defence of 'new connectionist' cognitive science, I wanted to pull out the carpet from all those who are happy to let 'scientific' and 'cultural' approaches to the mind run along independently. Once this general project is given space, as it is by all three reviewers, we can get down to specifics
Sutton, John (2007). Batting, habit, and memory: The embodied mind and the nature of skill. Sport in Society 10 (5):763-786.   (Google)
Abstract: in Jeremy McKenna (ed), At the Boundaries of Cricket, to be published in 2007 as a special issue of the journal Sport in Society and as a book in the series Sport in the Global Society (Taylor and Francis)
Social Research: an international quarterly of the social sciences 75 (1):23-48.   (Google)
Abstract: in special collective memory issue of Social Research: an international quarterly of the social sciences (winter 2007-08, volume 75 number 1)
Language and Communication 22 (3):375-390.
Abstract: The early development of autobiographical memory is a useful case study both for examining general relations between language and memory, and for investigating the promise and the difficulty of interdisciplinary research in the cognitive sciences of memory. An otherwise promising social-interactionist view of autobiographical memory development relies in part on an overly linguistic conception of mental representation. This paper applies an alternative, ‘supra-communicative’ view of the relation between language and thought, along the lines developed by Andy Clark, to this developmental framework. A pluralist approach to current theories of autobiographical memory development is sketched: shared early narratives about the past function in part to stabilize and structure the child’s own autobiographical memory system
Sutton, John (2007). Integrating the philosophy and psychology of memory: Two case studies. In M. Marraffa, M. De Caro & F. Ferretti (eds.), Cartographies of the Mind: Philosophy and Psychology in Intersection. Springer.
Abstract: in Massimo Marraffa, Mario de Caro, & Francesco Ferretti (eds.), Cartographies of the Mind: philosophy & psychology in intersection (Springer), pp. 81-92
In C. Knappett & L. Malafouris (eds.), Material Agency: Towards a Non-Anthropocentric Approach. Springer.   (Google)
Abstract: for Lambros Malafouris and Carl Knappett (eds), Material Agency: towards a non-anthropocentric approach (Springer, late 2007)
In Carl Knappett & Lambros Malafouris (eds.), Material Agency: towards a non-anthropocentric approach. Springer.   (Google)
Abstract: If cognition is distributed as well as embodied, then explanation in cognitive science must often highlight more or less transient extended systems spanning embodied brains, social networks or resources and key parts of the natural and the cultural world. These key parts of material culture are not simply cues which trigger the truly cognitive apparatus inside the head but instead form ‘‘a continuous part of the machinery itself’’, as ‘‘systemic components the interaction of which brings forth the cognitive process in question’’ (Malafouris, 2004:58). On this view, cognitive science is thus not just the study of the brain: indeed, even neuroscience cannot be the study of the brain alone, for brains coupled with external resources may have unique functional and dynamical characteristics apparent only when we also attend to the nature of those resources and the peculiarities of the interaction. This chapter argues that if cognition is indeed thus distributed, then cognition is also historical and heterogeneous and must also be analysed diachronically and differentially. If mind is extended, that is to say, then historical cognitive sciences are essential to the interdisciplinary enterprise. This is not just because individual brains themselves are ‘‘biosocial organs permeated by history’’ (Cowley, 2002:75) but also on the longer scale because of dramatic historical diversity in the nature, properties and use of cognitive artefacts. According to Andy Clark, ‘‘the single most important task’’ for ‘‘a science of the bio-technological mind’’ is to understand ‘‘the range and variety of types of cognitive scaffolding and the different ways in which non-biological scaffolding can augment (or impair) performance’’ (Clark, 2002:29, my italics). Unique historical and cultural features of human beings extended cognitive make-up are thus not accidental extras added to a basic biologically given mind. Rather, such changing media, objects, routines, institutions and practices have....
Sutton, John (ms). On memory and truth.   (Google)
Abstract: A talk in the 2007 Blackheath Philosophy Forum series on the Truth Wars, July 28
Philosophical Studies 148 (1).
Abstract: Sometimes I remember my past experiences from an ‘observer’ perspective, seeing myself in the remembered scene. This paper analyses the distinction in personal memory between such external observer visuospatial perspectives and ‘field’ perspectives, in which I experience the remembered actions and events as from my original point of view. It argues that Richard Wollheim’s related distinction between centred and acentred memory fails to capture the key phenomena, and criticizes Wollheim’s reasons for doubting that observer ‘memories’ are genuine personal memories. Since field perspectives in personal memory are also likely to be the product of constructive processes, we should reject the common assumption that such constructive processes inevitably bring distortion and error. Yet field perspectives tend to be treated as privileged also in the domains of memory for skilled movement, and memory for trauma. In each case, it is argued that visuospatial perspective in personal memory should be distinguished from other kinds of perspective such as kinesthetic perspective and emotional perspective
Sutton, John (2002). Porous memory and the cognitive life of things. In D. Tofts, A. Jonson & A. Cavallaro (eds.), Prefiguring Cyberculture: An Intellectual History. MIT Press.
Abstract: Published in Darren Tofts, Annemarie Jonson, and Alessio Cavallaro (eds), _Prefiguring Cyberculture: an intellectual history_ (MIT Press and Power Publications, December 2002). Please do send comments: email me. Back to my main publications page . Back to my home page
Sutton, John (2009). Remembering. In P. Robbins & M. Aydede (eds.), Cambridge Handbook of Situated Cognition. Cambridge University Press.   (Google)
Abstract: Philip Robbins and Murat Aydede (eds), The Cambridge Handbook of Situated Cognition (Cambridge University Press, 2009), 217-235.
Abstract: The Psychological Study of Social Memory Phenomena Very often our memories of the past are of experiences or events we shared with others. And “in many circumstances in society, remembering is a social event” (Roediger, Bergman, & Meade, 2000, p.129): parents and children reminisce about significant family events, friends discuss a movie they just saw together, students study for exams with their roommates, colleagues remind one another of information relevant to an important group decision, and complete strangers discuss a crime they happened to witness together. Psychology is at the heart of recent interdisciplinary efforts to understand the relationships between an individual remembering alone, an individual remembering in a group, and the group itself remembering
In Hugh Clapin (ed.), Representation in Mind. Elsevier.
Abstract: 1. Introduction: memory and interdisciplinarity (footnote 1) Memory is studied at a bewildering number of levels, in a daunting range of disciplines, and with a vast array of methods. Is there any sense at all in which memory theorists - from neurobiologists to narrative theorists, from the developmental to the postcolonial, from the computational to the cross-cultural - are studying the same phenomena? This exploratory review paper sketches the bare outline of a positive framework for understanding current work on memory, both within the various cognitive sciences and across the gulfs between the cognitive and the social sciences
Szymanik, Jakub (2010). Quantifiers and Working Memory. In Maria Aloni & Katrin Schulz (eds.), Amsterdam Colloquium 2009, LNAI 6042. Springer.   (Google)
Abstract: The paper presents a study examining the role of working
memory in quantifier verification. We created situations similar to the
span task to compare numerical quantifiers of low and high rank, parity
quantifiers and proportional quantifiers. The results enrich and support
the data obtained previously in and predictions drawn from a computational
model.
Szymusiak, Ronald (2005). The challenge of identifying cellular mechanisms of memory formation during sleep. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):84-85.   (Google)
Abstract: Cellular mechanisms hypothesized to underlie sleep-dependent memory consolidation are expressed throughout the brain during sleep. Use of sleep deprivation to evaluate the functional importance of these mechanisms is confounded by degradation in waking performance resulting from impaired vigilance. There is a need for methods that will permit disruption of specific mechanisms during sleep only in the neuronal circuits most critically involved in learning. This should be accomplished without global sleep disruption and with preservation of the restorative aspects of sleep
Talmon, J. L. & Sternhell, Zeev (eds.) (1996). The Intellectual Revolt Against Liberal Democracy, 1870-1945: International Conference in Memory of Jacob L. Talmon. Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities.   (Google)
Tannock, Rosemary (2005). Hypodopaminergic function influences learning and memory as well as delay gradients. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (3):444-445.   (Google)
Abstract: The dynamic developmental theory of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) proposes that hypodopaminergic functioning results in anomalous delay-of-reinforcement gradients in ADHD, which in turn might account for many of the observed behavioral and cognitive characteristics. However, hyperdopaminergic functioning might also impair mnemonic representation of codes for spatial, motoric, and reward information and contribute to the purported shorter delay gradients in ADHD
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Taylor, Bryan C. (2010). Rhetoric. Radioactive history : Rhetoric, memory, and place in the post cold war nuclear museum. In Greg Dickinson, Carole Blair & Brian L. Ott (eds.), Places of Public Memory: The Rhetoric of Museums and Memorials. University of Alabama Press.   (Google)
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Tenenbaum, Evelyn M. & Reese, Brian (2007). Memory-altering drugs: Shifting the paradigm of informed consent. American Journal of Bioethics 7 (9):40 – 42.   (Google)
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Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (4):604-615.   (Google)
Abstract: The development of the semantic externalism in the 1970s was followed by a debate on the compatibility of externalism and self-knowledge. Boghossian’s memory argument is one of the most important arguments against the compatibilist view. However, some compatibilists attack Boghossian’s argument by pointing out that his understanding of memory is internalistic. Ludlow and others developed the externalist view of memory to defend the compatibility of externalism and self-knowledge. However, the externalist view of memory undermines the epistemic status of memory since it gives memory a burden that is too heavy for it to carry. This paper argues that only if we take the content of memory to be narrow and take that of self-knowledge to be wide and replace Cartesian self-knowledge with contextually constrained self-knowledge, can the compatibility of externalism and self-knowledge be effectively defended
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Minds and Machines 10 (3).   (Google)
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Abstract: Although considerable attention has been paid to the possible involvement of sleep in memory processing, there is no substantial evidence for it. Walker describes a phenomenon of consolidation-based enhancement (CBE), whereby performance on select procedural tasks improves with overnight sleep; that is, without additional practice on the tasks. CBE, however, appears restricted to a few tasks, and even with these tasks CBE is not confined to sleep but also occurs during wakefulness. Sleep serves no unique role in this process. At best, CBE is a slow, time-dependent process of consolidation that begins with task acquisition in waking and can under some circumstances extend to sleep
Vickers, Douglas & Lee, Michael D. (1997). Towards a dynamic connectionist model of memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):40-41.   (Google)
Abstract: Glenberg's account falls short in several respects. Besides requiring clearer explication of basic concepts, his account fails to recognize the autonomous nature of perception. His account of what is remembered, and its description, is too static. His strictures against connectionist modeling might be overcome by combining the notions of psychological space and principled learning in an embodied and situated network
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Wagner, Ullrich; Gais, Steffen & Born, Jan (2005). Refinements and confinements in a two-stage model of memory consolidation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (6):857-858.   (Google)
Abstract: Matthew Walker's model overcomes the unrefined classical concept of consolidation as a unitary process. Presently still confined in its scope to selective data mainly referring to procedural motor learning, the model nonetheless provides a valuable starting point for further refinements, which would be required for a more comprehensive account of different types and aspects of human memory consolidation
Walker, Matthew P. (2005). A refined model of sleep and the time course of memory formation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):51-64.   (Google)
Abstract: Research in the neurosciences continues to provide evidence that sleep plays a role in the processes of learning and memory. There is less of a consensus, however, regarding the precise stages of memory development during which sleep is considered a requirement, simply favorable, or not important. This article begins with an overview of recent studies regarding sleep and learning, predominantly in the procedural memory domain, and is measured against our current understanding of the mechanisms that govern memory formation. Based on these considerations, I offer a new neurocognitive framework of procedural learning, consisting first of acquisition, followed by two specific stages of consolidation, one involving a process of stabilization, the other involving enhancement, whereby delayed learning occurs. Psychophysiological evidence indicates that initial acquisition does not rely fundamentally on sleep. This also appears to be true for the stabilization phase of consolidation, with durable representations, resistant to interference, clearly developing in a successful manner during time awake (or just time, per se). In contrast, the consolidation stage, resulting in additional/enhanced learning in the absence of further rehearsal, does appear to rely on the process of sleep, with evidence for specific sleep-stage dependencies across the procedural domain. Evaluations at a molecular, cellular, and systems level currently offer several sleep specific candidates that could play a role in sleep-dependent learning. These include the upregulation of select plasticity-associated genes, increased protein synthesis, changes in neurotransmitter concentration, and specific electrical events in neuronal networks that modulate synaptic potentiation. Key Words: consolidation; enhancement; learning; memory; plasticity; sleep; stabilization
Warren, Rosanna (1996). Alcaics in exile: W.h. Auden's "in memory of Sigmund Freud". Philosophy and Literature 20 (1).   (Google)
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Abstract: Although Michael Kelly, in his article, “On the Mind’s Pronouncement of Time” (Proceedings of the ACPA 78 [2005]: 247–62), is correct to maintain that Augustine and Husserl share a common conception of time-consciousness, I argue that the similarity does not lie where he thinks nor is it restricted to Husserl’s early period. Instead I locate the source of this commonality in a shared response to a particular Platonic problematic, which I find expressed at Parmenides 151e–152e. This essay shows how the Neoplatonic conception of time, which I claim inspired Augustine, emerged from that problematic and how Husserl, in a thought experimentfrom 1901, wrestles with a similar problematic before adopting a model of time-consciousness roughly analogous to that of Augustine. It is suggested that Kelly is misled by his Aristotelian approach, which causes him to regard the Augustinian and Husserlian models of memory as “trapped” in the present. The point is a significant one if, as I conclude, there is no escaping the conception of time as absolute flow, once we abandon the Platonic view of time as a completedsuccession of nows, eternally fixed
Moyal-Sharrock, Daniele (2009). Wittgenstein and the Memory Debate. New Ideas in Psychology Special Issue: Mind, Meaning and Language: Wittgenstein’s Relevance for Psychology 27:213-27.   (Google)
Abstract: This paper surveys the impact on neuropsychology of Wittgenstein's elucidations of memory. Wittgenstein discredited the storage and imprint models of memory, dissolved the conceptual link between memory and mental images or representations and, upholding the context-sensitivity of memory, made room for a family resemblance concept of memory, where remembering can also amount to doing or saying something. While neuropsychology is still generally under the spell of archival and physiological notions of memory, Wittgenstein's reconceptions can be seen at work in its leading-edge practitioners. However, neuroscientists, generally, are finding memory difficult to demarcate from other cognitive and noncognitive processes, and I suggest this is largely due to their considering automatic responses as part of memory, termed nondeclarative or implicit memory. Taking my lead from Wittgenstein's On Certainty, I argue that there is only remembering where there is also some kind of mnemonic effort or attention, and, therefore, that so-called implicit memory is not memory at all, but a basic, noncognitive certainty.
Weir, Allison (2008). Home and identity: In memory of Iris Marion young. Hypatia 23 (3):pp. 4-21.   (Google)
Abstract: Drawing on Iris Marion Young’s essay, “House and Home: Feminist Variations on a Theme,” Weir argues for an alternative ideal of home that involves: (1) the risk of connection, and of sustaining relationship through conflict; (2) relational identities, constituted through both relations of power and relations of mutuality, love, and flourishing; (3) relational autonomy: freedom as the capacity to be in relationships one desires, and freedom as expansion of self in relationship; and (4) connection to past and future, through reinterpretive preservation and transformative identification
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Wilken, Patrick (2001). Capacity Limits for the Detection and Identification of Charge: Implications for Models of Visual Short-Term Memory. Dissertation, The University of Melbourne   (Google)
Abstract: The issue of capacity limits in visual short-term memory (VSTM) has been an area of active research since the 19th Century (Cattell, 1886). A common metaphor suggests that VSTM is akin to a limited capacity urn, able to hold only three-to-six items (Cowan, 2001). The 11 experiments in this thesis explore implications of this metaphor. Experiments 1-4 suggest that items in VSTM are not stored as coherent objects, contrary to recent suggestions (Luck & Vogel, 1997; Vogel, Woodman, & Luck, 2001). Experiments 5-6 contrast two distinct experimental techniques used to probe the structure of information encoded in VSTM. The "single-shot" technique measures sensitivity to differences across two sequential arrays (Luck & Vogel, 1997); the "flicker" technique measures response times to the detection of change, across multiple successive presentations of two alternate displays (Rensink, O'Regan, & Clark, 1997). It is shown that observers' underlying sensitivity to change, and by implication the structure of information encoded, is the same for these two techniques. Experiments 7-9 examine the relationship between observers' performance for detection and identification of change between two successive visual arrays. It is demonstrated that this relationship fails to meet basic assumptions inherent in the urn metaphor. An alternate model is proposed, which suggests that the capacity limit in VSTM is not determined by the number of items stored, but by the amount of information able to be extracted from a visual display. In Experiments 10-11, this alternative model is used to examine the short-term storage of visual information. Overall, the findings of the thesis are inconsistent with a model in which limits in the detection and identification of change are the result of a single process, which operates on a limited number of coherent objects held in a high-level memory store.
Wilson, Robert A. (2005). Collective memory, group minds, and the extended mind thesis. Cognitive Processing 6 (4).
Winters, Edward (1994). Aesthetic representations (in memory of Ruby Meager 1916–1992). British Journal of Aesthetics 34 (1).   (Google)
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Abstract: Aggleton & Brown propose that familiarity-based recognition depends on a perirhinal-medial dorsal thalamic system. However, connections between these structures are sparse or absent. In contrast, the perirhinal cortex is connected to midline/intralaminar nuclei. In a human, a lesion in this thalamic domain, sparing the medial dorsal nucleus, impaired familiarity-based recognition while sparing recollective-based recognition. It is thus more likely that the intralaminar/midline nuclei are involved in recognition
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Young, John (2008). Inventing memory : Documentary and imagination in acousmatic music. In Mine Doğantan (ed.), Recorded Music: Philosophical and Critical Reflections. Middlesex University Press.   (Google)
Zaidel, Dahlia W. & Kasher, Asa (1989). Hemispheric memory for surrealistic versus realistic paintings. [Journal (Paginated)].
Abstract: The issue of hemispheric processing of art works, either alone or in relation to a certain aspect of language, was investigated in normal subjects. Three experiments were performed. In the first, memory for surrealistic versus realistic pictures was investigated. In the second, memory for metaphoric versus literal titles of these pictures was measured. In the third, memory for the paintings was determined as a function of the same titles. The results of the first experiment showed a right visual field (RVF) advantage for the surrealistic pictures. No field difference emerged for the realistic pictures. The results of the second experiment indicated a RVF advantage in memory for metaphoric titles. Moreover, in the RVF, there was an advantage for titles from surrealistic-metaphoric pairs over all other pairings. Results of experiment three showed a RVF advantage in remembering pictures from surrealistic-metaphoric pairs and in the left visual field (LVF) there was advantage for pictures with literal titles. Taken together, the results suggest left hemisphere advantage in processing meaningful, yet incongruous arrays, both pictorial and linguistic. The results are discussed in terms of hemispheric memory for art works, metaphors, and the relationship between the two in the brain
Zatzman, Belarie (2005). Staging history: Aesthetics and the performance of memory. Journal of Aesthetic Education 39 (4).   (Google)
Zemach, E. M. (1968). A definition of memory. Mind 77 (308):526-536.
Zemach, Eddy M. (1983). Memory: What it is, and what it cannot possibly be. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 44 (September):31-44.   (Cited by 1 | Google | More links)
Zhadin, Mikhail N. (2000). Difficulties with synaptic theory of learning and memory and possible remedies. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):550-551.   (Google)
Abstract: The absence of a clear influence of an animal's behavioral responses to Hebbian associative learning in the cerebral cortex requires some changes in the Hebbian learning rules. The participation of the brain monoaminergic systems in Hebbian associative learning is considered

5.1j.1 Epistemology of Memory

5.1j.2 Memory and Cognitive Science

Abry, Christian; Sato, Marc; Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Loevenbruck, Hélène & Cathiard, Marie-Agnès (2003). Attention-based maintenance of speech forms in memory: The case of verbal transformations. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):728-729.   (Google)
Abstract: One of the fundamental questions raised by Ruchkin, Grafman, Cameron, and Berndt's (Ruchkin et al.'s) interpretation of no distinct specialized neural networks for short-term storage buffers and long-term memory systems, is that of the link between perception and memory processes. In this framework, we take the opportunity in this commentary to discuss a specific working memory task involving percept formation, temporary retention, auditory imagery, and the attention-based maintenance of information, that is, the verbal transformation effect
Aizawa, Kenneth (2007). The biochemistry of memory consolidation: A model system for the philosophy of mind. Synthese 155 (1):65-98.
Abstract: This paper argues that the biochemistry of memory consolidation provides valuable model systems for exploring the multiple realization of psychological states
Allik, J. (2000). Available and accessible information in memory and vision. In Endel Tulving (ed.), Memory, Consciousness, and the Brain: The Tallinn Conference. Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis.
Anderson, Norman H. (1997). Functional memory versus reproductive memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):19-20.   (Google)
Abstract: A functional theory of memory has already been developed as part of a general functional theory of cognition. The traditional conception of memory as “reproductive” touches on only a minor function. The primary function of memory is in constructing values for goal-directedness of everyday thought and action. This functional approach to memory rests on a solid empirical foundation
Andreasen, N. (2000). Is schizophrenia a disorder of memory or consciousness? In Endel Tulving (ed.), Memory, Consciousness, and the Brain: The Tallinn Conference. Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis.
Andrade, Jackie (2001). The contribution of working memory to conscious experience. In Jackie Andrade (ed.), Working Memory in Perspective. Psychology Press.
Baars, Bernard J. (2001). A biocognitive approach to the conscious core of immediate memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):115-116.   (Google)
Abstract: The limited capacity of immediate memory “rides” on the even more limited capacity of consciousness, which reflects the dynamic activity of the thalamocortical core of the brain. Recent views of the conscious narrow-capacity component of the brain are explored with reference to global workspace theory (Baars 1988; 1993; 1998). The radical limits of immediate memory must be explained in terms of biocognitive brain architecture
Baars, Bernard J. & Franklin, Stan (2003). How conscious experience and working memory interact. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (4):166-172.
Baars, Bernard J. (2003). Working memory requires conscious processes, not vice versa: A global workspace account. In Naoyuki Osaka (ed.), Neural Basis of Consciousness. John Benjamins.
Bacon, E.; Danion, J. M.; Kauffmann-Muller, F. & Bruant, A. (2001). Consciousness in schizophrenia: A metacognitive approach to semantic memory. Consciousness and Cognition 10 (4):473-484.
Abstract: Recent studies have shown that schizophrenia may be a disease affecting the states of consciousness. The present study is aimed at investigating metamemory, i.e., the knowledge about one's own memory capabilities, in patients with schizophrenia. The accuracy of the Confidence level (CL) in the correctness of the answers provided during a recall phase, and the predictability of the Feeling of Knowing (FOK) when recall fails were measured using a task consisting of general information questions and assessing semantic memory. Nineteen outpatients were paired with 19 control subjects with respect to age, sex, and education. Results showed that patients with schizophrenia exhibited an impaired semantic memory. CL ratings as well as CL and FOK accuracy were not significantly different in the schizophrenic and the control groups. However, FOK ratings were significantly reduced for the patient group, and discordant FOK judgments were also observed more frequently. Such results suggest that FOK judgments are impaired in patients with schizophrenia, which confirms that schizophrenia is an illness characterized by an impaired conscious awareness of one's own knowledge
Baddeley, A. D. (1993). Working memory and conscious awareness. In A. Collins, S. Gathercole, Martin A. Conway & P. E. Morris (eds.), Theories of Memory. Lawrence Erlbaum.
Barba, G. (2000). Memory, consciousness, and temporality: What is retrieved and who exactly is controlling the retrieval? In Endel Tulving (ed.), Memory, Consciousness, and the Brain: The Tallinn Conference. Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis.   (Google)
Bechtel, William P. (2001). The compatibility of complex systems and reduction: A case analysis of memory research. Minds And Machines 11 (4):483-502.
Abstract:   Some theorists who emphasize the complexity of biological and cognitive systems and who advocate the employment of the tools of dynamical systems theory in explaining them construe complexity and reduction as exclusive alternatives. This paper argues that reduction, an approach to explanation that decomposes complex activities and localizes the components within the complex system, is not only compatible with an emphasis on complexity, but provides the foundation for dynamical analysis. Explanation via decomposition and localization is nonetheless extremely challenging, and an analysis of recent cognitive neuroscience research on memory is used to illustrate what is involved. Memory researchers split between advocating memory systems and advocating memory processes, and I argue that it is the latter approach that provides the critical sort of decomposition and localization for explaining memory. The challenges of linking distinguishable functions with brain processes is illustrated by two examples: competing hypotheses about the contribution of the hippocampus and competing attempts to link areas in frontal cortex with memory processing
Bednar, James A. (2000). Internally-generated activity, non-episodic memory, and emotional salience in sleep. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):908-909.   (Google)
Abstract: (1) Substituting (as Solms does) forebrain for brainstem in the search for a dream “controller” is counterproductive, since a distributed system need have no single controller. (2) Evidence against episodic memory consolidation does not show that REM sleep has no role in other types of memory, contra Vertes & Eastman. (3) A generalization of Revonsuo's “threat simulation” model in reverse is more plausible and is empirically testable. [Hobson et al.; Solms; Revonsuo; Vertes & Eastman]
Benjamin, Aaron S. & Bjork, Robert A. (1997). Problematic aspects of embodied memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):20-20.   (Google)
Abstract: Glenberg's theory is rich and provocative, in our view, but we find fault with the premise that all memory representations are embodied. We cite instances in which that premise mispredicts empirical results or underestimates human capabilities, and we suggest that the motivation for the embodiment idea – to avoid the symbol-grounding problem – should not, ultimately, constrain psychological theorizing
Berry, Christopher J.; Shanks, David R. & Henson, Richard N. A. (2006). On the status of unconscious memory: Merikle and Reingold (1991) revisited. Journal of Experimental Psychology 32 (4):925-934.
Bánréti, Zoltán (1999). Interfaces in memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):96-96.   (Google)
Abstract: A distinction between interpretive processing and post-interpretive processing calls for a consideration of interface relations in systems of verbal memory. Syntactic movement of a phrase and the cognitive system of thought/mind interact. Systems of declarative memory and procedural memory interact
Bonanno, George A. (2006). The illusion of repressed memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (5):515-516.   (Google)
Abstract: Erdelyi's unified theory includes the idea that traumatic memories can be unconsciously repressed so that they are enduringly inaccessible to deliberate recall. I argue here that clinical evidence for repressed memory is illusory, and illustrate this claim by examining previous studies of putative repressed memories and also recent research on nonverbal behaviors among survivors of childhood sexual abuse
Born, Jan & Wagner, Ullrich (2004). Awareness in memory: Being explicit about the role of sleep. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (6):242-244.
Brewer, William F. (1992). Phenomenal experience in laboratory and autobiographical memory. In Martin A. Conway, David C. Rubin, H. Spinnler & W. Wagenaar (eds.), Theoretical Perspectives on Autobiographical Memory. Kluwer.
Brewer, William F. (1996). What is recollective memory? In David C. Rubin (ed.), Remembering Our Past: Studies in Autobiographical Memory. Cambridge University Press.
Brown, Gordon D. A. & Chater, Nick (2001). The chronological organisation of memory. In Christoph Hoerl & Teresa McCormark (eds.), Time and Memory. Oxford University Press.   (Google)
Buckingham, Hugh W. (1998). Embodiment, muscle sense, and memory for speech. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (4):515-515.   (Google)
Abstract: MacNeilage's target article develops a theory for the evolution of human speech articulation along the lines of “slot- filler” structure. His content/frame schema commits him to the tenets of embodiment, muscle sense, and a memory for speech. My commentary ties these aspects together in their historical and current perspective
Bunting, Michael F. & Cowan, Nelson (2005). Working memory and flexibility in awareness and attention. Psychological Research/Psychologische Forschung 69 (5):412-419.
Butler, Laurie T. & Berry, Dianne C. (2001). Implicit memory: Intention and awareness revisited. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (5):192-197.
Christiansen, Morten H. & MacDonald, Maryellen C. (1999). Fractionated working memory: Even in pebbles, it's still a soup stone. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):97-98.   (Google)
Abstract: We agree with Caplan & Waters that there are problems with the single-resource theory of sentence comprehension. However, we challenge their dual-resource alternative on theoretical and empirical grounds and point to a more coherent solution that abandons the notion of working memory resources
Coenen, Anton (2005). Where is the classic interference theory for sleep and memory? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):67-68.   (Google)
Abstract: Walker's target article proposes a refinement of the well known two-stage model of memory formation to explain the positive effects of sleep on consolidation. After a first stage in which a labile memory representation is formed, a further stabilisation of the memory trace takes place in the second stage, which is dependent on (REM) sleep. Walker has refined the latter stage into a stage in which a consolidation-based enhancement occurs. It is not completely clear what consolidation-based enhancement implies and how it can be dissociated from a stage for memory-stabilisation. A more serious consideration, however, is whether a second stage in memory consolidation that is solely dependent on sleep, is really necessary. The classical, passive, interference theory is able to explain adequately the findings related to the effects of sleep and memory, and can lead perhaps better to an understanding of the highly variable data in this field
Cowan, Nelson (2003). Varieties of procedural accounts of working memory retention systems. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):731-732.   (Google)
Abstract: The present commentary agrees with many of the points made by Ruchkin et al., but brings up several important differences in assumptions. These assumptions have to do with the nature of the capacity limit in working memory and the possible bases of working-memory activation
Dalla Barba, Gianfranco (2000). Memory, consciousness, and the brain. Brain and Cognition 42 (1):20-22.   (Google)
Dalla Barba, Gianfranco (2000). Memory, consciousness, and temporality: What is retrieved and who exactly is controlling the retrieval? In Endel Tulving (ed.), Memory, Consciousness, and the Brain: The Tallinn Conference.   (Google)
Danion, Jean-Marie; Huron, Caroline; Rizzo, Lydia & Vidailhet, Pierre (2004). Emotion, memory, and conscious awareness in schizophrenia. In Daniel Reisberg & Paula Hertel (eds.), Memory and Emotion. Oxford University Press.
Duezel, E. (2000). What brain activity tells us about conscious awareness of memory retrieval. In Endel Tulving (ed.), Memory, Consciousness, and the Brain: The Tallinn Conference. Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis.   (Google)
Düzel, Emrah (2003). Some mechanisms of working memory may not be evident in the human EEG. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):732-732.   (Google)
Abstract: Ruchkin et al. use brain-activity data from healthy subjects to assess the physiological validity of a cognitive working memory model and to propose modifications. The conclusions drawn from this data are interesting and plausible, but they have limitations. Much of what is known about the neural mechanisms of working memory comes from single neuron recordings in animals, and it is currently not fully understood how these translate to scalp recordings of EEG
Duzel, Emrah (2000). What brain activity tells us about conscious awareness of memory retrieval. In Endel Tulving (ed.), Memory, Consciousness, and the Brain: The Tallinn Conference. Psychology Press.   (Google)
Memory and Cognition 12:105-11.
Consciousness and Cognition 12 (1):83-139.
Fishbein, William (2000). The case against memory consolidation in Rem sleep: Balderdash! Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):934-936.   (Google)
Abstract: Unfortunately, some researchers think a good scientific theory is one that has been repeatedly confirmed, and a bad theory is one that has not received consistent confirmation. However, confirmation of a theory depends on the extent to which a hypothesis exposes itself to disconfirmation. One confirmation of a highly specific, falsifiable experiment can have a far greater impact than the disconfirmation of twenty experiments that are virtually unfalsifiable. This commentary (1) counteracts misleading biases regarding the REM sleep/memory consolidation theory, and (2) demonstrates how chaotic cerebral activation during sleep is an essential component of long-term memory storage processes. [Vertes & Eastman]
Foster, Jonathan K. (2001). Cantor coding and chaotic itinerancy: Relevance for episodic memory, amnesia, and the hippocampus? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (5):815-816.   (Google)
Abstract: This commentary provides a critique of Tsuda's target article, focusing on the hippocampus and episodic long-term memory. More specifically, the relevance of Cantor coding and chaotic itinerancy for long-term memory functioning is considered, given what we know about the involvement of the hippocampus in the mediation of long-term episodic memory (based on empirical neuroimaging studies and investigations of brain-damaged amnesic patients)
Foster, Jonathan K. & Wilson, Andrew C. (2005). Sleep and memory: Definitions, terminology, models, and predictions? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):71-72.   (Google)
Abstract: In this target article, Walker seeks to clarify the current state of knowledge regarding sleep and memory. Walker's review represents an impressively heuristic attempt to synthesize the relevant literature. In this commentary, we question the focus on procedural memory and the use of the term “consolidation,” and we consider the extent to which empirically testable predictions can be derived from Walker's model
Foster, Jonathan K. (2003). Thoughts from the long-term memory chair. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):734-735.   (Google)
Abstract: With reference to Ruchkins et al.'s framework, this commentary briefly considers the history of working memory, and whether, heuristically, this is a useful concept. A neuropsychologically motivated critique is offered, specifically with regard to the recent trend for working-memory researchers to conceptualise this capacity more as a process than as a set of distinct task-specific stores
Fuster, Joaquín M. (2003). More than working memory rides on long-term memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):737-737.   (Google)
Abstract: Single-unit data from the cortex of monkeys performing working-memory tasks support the main point of the target article. Those data, however, also indicate that the activation of long-term memory is essential to the processing of all cognitive functions. The activation of cortical long-term memory networks is a key neural mechanism in attention (working memory is a form thereof), perception, memory acquisition and retrieval, intelligence, and language
Gabriel, Michael & Smith, David M. (1999). What does the limbic memory circuit actually do? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (3):451-451.   (Google)
Abstract: We applaud Aggleton & Brown's affirmation of limbic diencephalic-hippocampal interaction as a key memory substrate. However, we do not agree with a thesis of diencephalic-hippocampal strict dedication to episodic memory. Instead, this circuitry supports the production of context-specific patterns of activation that subserve retrieval for a broad class of memory phenomena, including goal-directed instrumental behavior of animals and episodic memory of humans
Gardiner, John M. & Parkin, A. J. (1990). Attention and recollective experience in recognition memory. Memory and Cognition 18:579-583.
Gardiner, John M. (2002). Episodic memory and autonoetic consciousness: A first-person approach. In Alan Baddeley, John P. Aggleton & Martin A. Conway (eds.), Episodic Memory: New Directions in Research. Oxford University Press.
Gennaro, Rocco J. (1992). Consciousness, self-consciousness, and episodic memory. Philosophical Psychology 5 (4):333-47.   (Cited by 4 | Annotation | Google)
Abstract: My aim in this paper is to show that consciousness entails self-consciousness by focusing on the relationship between consciousness and memory. More specifically, I addreess the following questions: (1) does consciousness require episodic memory?; and (2) does episodic memory require self-consciousness? With the aid of some Kantian considerations and recent empirical data, it is argued that consciousness does require episodic memory. This is done after defining episodic memory and distinguishing it from other types of memory. An affirmative answer to (2) is also warranted especially in the light of the issues raised in answering (1). I claim that 'consciousness entails self-consciousness' is thereby shown via the route through episodic memory, i.e. via affirmative answers to (1) and (2). My aim is to revive this Kantian thesis and to bring together current psychological research on amnesia with traditional philosophical perspectives on consciousness and memory
Glenberg, Arthur M. (1997). What memory is for. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):1-19.
Abstract: I address the commentators' calls for clarification of theoretical terms, discussion of similarities to other proposals, and extension of the ideas. In doing so, I keep the focus on the purpose of memory: enabling the organism to make sense of its environment so that it can take action appropriate to constraints resulting from the physical, personal, social, and cultural situations
Goertzel, Ben (1993). Phase transitions in associative memory networks. Minds and Machines 3 (3).   (Google)
Abstract:   Ideas from random graph theory are used to give an heuristic argument that associative memory structure depends discontinuously on pattern recognition ability. This argument suggests that there may be a certain minimal size for intelligent systems
Goshen-Gottstein, Yonatan (1999). The functional role of representations cannot explain basic implicit memory phenomena. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):768-769.   (Google)
Abstract: The propositional account of explicit and implicit knowledge interprets cognitive differences between direct and indirect test performance as emerging from the elements in different hierarchical levels of the propositional representation that have been made explicit. The hierarchical nature of explicitness is challenged, however, on the basis of neuropsychological dissociations between direct and indirect tests of memory, as well as the stochastic independence that has been observed between these two types of tests. Furthermore, format specificity on indirect test of memory challenges the basic notion of a propositional theory of implicit and explicit knowledge
Graham, Kim S. & Hodges, John R. (1999). Episodic memory in semantic dementia: Implications for the roles played by the perirhinal and hippocampal memory systems in new learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (3):452-453.   (Google)
Abstract: Aggleton & Brown (A&B) propose that the hippocampal-anterior thalamic and perirhinal-medial dorsal thalamic systems play independent roles in episodic memory, with the hippocampus supporting recollection-based memory and the perirhinal cortex, recognition memory. In this commentary we discuss whether there is experimental support for the A&B model from studies of long-term memory in semantic dementia
Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica & Corballis, Paul M. (2001). Working memory capacity and the hemispheric organization of the brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):121-122.   (Google)
Abstract: Different hypotheses about the mechanisms underlying working memory lead to different predictions about working memory capacity when information is distributed across the two hemispheres. We present preliminary data suggesting that memory scanning time (a parameter often associated with working memory capacity) varies depending on how information is subdivided across hemispheres. The data are consistent with a distributed model of working memory
Gärdenfors, Peter (1997). The role of memory in planning and pretense. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):24-25.   (Google)
Abstract: Corresponding to Glenberg's distinction between the automatic and effortful modes of memory, I propose a distinction between cued and detached mental representations. A cued representation stands for something that is present in the external situation of the representing organism, while a detached representation stands for objects or events that are not present in the current situation. This distinction is important for understanding the role of memory in different cognitive functions like planning and pretense
Greenwald, Anthony G.; Abrams, R. L.; Naccache, Lionel & Dehaene, Stanislas (2003). Long-term semantic memory versus contextual memory in unconscious number processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology 29 (2):235-247.
Abstract: Subjects classified visible 2-digit numbers as larger or smaller than 55. Target numbers were preceded by masked 2-digit primes that were either congruent (same relation to 55) or incongruent. Experiments 1 and 2 showed prime congruency effects for stimuli never included in the set of classified visible targets, indicating subliminal priming based on long-term semantic memory. Experiments 2 and 3 went further to demonstrate paradoxical unconscious priming effects resulting from task context. For example, after repeated practice classifying 73 as larger than 55, the novel masked prime 37 paradoxically facilitated the “larger” response. In these experiments task context could induce subjects to unconsciously process only the leftmost masked prime digit, only the rightmost digit, or both independently. Across 3 experiments, subliminal priming was governed by both task context and long-term semantic memory
Greenberg, Ramon (2005). Old wine (most of it) in new bottles: Where are dreams and what is the memory? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):72-73.   (Google)
Abstract: I discuss how the work in Walker's article adds to the considerable body of research on dreaming, sleep, and memory that appeared in the early days of modern sleep research. I also consider the issue of REM-independent and REM-dependent kinds of learning. This requires including emotional issues in our discussion, and therefore emphasizes the importance of studying and understanding dreams
Gremley, Shelley Marie, Self-awareness and memory deficits in sub-acute traumatic brain injury.   (Google)
Groeger, John A. & Dijk, Derk-Jan (2005). Consolidating consolidation? Sleep stages, memory systems, and procedures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):73-74.   (Google)
Abstract: We argue that by neglecting the fact that procedural memory may also have episodic qualities, and by considering only a systems approach to memory, Walker's account of consolidation of learning during subsequent sleep ignores alternative accounts of how sleep stages may be interdependent. We also question the proposition that sleep-based consolidation largely bypasses hippocampal structures
Grossberg, Stephen (2003). From working memory to long-term memory and back: Linked but distinct. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):737-738.   (Google)
Abstract: Neural models have proposed how short-term memory (STM) storage in working memory and long-term memory (LTM) storage and recall are linked and interact, but are realized by different mechanisms that obey different laws. The authors' data can be understood in the light of these models, which suggest that the authors may have gone too far in obscuring the differences between these processes
Grote, Irene (2003). More memory? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):738-739.   (Google)
Abstract: Modern investigators of cognition ask about the conditions under which faculties occur rather than about their existence. This tendency, combined with the axiom of parsimony, emphasizes a paradigm shift in the fundamental principles of economic thought in science, mimicking evolutionary conceptualizations. The Ruchkin model of memory-related brain activity replaces less economic models. From interdisciplinary approaches, proceduralist models for other memory-related processes analogously support this model
Hamann, S. B. & Squire, L. R. (1997). Intact perceptual memory in the absence of conscious memory. Behavioral Neuroscience 111:850-54.
Hampton, Robert R. & Hampstead, Benjamin M. (2006). Spontaneous behavior of a rhesus monkey (Macaca Mulatta) during memory tests suggests memory awareness. Behavioural Processes 72 (2):184-189.
Hamilton, Maryellen & Rajaram, Suparna (2003). States of awareness across multiple memory tasks: Obtaining a "pure" measure of conscious recollection. Acta Psychologica 112 (1):43-69.
Hassin, Ran R. (2005). Nonconscious control and implicit working memory. In Ran R. Hassin, James S. Uleman & John A. Bargh (eds.), The New Unconscious. Oxford Series in Social Cognition and Social Neuroscience. Oxford University Press.   (Google)
Hecht, Steven A. & Shackelford, Todd K. (2001). Pure short-term memory capacity has implications for understanding individual differences in math skills. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):124-125.   (Google)
Abstract: Future work is needed to establish that pure short-term memory is a coherent individual difference attribute that is separable from traditional compound short-term memory measures. Psychometric support for latent pure short-term memory capacity will provide an important starting point for future fine-grained analyses of the intrinsic factors that influence individual differences in math skills
Hermans, Dirk; Raes, Filip; Iberico, Carlos & Williams, J. Mark G. (2006). Reduced autobiographical memory specificity, avoidance, and repression. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (5):522-522.   (Google)
Abstract: Recent empirical work indicates that reduced autobiographical memory specificity can act as an avoidant processing style. By truncating the memory search before specific elements of traumatic memories are accessed, one can ward off the affective impact of negative reminiscences. This avoidant processing style can be viewed as an instance of what Erdelyi describes as the “subtractive” class of repressive processes
Hickok, Gregory & Buchsbaum, Bradley (2003). Temporal lobe speech perception systems are part of the verbal working memory circuit: Evidence from two recent fMRI studies. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):740-741.   (Google)
Abstract: In the verbal domain, there is only very weak evidence favoring the view that working memory is an active state of long-term memory. We strengthen existing evidence by reviewing two recent fMRI studies of verbal working memory, which clearly demonstrate activation in the superior temporal lobe, a region known to be involved in processing speech during comprehension tasks
Hirshman, E. & Master, S. (1997). Modeling the conscious correlates of recognition memory: Reflections on the remember-know paradigm. Memory and Cognition 25:345-351.
Hirst, W. (1989). On consciousness, recall, recognition, and the architecture of memory. In S. Lewandowsky, J. M. Dunn & K. Kirsner (eds.), Implicit Memory: Theoretical Issues. Lawrence Erlbaum.
Howe, Mark L. (2000). Consciousness, memory, and development. In Mark L. Howe (ed.), The Fate of Early Memories: Developmental Science and the Retention of Childhood Experiences. American Psychological Association.   (Google)
Ikegami, Takashi & Tani, Jun (2001). Chaotic itinerancy needs embodied cognition to explain memory dynamics. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (5):818-819.   (Google)
Abstract: Memory dynamics need both stable and unstable properties simultaneously. Hence memory dynamics cannot be simulated by chaotic itinerant dynamics alone, with no real world correspondence. Memory dynamics are constrained by both semantics and causalities in the embodied cognition
Jacoby, Larry L. (1991). A process dissociation framework: Separating automatic from intentional uses of memory. Journal of Memory and Language 30:513-41.
Jonides, John & Awh, Edward (2003). What is the source of activation for working memory? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):741-742.   (Google)
Abstract: Attentional processes that operate on the contents of memory to produce the activation that is described as working memory by Ruchkin et al. and others, involve a network of brain regions that include both prefrontal and parietal sites. This network appears to mimic the one that is activated by attentional processes that operate on information entering via the senses
Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):126-127.   (Google)
Abstract: Cowan's concept of a pure short-term memory (STM) capacity limit is equivalent to that of memory subitizing. However, a robust phenomenon well known in the Sternberg paradigm, that is, the linear increase of RT as a function of memory set size is not consistent with this concept. Cowan's STM capacity theory will remain incomplete until it can account for this phenomenon
J., P.; S., W. & F., F. (2003). The role of working memory in motor learning and performance. Consciousness and Cognition 12 (3):376-402.   (Google)
Abstract: Three experiments explore the role of working memory in motor skill acquisition and performance. Traditional theories postulate that skill acquisition proceeds through stages of knowing, which are initially declarative but later procedural. The reported experiments challenge that view and support an independent, parallel processing model, which predicts that procedural and declarative knowledge can be acquired separately and that the former does not depend on the availability of working memory, whereas, the latter does. The behaviour of these two processes was manipulated by providing or withholding visual (and auditory) appraisal of outcome feedback. Withholding feedback was predicted to inhibit the use of working memory to appraise success and, thus, prevent the formation of declarative knowledge without affecting the accumulation of procedural knowledge. While the first experiment failed to support these predictions, the second and third experiments demonstrated that procedural and declarative knowledge can be acquired independently. It is suggested that the availability of working memory is crucial to motor performance only when the learner has come to rely on its use
Kane, Kimberley A. (online). Electrophysiological indices of conscious and automatic memory processes.   (Google)
Kane, Michael J.; Conway, Andrew R. A. & Engle, Randall W. (1999). What do working-memory tests really measure? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):101-102.   (Google)
Abstract: Individuals may differ in the general-attention executive component or in the subordinate domain-specific “slave” components of working memory. Tasks requiring sustained memory representations across attention shifts are reliable, valid indices of executive abilities. Measures emphasizing specific processing skills may increase reliability within restricted samples but will not reflect the attention component responsible for the broad predictive validity of span tasks
Kaschak, Michael & Glenberg, Arthur (2004). Interactive alignment: Priming or memory retrieval? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (2):201-202.   (Google)
Abstract: Pickering & Garrod's (P&G's) interactive alignment model explains the existence of alignment between speakers via an automatic priming mechanism. We propose that it may be preferable to explain alignment through processes of memory retrieval. Our discussion highlights how memory retrieval can produce the same results as the priming mechanism and presents data that favor the memory-based view
Keenan, Janice M.; Hyönä, Jukka & Kaakinen, Johanna K. (2003). Incorporating semantics and individual differences in models of working memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):742-742.   (Google)
Abstract: Ruchkin et al.'s view of working memory as activated long-term memory is more compatible with language processing than models such as Baddeley's, but it raises questions about individual differences in working memory and the validity of domain-general capacity estimates. Does it make sense to refer to someone as having low working memory capacity if capacity depends on particular knowledge structures tapped by the task?
Kelley, Clarence M. & Lindsay, D. S. (1996). Conscious and unconscious forms of memory. In E. Bjork & R. Bjork (eds.), Memory: Handbook of Perception and Cognition. Academic Press.
Kemper, Susan & Kemtes, Karen A. (1999). The age invariance of working memory measures and noninvariance of producing complex syntax. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):102-103.   (Google)
Abstract: In challenging current conceptions of the role of working memory in sentence processing, Caplan & Waters consider studies comparing young and older adults on sentence processing. This commentary raises two challenges to Caplan & Waters's conclusions: first, working memory tasks appear to be age invariant. Second, the production of complex syntactic constructions appears not to be age invariant
Klimesch, Wolfgang & Schack, Bärbel (2003). Activation of long-term memory by alpha oscillations in a working-memory task? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):743-743.   (Google)
Abstract: We focus on the functional specificity of theta and alpha oscillations and show that theta is related to working memory, whereas alpha is related to semantic long-term memory. Recent studies, however, indicate that alpha oscillations also play an important role during short-term memory retention and retrieval. This latter finding provides support for the basic hypothesis suggested by Ruchkin et al
Konstantinou, Ira & Gardiner, John M. (2005). Conscious control and memory awareness when recognising famous faces. Memory 13 (5):449-457.
Koriat, Asher & Goldsmith, Morris (1998). Methodological and substantive implications of a metatheoretical distinction: More on correspondence versus storehouse metaphors of memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (1):165-168.   (Google)
Abstract: In response to Cohen, we point out that many of the assessment difficulties raised by the correspondence metaphor stem from the assessment of memory in meaningful, real-life contexts rather than from the assessment of memory accuracy per se; these difficulties are equally troublesome for the assessment of memory quantity in such contexts. Moreover, the need to focus on particular aspects of memory performance – correspondence-oriented or quantity-oriented – does not preclude the development of useful and general theoretical models. In response to Shanon, we argue that (1) the distinction between the correspondence and storehouse metaphors of memory is metatheoretical, not substantive or methodological, (2) the correspondence metaphor is compatible with both a “representationalist” view of memory and a more “direct” view, and (3) as an epistemological strategy, metaphorical pluralism is both acceptable and desirable
Koriat, Asher & Goldsmith, Morris (1997). The myriad functions and metaphors of memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):27-28.   (Google)
Abstract: Glenberg provides a new and exciting view that is especially useful for capturing some functional aspects of memory. However, memory and its functions are too multifarious to be handled by any one conceptualization. We suggest that Glenberg's proposal be restricted to its own “focus of convenience.” In addition, its value will ultimately depend on its success in generating detailed and testable theories
Kuhlmann, F. (1906). On the analysis of the memory consciousness: A study in the mental imagery and memory of meaningless visual forms. Psychological Review 13:316-48.
Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (4):621-622.   (Google)
Abstract: The problem of neural memory storage is discussed, based on the results of studies of memory impairment after hippocampal lesions, motor learning, and electrophysiological research on “spinal memory.” I support Shors & Matzel's major statements. The absence of reliable evidence on the LTP memory storage function and other data cast doubt on the synaptic theory of memory
Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):105-106.   (Google)
Abstract: A promising approach to more refined models consistent with the Caplan & Waters hypothesis is based on similarity-based interference, a general principle that applies across working memory domains. This may explain both the fine details of syntactic working memory phenomena and the gross fractionation for which Caplan & Waters have found evidence. Detailed models of syntactic processing that embody similarity-based interference fare well cross-linguistically
Lockhart, Ian A. (2001). A Memory Model of Presymbolic Unconscious Mentation. Dissertation, University of South Africa
Logie, Robert H. & Sala, Sergio Della (2003). Working memory as a mental workspace: Why activated long-term memory is not enough. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):745-746.   (Google)
Abstract: Working-memory retention as activated long-term memory fails to capture orchestrated processing and storage, the hallmark of the concept of working memory. The event-related potential (ERP) data are compatible with working memory as a mental workspace that holds and manipulates information on line, which is distinct from long-term memory, and deals with the products of activated traces from stored knowledge
Memory 14 (8):917-924.
Mace, John H. (2003). Involuntary aware memory enhances priming on a conceptual implicit memory task. American Journal of Psychology 116 (2):281-290.
MacLeod, Colin M. (1997). Is memory caught in the mesh? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):30-30.   (Google)
Abstract: Can memory be cast as a system that meshes events to actions? This commentary considers the concepts of mesh versus association, arguing that thus far the distinction is inadequate. However, the goal of shifting to an action-based view of memory has merit, most notably in emphasizing memory as a skill and in focusing on processes as opposed to structures
MacDorman, Carl F. (1997). Memory must also mesh affect. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):29-30.   (Google)
Abstract: To model potential interactions, memory must not only mesh prior patterns of action, as Glenberg proposes, but also their internal consequences. This is necessary both to discriminate sensorimotor information by its relevance and to explain how go als about the world develop. In the absence of internal feedback, Glenberg is forced to reintroduce a grounding problem into his otherwise sound model by presupposing interactive goals
Majerus, Steve; Van der Linden, Martial; Collette, Fabienne & Salmon, Eric (2003). Does sustained ERP activity in posterior lexico-semantic processing areas during short-term memory tasks only reflect activated long-term memory? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):746-747.   (Google)
Abstract: We challenge Ruchkin et al.'s claim in reducing short-term memory (STM) to the active part of long-term memory (LTM), by showing that their data cannot rule out the possibility that activation of posterior brain regions could also reflect the contribution of a verbal STM buffer
Martin, Randi C. (1999). Further fractionations of verbal working memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):106-107.   (Google)
Abstract: Although the working memory capacity involved in syntactic processing may be separate from the capacity involved in word list recall, other aspects of initial sentence interpretation appear to depend on some of the same capacities tapped by span tasks. Specifically, there appears to a capacity for lexical–semantic retention involved in both sentence comprehension and span measures
Maxwell, J. P.; Masters, R. S. W. & Eves, F. F. (2003). The role of working memory in motor learning and performance. Consciousness and Cognition 12 (3):376-402.   (Google)
Abstract: Three experiments explore the role of working memory in motor skill acquisition and performance. Traditional theories postulate that skill acquisition proceeds through stages of knowing, which are initially declarative but later procedural. The reported experiments challenge that view and support an independent, parallel processing model, which predicts that procedural and declarative knowledge can be acquired separately and that the former does not depend on the availability of working memory, whereas, the latter does. The behaviour of these two processes was manipulated by providing or withholding visual (and auditory) appraisal of outcome feedback. Withholding feedback was predicted to inhibit the use of working memory to appraise success and, thus, prevent the formation of declarative knowledge without affecting the accumulation of procedural knowledge. While the first experiment failed to support these predictions, the second and third experiments demonstrated that procedural and declarative knowledge can be acquired independently. It is suggested that the availability of working memory is crucial to motor performance only when the learner has come to rely on its use
Mazzoni, Giuliana (2000). Sleep can be related to memory, even if Rem sleep is not. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):971-971.   (Google)
Abstract: As reported by Vertes & Eastman, convincing evidence rules out any role for REM sleep in memory consolidation. However, they do not provide convincing evidence for their claim that sleep in generaI – as opposed to REM sleep per se – has no influence on memory consolidation. Recent correlational data suggest that the number of NREM/REM cycles is associated with performance on a verbal recall task. [Vertes & Eastman]
McBride, Dawn M. & Dosher, B. (2002). A comparison of conscious and automatic memory processes for picture and word stimuli: A process dissocation analysis. Consciousness and Cognition 11 (3):423-460.
McBride, Dawn M. (2007). Methods for measuring conscious and automatic memory: A brief review. Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (1):198-215.
Abstract: Memory researchers have discussed the relationship between consciousness and memory frequently in the last few decades. Beginning with research by Warrington and Weiskrantz (1968; 1970), memory has been shown to influence task performance even without awareness of retrieval. Data from amnesic patients show that a study episode influences task performance despite their lack of conscious memory for the study session. More recently, issues of intentionality, awareness, and the relationship between conscious and unconscious forms of memory have come to the forefront. Conscious memory has sometimes been defined by intention to retrieve and sometimes by awareness of retrieval. This distinction has been debated as measurement methodologies have developed. In addition, the functional relationship between conscious and automatic forms of memory has implications for measurement of memory processes and the development of models of memory task performance. Several measurement techniques for conscious and automatic memory are reviewed. The current state of these issues is also discussed
McCarthy, Rosaleen A. & Warrington, E. K. (1999). Backtracking? Rehearsing and replaying some old arguments about short-term memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):107-108.   (Google)
Abstract: We discuss the role of short-term auditory verbal storage within a working memory system. Data from single case studies of patients with left parietal lesions and selective impairment of memory span are discussed in order to address the question of the functions of short-term memory in language processing. The backup resource of auditory verbal short-term memory is required for those tasks that necessitate backtracking in order to integrate a verbal message within a developing central cognitive representation
McEvoy, Cathy L. & Nelson, Douglas L. (2006). Measuring, manipulating, and modeling the unconscious influences of prior experience on memory for recent experiences. In Reinout W. Wiers & Alan W. Stacy (eds.), Handbook of Implicit Cognition and Addiction. Sage Publications Ltd.   (Google)
McKone, Elinor (2001). Capacity limits in continuous old-new recognition and in short-term implicit memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):130-131.   (Google)
Abstract: Using explicit memory measures, Cowan predicts a new circumstance in which the central capacity limit of 4 chunks should obtain. Supporting results for such an experiment, using continuous old-new recognition, are described. With implicit memory measures, Cowan assumes that short-term repetition priming reflects the central capacity limit. I argue that this phenomenon instead reflects limits within individual perceptual processing modules
McNamara, Timothy P. (1997). Semantic memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):30-31.   (Google)
Abstract: Glenberg tries to explain how and why memories have semantic content. The theory succeeds in specifying the relations between two major classes of memory phenomena – explicit and implicit memory – but it may fail in its assignment of relative importance to these phenomena and in its account of meaning. The theory is syntactic and extensional, instead of semantic and intensional
Merikle, Philip M. & Reingold, Eyal M. (1991). Comparing direct (explicit) to indirect (implicit) measures to study unconscious memory. Journal Of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory And Cognition 17 (2):224-233.
Morrison, Adrian R. & Sanford, Larry D. (2000). Critical brain characteristics to consider in developing dream and memory theories. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):977-978.   (Google)
Abstract: Dreaming in sleep must depend on the activity of the brain as does cognition and memory in wakefulness. Yet our understanding of the physiological subtleties of state differences may still be too primitive to guide theories adequately in these areas. One can state nonetheless unequivocally that the brain in REM is poorly equipped to practice for eventualities of wakefulness through dreaming, or for consolidating into memory the complex experiences of that state. [Hobson et al., Nielsen, Solms, Vertes & Eastman, Revonsuo]
Morra, Sergio (2003). Developmental evidence for working memory as activated long-term memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):750-750.   (Google)
Abstract: There is remarkable agreement between Ruchkin et al.'s psychophysiological views and my own model, based on developmental-experimental evidence, of working memory as activated long-term memory (LTM). I construe subvocal rehearsal as an operative scheme that maintains order information and demands attentional resources. Encoding and retrieving operations also demand attention. Another share of resources is used for keeping activated specific LTM representations
Moscovitch, Morris (1992). A neuropsychological model of memory and consciousness. In L. R. Squire & N. Butters (eds.), Neuropsychology of Memory. Guilford Press.
Moscovitch, Morris (2000). Theories of memory and consciousness. In Endel Tulving & Fergus I. M. Craik (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Memory. Oxford University Press.
Murray, David J. (2001). Partial matching theory and the memory span. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):133-134.   (Google)
Abstract: Partial matching theory, which maintains that some memory representations of target items in immediate memory are overwritten by others, can predict both a “theoretical” and an “actual” maximum memory span provided no chunking takes place during presentation. The latter is around 4 ± 2 items, the exact number being determined by the degree of similarity between the memory representations of two immediately successive target items
Murray, David J. (2002). The SOC framework and short-term memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (3):347-348.   (Google)
Abstract: Using a particular formula for quantifying the effortlessness that Perruchet & Vinter suggest accompanies the detection of repetition among a set of representations concurrently in consciousness, it is shown that both the Sternberg function and the Cavanagh function, associated with immediate probed recognition tasks and memory span tasks, can be predicted
Musen, Gail (1997). Is memory like understanding? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):31-32.   (Google)
Abstract: There are three major weaknesses with Glenberg's theory. The first is that his theory makes assumptions about internal representations that cannot be adequately tested. The second is that he tries to accommodate data from three disparate domains: mental models, linguistics, and memory. The third is that he makes light of advances in cognitive neuroscience
Muter, Paul (2001). The nature of forgetting from short-term memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):134-134.   (Google)
Abstract: Memory and forgetting are inextricably intertwined. Any account of short-term memory (STM) should address the following question: If three, four, or five chunks are being held in STM, what happens after attention is diverted?
Naghavi, Hamid R. & Nyberg, Lars (2005). Common fronto-parietal activity in attention, memory, and consciousness: Shared demands on integration? Consciousness and Cognition 14 (2):390-425.
Nelson, Katherine (1997). Functional memory: A developmental perspective. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):32-33.   (Google)
Abstract: The functional theory of memory set out in Glenberg's target article accords with recent proposals in the developmental literature with respect to event memory, conceptualization, and language acquisition from an embodied, experiential view. The theory, however, needs to be supplemented with a recognition of the sociocultural contribution to these cognitive processes and emerging structures
Osaka, Naoyuki (2002). Neural Correlates of Visual Working Memory for Motion. In Kunio Yasue, Marj Jibu & Tarcisio Della Senta (eds.), No Matter, Never Mind: Proceedings of Toward a Science of Consciousness: Fundamental Approaches (Tokyo '99). John Benjamins.   (Google)
Osaka, Naoyuki (2004). The world as an inside working memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (6):905-906.   (Google)
Abstract: O'Regan & Noë's (O&N's) theoretical framework for studying visual perception and awareness is intriguing. This framework, based on sensorimotor contingency, can be examined in recent visual brain theories using neuroimaging methodologies. Here, I consider how a working memory (WM) system explains the sensorimotor account of visual consciousness. I believe WM inside the brain provides at least partial support for O&N's theory
Osaka, Naoyuki (2003). Working memory-based consciousness: An individual difference approach. In Naoyuki Osaka (ed.), Neural Basis of Consciousness. John Benjamins.
Paller, K. A. (2000). Neural measures of conscious and unconscious memory. Behavioural Neurology 12 (3):127-141.
Pascual-Leone, Juan (2004). Hidden operators of mental attention applying on LTM give the illusion of a separate working memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (5):709-711.   (Google)
Abstract: The authors' results support a functionalist conception of working memory: a manifold repertoire of schemes/schemas (long-term memory) and a small set of general-purpose “hidden operators.” Using some of these operators I define mental (i.e., endogenous) attention. Then, analyzing two of the authors' unexplained important findings, I illustrate the mental-attention model's explanatory power. Multivariate methodology that varies developmental, task differences, and individual differences is recommended
Payne, Jessica D.; Britton, Willoughby B.; Bootzin, Richard R. & Nadel, Lynn (2005). Beyond acetylcholine: Next steps for sleep and memory research. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):77-77.   (Google)
Abstract: We consider Walker's thorough review in the context of thinking about future research on the relation between sleep and memory. We first address methodological issues including type of memory and sleep-stage dependency. We suggest a broader investigation of potential signaling molecules that may be critical to sleep-related consolidation. A brief review of the importance of the stress hormone cortisol illustrates this point
Pearlmutter, Neal J. (1999). Problems with plausibility and alternatives to working memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):109-109.   (Google)
Abstract: Caplan & Waters propose a dedicated linguistic working memory to handle “interpretive” language comprehension, but there are data suggesting that more general working memory capacity can predict syntactic comprehension difficulty, and their claims depend on the existence of a principled distinction between “interpretive” and “post-interpretive” processes, which seems unlikely. Other conceptions of the source of individual differences also deserve consideration, as more flexible explanations of the phenomena
Peigneux, Philippe; Destrebecqz, Arnaud; Hotermans, Christophe & Cleeremans, Axel (2005). Filling one gap by creating another: Memory stabilization is not all-or-nothing, either. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):78-78.   (Google)
Abstract: Walker proposes that procedural memory formation involves two specific stages of consolidation: wake-dependent stabilization, followed by sleep-dependent enhancement. If sleep-based enhancement of procedural memory formation is now well supported by evidence obtained at different levels of cognitive and neurophysiological organization, wake-dependent mechanisms for stabilization have not been demonstrated as convincingly, and still require more systematic characterization
Petrusic, William M. & Baranski, Joseph V. (2002). Mental imagery in memory psychophysics. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (2):206-207.   (Google)
Abstract: Imagery has played an important, albeit controversial, role in the study of memory psychophysics. In this commentary we critically examine the available data bearing on whether pictorial based depictions of remembered perceptual events are activated and scanned in each of a number of different psychophysical tasks
Piggott, Margaret A. & Perry, Elaine K. (2005). New perspectives on sleep disturbances and memory in human pathological and psychopharmacological states. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):78-79.   (Google)
Abstract: Matthew Walker's article has prompted us to consider neuropsychiatric disorders and pharmacological effects associated with sleep alterations, and aspects of memory affected. Not all disorders involving insomnia show memory impairment, and hypersomnias can be associated with memory deficits. The use of cholinergic medication in dementia indicates that consideration of the link between sleep and memory is more than academic
Piolino, Pascale; Desgranges, Béatrice; Clarys, David; Guillery-Girard, Bérengère; Taconnat, Laurence; Isingrini, Michel & Eustache, Francis (2006). Autobiographical memory, autonoetic consciousness, and self-perspective in aging. Psychology and Aging 21 (3):510-525.
Piolino, Pascale; Desgranges, Béatrice; Belliard, Serge; Matuszewski, Vanessa; Lalevée, Catherine; de La Sayette, Vincent & Eustache, Francis (2003). Autobiographical memory and autonoetic consciousness: Triple dissociation in neurodegenerative diseases. Brain 126 (10):2203-2219.   (Cited by 42 | Google | More links)
Piolino, Pascale; Belliard, Serge; Desgranges, Béatrice; Perron, Mélisa & Eustache, Francis (2003). Autobiographical memory and autonoetic consciousness in a case of semantic dementia. Cognitive Neuropsychology 20 (7):619-639.   (Google)
Pyysiäinen, Ilkka (2006). Does meditation swamp working memory? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (6):626-627.   (Google)
Abstract: Religionists often presuppose that “mysticism” aims at somehow emptying the mind. In the light of evidence, however, meditation seems rather to consist of ritualized action without an explicit emphasis on subjective experience. Boyer & Lienard's (B&L's) theory of ritualized action as “swamping” working memory thus might help explain the effects of meditation without postulating experiential goals the “mystics” obviously do not have. (Published Online February 8 2007)
Raffone, Antonino; Wolters, Gezinus & Murre, Jacob M. (2001). A neurophysioiogical account of working memory limits: Between-item segregation and within-chunk integration. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):139-141.   (Google)
Abstract: We suggest a neurophysiological account of the short-term memory capacity limit based on a model of visual working memory (Raffone & Wolters, in press). Simulations have revealed a critical capacity limit of about four independent patterns. The model mechanisms may be applicable to working memory in general and they allow a reinterpretation of some of the issues discussed by Cowan
Rakover, Sam S. (1983). In defense of memory viewed as stored mental representation. Behaviorism 11 (April):53-62.   (Google)
Ratcliff, Roger & McKoon, Gail (1995). How should implicit memory phenomena be modeled. Journal Of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory And Cognition 21 (3):777-784.   (Google)
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Reymann, Klaus G. (1997). As in long-term memory, LTP is consolidated by reinforcers. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (4):627-628.   (Google)
Abstract: Recent evidence from our lab indicates that LTP shares an important property with memory consolidation: it is consolidated by natural reinforcement. Nevertheless, the hypothesis, that LTP-like mechanisms or other forms of enhanced synaptic efficacy are basic elements in learning is not unequivocally supported. Skepticism aside, LTP is an accessible experimental model that is optimally equipped for the investigation of the cellular and molecular machinery involved in synaptic weight changes
Richardson-Klavehn, A. & Gardner, J. M. (1996). Cross-modality priming in stem completion reflects conscious memory, but not voluntary memory. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 3:238-44.
Robbins, S. E. (2004). On time, memory and dynamic form. Consciousness and Cognition 13 (4):762-788.
Roediger, Henry L. I. & Amir, Nader (2005). Implicit memory tasks: Retention without conscious recollection. In Amy Wenzel & David C. Rubin (eds.), Cognitive Methods and Their Application to Clinical Research. American Psychological Association.   (Google)
Roediger, Henry L. & Amir, Nader (2005). Implicit memory tasks: Retention without conscious recollection. In Wenzel, Amy; Rubin, David C. (2005). Cognitive Methods and Their Application to Clinical Research. (Pp. 121-127). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association. Ix, 289 Pp.   (Google)
Rossetti, Yves & Procyk, Emmanuel (1997). What memory is for action: The gap between percepts and concepts. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):34-36.   (Google)
Abstract: The originality of Glenberg's theoretical account lies in the claim that memory works in the service of physical interaction with the three-dimensional world. Little consideration is given, however, to the role of memory in action. We present and discuss data on spatial memory for action. These empirical data constitute the first step of reasoning about the link between memory and action, and allow several aspects of Glenberg's theory to be tested
Rovee-Collier, Carolyn; Hayne, Harlene & Colombo, Michael (2001). The Development of Implicit and Explicit Memory. Amsterdam: J Benjamins.
Abstract: Dissociations in infant memory: Rethinking the development of implicit and explicit memory. Psychological Review, 104, 467-^198. Rovee-Collier, C., Adler, ...
Rowlatt, Penelope (2009). Consciousness and Memory. Journal of Consciousness Studies 16 (5):68-78.   (Google)
Abstract: Defining consciousness along the lines of Nagel, an organism has consciousness iff there is something it is like to be that organism, I relate three types of consciousness (phenomenal, access and reflexive) to the three types of short-term memory (sensory memories, short-term working memory and the central executive). The suggestion is that these short-term memory stores may be a key feature of consciousness.
Rösler, Frank & Heil, Martin (2003). Working memory as a state of activated long-term memory: A plausible theory, but other data provide more compelling evidence. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):754-755.   (Google)
Abstract: The identity of working-memory and long-term memory representations follows from many lines of evidence. However, the data provided by Ruchkin et al. are hardly compelling, as they make unproved assumptions about hypothetical generators. We cite studies from our lab in which congruent slow-wave topographies were found for short-term and long-term memory tasks, strongly suggesting that both activate identical cell assemblies
Ruchkin, Daniel S.; Grafman, Jordan; Cameron, Katherine & Berndt, Rita S. (2003). Working memory retention systems: A state of activated long-term memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):709-728.   (Google)
Abstract: High temporal resolution event-related brain potential and electroencephalographic coherence studies of the neural substrate of short-term storage in working memory indicate that the sustained coactivation of both prefrontal cortex and the posterior cortical systems that participate in the initial perception and comprehension of the retained information are involved in its storage. These studies further show that short-term storage mechanisms involve an increase in neural synchrony between prefrontal cortex and posterior cortex and the enhanced activation of long-term memory representations of material held in short-term memory. This activation begins during the encoding/comprehension phase and evidently is prolonged into the retention phase by attentional drive from prefrontal cortex control systems. A parsimonious interpretation of these findings is that the long-term memory systems associated with the posterior cortical processors provide the necessary representational basis for working memory, with the property of short-term memory decay being primarily due to the posterior system. In this view, there is no reason to posit specialized neural systems whose functions are limited to those of short-term storage buffers. Prefrontal cortex provides the attentional pointer system for maintaining activation in the appropriate posterior processing systems. Short-term memory capacity and phenomena such as displacement of information in short-term memory are determined by limitations on the number of pointers that can be sustained by the prefrontal control systems. Key Words: coherence; event-related potentials; imaging; long-term memory; memory; short-term memory; working memory
Ruchkin, Daniel S.; Grafman, Jordan; Cameron, Katherine & Berndt, Rita S. (2003). Working memory: Unemployed but still doing day labor. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):760-769.   (Google)
Abstract: The goal of our target article is to establish that electrophysiological data constrain models of short-term memory retention operations to schemes in which activated long-term memory is its representational basis. The temporary stores correspond to neural circuits involved in the perception and subsequent processing of the relevant information, and do not involve specialized neural circuits dedicated to the temporary holding of information outside of those embedded in long-term memory. The commentaries ranged from general agreement with the view that short-term memory stores correspond to activated long-term memory (e.g., Abry, Sato, Schwartz, Loevenbruck & Cathiard [Abry etal.], Cowan, Fuster, Grote, Hickok & Buchsbaum, Keenan, Hyönä & Kaakinen [Keenan et al.], Martin, Morra), to taking a definite exception to this view (e.g., Baddeley, Düzel, Logie & Della Sala, Kroger, Majerus, Van der Linden, Colette & Salmon [Majerus et al.], Vallar)
Ryan, Jennifer D. & Cohen, Neal J. (2003). The contribution of long-term memory and the role of frontal-lobe systems in on-line processing. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):756-756.   (Google)
Abstract: Ruchkin et al. ascribe a pivotal role to long-term memory representations and binding within working memory. Here we focus on the interaction of working memory and long-term memory in supporting on-line representations of experience available to guide on-going processing, and we distinguish the role of frontal-lobe systems from what the hippocampus contributes to relational long-term memory binding
Ryan, Jennifer D. & Cohen, Neal J. (2001). The existence of internal visual memory representations. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (5):1002-1003.   (Google)
Abstract: Although O'Regan & Noë (O&N) claim that the world may serve as the viewers' external visual memory, findings from the field of memory research have demonstrated the existence of internal visual representations. These representations are stored in the viewer's brain, contain information regarding visual objects and their relations, guide subsequent exploration of the visual world and promote change detection
Rypma, Bart & Gabrieli, John D. E. (2001). Functional neuroimaging of short-term memory: The neural mechanisms of mental storage. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):143-144.   (Google)
Abstract: Cowan argues that the true short-term memory (STM) capacity limit is about 4 items. Functional neuroimaging data converge with this conclusion, indicating distinct neural activity patterns depending on whether or not memory task-demands exceed this limit. STM for verbal information within that capacity invokes focal prefrontal cortical activation that increases with memory load. STM for verbal information exceeding that capacity invokes widespread prefrontal activation in regions associated with executive and attentional processes that may mediate chunking processes to accommodate STM capacity limits
Schrauf, Robert W. (2002). Bilingual inner speech as the medium of cross-modular retrieval in autobiographical memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (6):698-699.   (Google)
Abstract: Carruthers’ notion that natural language(s) might serve as the medium of non-domain-specific, propositionally based inferential thought is extended to the case of effortful retrieval of autobiographical memory among bilinguals. Specifically, the review suggests that the resources of bilingual inner speech might play a role in the cyclical activation of information from various informational domains during memory retrieval
Schneider, Werner X.; Deubel, Heiner & Wesenick, Maria-Barbara (2001). Characterizing chunks in visual short-term memory: Not more than one feature per dimension? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):144-145.   (Google)
Abstract: Cowan defines a chunk as “a collection of concepts that have strong associations to one another and much weaker associations to other chunks currently in use.” This definition does not impose any constraints on the nature and number of elements that can be bound into a chunk. We present an experiment to demonstrate that such limitations exist for visual short-term memory, and that their analysis may lead to important insights into properties of visual memory
Schacter, Daniel L.; Bowers, J. & Booker, J. (1989). Intention, awareness, and implicit memory: The retrieval intentionality criterion. In S. Lewandowsky, J. M. Dunn & K. Kirsner (eds.), Implicit Memory: Theoretical Issues. Lawrence Erlbaum.
Schacter, Daniel L. (1989). On the relation between memory and consciousness: Dissociable interactions and conscious experience. In Henry L. I. Roediger & Fergus I. M. Craik (eds.), Varieties of Memory and Consciousness.
Schacter, Daniel L. (1989). On the Relation Between Memory and Consciousness: Dissociable Interactions and Conscious Experience. In (H. Roediger & F. In Henry L. I. Roediger & Fergus I. M. Craik (eds.), Varieties of Memory and Consciousness. Lawrence Erlbaum.
Schredl, Michael (2005). Rem sleep, dreaming, and procedural memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):80-81.   (Google)
Abstract: In this commentary the “incredibly robust” evidence for the relationship between sleep and procedural memory is questioned; inconsistencies in the existing data are pointed out. In addition, some suggestions about extending research are made, for example, studying REM sleep augmentation or memory consolidation in patients with sleep disorders. Last, the possibility of a relationship between dreaming and memory processes is discussed
Shapiro, Matthew & Hargreaves, Eric (1997). Long term potentiation: Attending to levels of organization of learning and memory mechanisms. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (4):631-632.   (Google)
Abstract: Shors & Matzel set up a straw man, that LTP is a memory storage mechanism, and knock him down without due consideration of the important relations among different levels of organization and analysis regarding LTP, learning, and memory. Assessing these relationships requires analysis and hypotheses linking specific brain regions, neural circuits, plasticity mechanisms, and task demands. The issue addressed by the authors is important, but their analysis is off target
Sheth, Bhavin R. (2005). Memory consolidation during sleep: A form of brain restitution. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):81-82.   (Google)
Abstract: Does sleep restore brain function or does it consolidate memory? I argue that memory consolidation during sleep is an offshoot of restitution. Continual learning causes local synapse-specific neural fatigue, which then masks expression of that learning, especially on time-limited tests of procedural skills. Sleep serves to restore the fatigued synapses, revealing the consolidation-based enhancement observed as a “latent” overnight improvement in learning
Shors, Tracey J. & Matzel, Louis D. (1997). LTP: Memory, arousal, neither, both. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (4):634-645.   (Google)
Abstract: The neurophysiological phenomenon of LTP (long term potentiation) is considered by many to represent an adequate mechanism for acquiring or storing memories in the mammalian brain. In our target article, we reviewed the various arguments put forth in support of the LTP/memory hypothesis. We concluded that these arguments were inconsistent with the purported data base and proposed an alternative interpretation that we suggested was at least as compatible with the available data as the more widely held view. In doing so, we attempted to illustrate that the inadequacy of present experimental designs did not permit us to distinguish between equally viable hypotheses. In the four years since we wrote the first draft of our target article, hundreds of additional studies on LTP have been published and their results have been incorporated into current theories about memory. A diverse group of commentators responded to our target article with their own theories of how memories might be stored in the brain, some of which rely on LTP. Some commentators doubted whether memories can be stored through modifications of synaptic strength. Some assert that it will never be possible to understand the neural mechanisms of memory; still others remain hopeful that we will accomplish some semblance of a resolution, provided we appreciate LTP's role in a subset of seemingly amorphous memory systems. In summary, although it is commonly written that “LTP is a memory storage device,” the divergence of views among the commentators suggests, at least as strongly as our target article, that such conviction is unwarranted and fails to acknowledge both the lack of consensus regarding the role of LTP in memory and the complexity of the phenomenon of memory itself
Shors, Tracey J. & Matzel, Louis D. (2000). The status of LTP as a mechanism of memory formation in the mammalian brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (2):288-290.   (Google)
Abstract: Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a long-lasting increase in synaptic efficacy that many consider the best candidate currently available for a neural mechanism of memory formation and/or storage in the mammalian brain. In our target article, LTP: What's learning got to do with it?, we concluded that there was insufficient data to warrant such a conclusion. In their commentaries, Jeffery and Zhadin raise a number of important issues that we did not raise, both for and against the hypothesis. Although we agree with a number of these issues, we maintain that there remains insufficient evidence that LTP is a memory mechanism
Smith, Carlyle & Rose, Gregory M. (2000). Evaluating the relationship between Rem and memory consolidation: A need for scholarship and hypothesis testing. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):1007-1008.   (Google)
Abstract: The function of REM, or any other stage of sleep, can currently only be conjectured. A rational evaluation of the role of REM in memory processing requires systematic testing of hypotheses that are optimally derived from a complete synthesis of existing knowledge. Our view is that the large number of studies supporting a relationship between REM-related brain activity and memory is not easily explained away. [Vertes & Eastman]
Stern, D. G. (1991). Models of memory: Wittgenstein and cognitive science. Philosophical Psychology 4 (2):203-18.
Abstract: The model of memory as a store, from which records can be retrieved, is taken for granted by many contemporary researchers. On this view, memories are stored by memory traces, which represent the original event and provide a causal link between that episode and one's ability to remember it. I argue that this seemingly plausible model leads to an unacceptable conception of the relationship between mind and brain, and that a non-representational, connectionist, model offers a promising alternative. I also offer a new reading of Wittgenstein's paradoxical remarks about thought and brain processes: as a critique of the cognitivist thesis that information stored in the brain has a linguistic structure and a particular location. On this reading, Wittgenstein's criticism foreshadows some of the most promising contemporary work on connectionist models of neural functioning
Stolz, J. A. & Merikle, Philip M. (2000). Conscious and unconscious influences of memory: Temporal dynamics. Memory 8 (5):333-343.
In B. Kokinov & W Hirst (eds.), Constructive Memory. New Bulgarian University.   (Google)
Abstract: Memory is studied at a bewildering number of levels, with a vast array of methods, and in a daunting range of disciplines and subdisciplines. Is there any sense in which these various memory theorists – from neurobiologists to narrative psychologists, from the computational to the cross-cultural – are studying the same phenomena? In this exploratory position paper, I sketch the bare outline of a positive framework for understanding current work on constructive remembering, both within the various cognitive sciences, and across gulfs between the cognitive and the social sciences. I pinpoint some lines of psychological theory and research which offer promising and compatible ways of thinking about individual memory and shared or social memory simultaneously. These are obviously ambitious projects, and this paper seeks more to elicit help with forging these connections than to present firm results. The aim is to draw out some consequences of empirical work on social memory and in developmental psychology
Sutton, John (2006). Introduction: Memory, embodied cognition, and the extended mind. Philosophical Psychology 19 (3):281-289.
Abstract: I introduce the seven papers in this special issue, by Andy Clark, J
In Mengistu Amberber (ed.), The Language of Memory in a Cross-linguistic Perspective. John Benjamins.
Abstract: There are many different ways to think about what has happened before. I think about my own recent actions, and about what happened to me a long time ago; I can think about times before I lived, and about what will happen after my death. I know many things about the past, and about what has happened because people did things before now, or because some good or bad things happened to me
Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (6):845-846.   (Google)
Abstract: The metric devised by Halford, Wilson & Phillips may have considerable potential in distinguishing between the working memory demands of different tasks but may be less effective in distinguishing working memory capacity between individuals. Despite the strengths of the metric, determining whether an effect is caused by relational complexity or by differential levels of expertise is currently problematic
Taatgen, Niels A. (2001). Dispelling the magic: Towards memory without capacity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):147-148.   (Google)
Abstract: The limited capacity for unrelated things is a fact that needs to be explained by a general theory of memory, rather than being itself used as a means of explaining data. A pure storage capacity is therefore not the right assumption for memory research. Instead an explanation is needed of how capacity limitations arise from the interaction between the environment and the cognitive system. The ACT-R architecture, a theory without working memory but a long-term memory based on activation, may provide such an explanation
McCormack, Teresa & Hoerl, Christoph (2008). Temporal Decentering and the Development of Temporal Concepts. In P. Indefrey & M. Gullberg (eds.), Time to Speak. Cognitive and Neural Prerequisites of Time in Language. Blackwell.   (Google)
Abstract: This article reviews some recent research on the development of temporal cognition, with reference to Weist's (1989) account of the development of temporal understanding. Weist's distinction between two levels of temporal decentering is discussed, and empirical studies that may be interpreted as measuring temporal decentering are described. We argue that if temporal decentering is defined simply in terms of the coordination of the temporal locations of three events, it may fail to fully capture the properties of mature temporal understanding. Characterizing the development of mature temporal cognition may require, in addition, distinguishing between event-dependent and event-independent thought about time. Experimental evidence relevant to such a distinction is described; these findings suggest that there may be important changes between 3 and 5 years in children's ability to think about points in time independently of the events that occur at those times.
Thompson, R. F. & Kim, J. J. (1996). Memory systems in the brain and the localization of a memory. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences Of The United States Of America 93 (24):13438-13444.
Thompson, Richard F. & Madigan, Stephen A. (2005). Memory: The Key to Consciousness. Princeton University Press.   (Google)
Toomela, Aaro; Jü, & Allik, ri (1999). Components of verbal working memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):110-110.   (Google)
Abstract: The target article differentiates a new, syntactic component in verbal working memory. We suggest that several more components could be differentiated to make a model of working memory complete. Next, syntax is not always separable from the subject's verbal memory capacity as measured by standard working memory tasks. Finally, interference between different processes cannot be taken as evidence for the processes sharing the same resources. Interference might be a result of active mutual inhibition
Toth, J. P.; Lindsay, D. S. & Jacoby, Larry L. (1992). Awareness, automaticity, and memory dissociations. In L. R. Squire & N. Butters (eds.), Neuropsychology of Memory. Guilford Press.
Towse, John N. (2001). Memory limits: “Give us an answer!”. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):150-151.   (Google)
Abstract: Cowan has written a meticulous and thought-provoking review of the literature on short-term memory. However, reflections on one area of evidence, that of working memory span, shows the extent to which the research debate can be circumscribed by choice of experimental paradigms
Treves, Alessandro (1999). Mere functional characterization is not enough to understand memory circuits. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (3):466-467.   (Google)
Abstract: What exactly is going on via fornical connections? Aggleton & Brown's target article correctly stresses their importance, but a detailed understanding of their role in memory appears to require fresh research approaches
Tulving, Endel (2005). Episodic memory and autonoesis: Uniquely human? In Herbert S. Terrace & Janet Metcalfe (eds.), The Missing Link in Cognition: Origins of Self-Reflective Consciousness. Oxford University Press.
Tulving, Endel (1999). Memory, Consciousness, and the Brain: The Tallinn Conference. Psychology Pr.
Uttl, B.; Graf, P.; Miller, J. & Tuokko, H. (2001). Pro- and retrospective memory in late adulthood. Consciousness and Cognition 10 (4):451-472.   (Google)
Abstract: Everyday tasks, such as getting groceries en route from work, involve two distinct components, one prospective (i.e., remembering the plan) and the other retrospective (i.e., remembering the grocery list). The present investigation examined the size of the age-related performance declines in these components, as well as the relationship between these components and age-related differences in processing resources. The subjects were 133 community-dwelling adults between 65 and 95 years of age. They completed a large battery of tests, including tests of pro- and retrospective memory as well as tests for indexing processing resources. The results showed similar age-related declines in pro- and retrospective memory. There was only a weak relationship between pro- and retrospective memory, and the age-related decline in processing resources was related more strongly to retro- than prospective memory
Vallar, Giuseppe (2003). The short-term/long-term memory distinction: Back to the past? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):757-758.   (Google)
Abstract: The view that short-term memory should be conceived of as being a process based on the activation of long-term memory is inconsistent with neuropsychological evidence. Data from brain-damaged patients, showing specific patterns of impairment, are compatible with a vision of memory as a multiple-component system, whose different aspects, in neurologically unimpaired subjects, show a high degree of interaction
Velichkovsky, Boris M. (1997). The “mesh” approach to human memory: How much of cognitive psychology has to be thrown away? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):39-39.   (Google)
Abstract: While sharing the author's interest in the development of an action-based framework for memory research, I think the present version is neither new nor particularly productive. More differentiation is needed to describe memory functioning in a variety of domains and on the many levels of activity regulation. Above all, Glenberg's proposals seem to contradict empirical data
Verleger, Rolf (2003). Double dissociation in the effects of brain damage on working memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):758-759.   (Google)
Abstract: As revealed by standard neuropsychological testing, patients with damage either to the frontal lobe or to the hippocampus suffer from distinct impairments of working memory. It is unclear how Ruchkin et al.'s model integrates the role played by the hippocampus
Vertes, Robert P. & Eastman, Kathleen E. (2000). Rem sleep is not committed to memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):1057-1063.   (Google)
Abstract: We believe that this has been a constructive debate on the topic of memory consolidation and REM sleep. It was a lively and spirited exchange – the essence of science. A number of issues were discussed including: the pedestal technique, stress, and early REMD work in animals; REM windows; the processing of declarative versus procedural memory in REM in humans; a mnemonic function for theta rhythm in waking but not in REM sleep; the lack of cognitive deficits in patients on antidepressant drugs that suppress or eliminate REM sleep; the disposition of conscious (dreams) and nonconscious material of REM sleep; and finally our theory of REM sleep. Although our position was strongly challenged, we still hold that REM sleep serves no role in the processing and consolidation of memory
Walker, David L. & Gold, Paul E. (1997). NMDA receptors: Substrates or modulators of memory formation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (4):634-634.   (Google)
Abstract: We agree with Shors & Matzel's general hypothesis that the proposed link between NMDA-dependent LTP and memory is weak. They suggest that NMDA-dependent LTP is important to arousal or attentional processes which influence learning in an anterograde manner. However, current evidence is also consistent with the view that NMDA receptors modulate memory consolidation retroactively, as occurs in several other receptor classes
Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):87-104.   (Google)
Abstract: Following on from the target article, which presented a new model of procedural skill memory development, in this response I will reflect on issues raised by invited commentators and further expound attributes of the model. Discussion will focus on: evidence against sleep-dependent memory processing, definitions of memory stages and memory systems, and relationships between memory enhancement, sleep-stages, dreaming, circadian time, and sleep-disorders
Walenski, Matthew & Swinney, David (1999). Sources of variability in correlating syntactic complexity and working memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):112-112.   (Google)
Abstract: Caplan & Waters's model differentiating levels of processing and the role of working memory is important and likely right. However, their claim rests on a lack of correlation between working memory and structural complexity. We examine sources of variability in these measures that remain unaccounted for (by anyone), variability that muddies a straightforward claim that the lack of correlation is cleanly established
Wang, Yingxu; Liu, Dong & Wang, Ying (2003). Discovering the capacity of human memory. Brain and Mind 4 (2).   (Google)
Abstract: Despite the fact that the number of neurons in the human brain has been identified in cognitive and neural sciences, the magnitude of human memory capacity is still unknown. This paper reports the discovery of the memory capacity of the human brain, which is on the order of 10 8432 bits. A cognitive model of the brain is created, which shows that human memory and knowledge are represented by relations, i.e., connections of synapses between neurons, rather than by the neurons themselves as the traditional container metaphor described. The determination of the magnitude of human memory capacity is not only theoretically significant in cognitive science, but also practically useful to unveil the human potential, as well as the gap between the natural and machine intelligence
Weiss, Sabine & Mueller, Horst M. (2003). Neuronal synchronization accompanying memory processing. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):759-760.   (Google)
Abstract: In their target article, Ruchkin et al. propose sustained neuronal interaction of prefrontal and posterior cortex involved in memory-storage mechanisms with respect to electrophysiological findings on the relationship of short-term and long-term memory processes. We will evaluate this claim in light of recent evidence from our laboratory on EEG coherence analysis of memory processes accompanying language comprehension
Wheeler, Mark A. (2000). Episodic memory and autonoetic awareness. In Endel Tulving & Fergus I. M. Craik (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Memory. Oxford University Press.
Wheeler, M. (2000). Varieties of consciousness and memory in the developing child. In Endel Tulving (ed.), Memory, Consciousness, and the Brain: The Tallinn Conference. Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis.
Wingfield, Arthur (1999). Working memory and sentence comprehension: Whose burden of proof? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):113-114.   (Google)
Abstract: Caplan & Waters argue that the processing resources used for sentence comprehension are not drawn from an undifferentiated verbal working memory resource. This commentary cites data from normal aging to support this position. Still lacking in theory development is a specification of the transient memory representations necessary for interpretive and post-interpretive operations
Wynn, Thomas & Coolidge, Fred (2002). The role of working memory in skilled and conceptual thought. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (6):703-704.   (Google)
Abstract: Models of working memory challenge some aspects of Carruthers’ account but enhance others. Although the nature of the phonological store and central executive appear fully congruent with Carruthers’ proposal, current models of the visuo-spatial sketchpad provide a better account of skilled action. However, Carruthers’ model may provide a way around the homunculus problem that has plagued models of working memory
Yonelinas, Andrew P. (2001). Consciousness, control, and confidence: The 3 cs of recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology 130 (3):361-379.

5.1j.3 Memory, Misc

5.1j.4 The Nature of Memory

Hoerl, Christoph (2008). On being stuck in time. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 7 (4):485-500.
Abstract: It is sometimes claimed that non-human animals (and perhaps also young children) live their lives entirely in the present and are cognitively ‘stuck in time’. Adult humans, by contrast, are said to be able to engage in ‘mental time travel’. One possible way of making sense of this distinction is in terms of the idea that animals and young children cannot engage in tensed thought, which might seem a preposterous idea in the light of certain findings in comparative and developmental psychology. I try to make this idea less preposterous by looking into some of the cognitive requirements for tensed thought. In particular, I suggest that tensed thought requires a specific form of causal understanding, which animals and young children may not possess.
Kovacs, David Mark (2009). Memory and Imagery in Russell's The Analysis of Mind. Prolegomena 8 (2):193-206.   (Google)
Abstract: According to the theory Russell defends in The Analysis of Mind, ‘true memories’ (roughly, memories that are not remembering-hows) are recollections of past events accompanied by a feeling of familiarity. While memory images play a vital role in this account, Russell does not pay much attention to the fact that imagery plays different roles in different sorts of memory. In most cases that Russell considers, memory is based on an image that serves as a datum (imagebased memories), but there are other cases in which memory judgment requires an image without being based on it (answer-memories). A good example for the former is when a person, asked what the colour of the sea was last afternoon, recalls an image and forms a judgment on this basis. In the second case she may recognize the sea and entertain a memory image of it without ‘reading off’ the memory judgment from this picture. That is, the image does not prompt but itself is part of the propositional content of answer memories. Since in this latter case the feeling of familiarity is constitutive of the recollection but cannot serve as its explanans, answer memories do not conform to Russell’s account. According to Lindsay Judson this is not a vice of the theory, since Russell never meant to extend it to answer memories. Despite having a certain appeal of benevolence, Judson’s interpretation is not supported by textual evidence. Taking side with David Pears, I will argue that Russell did not properly differentiate between image-based memory and answer memory, and illegitimately extended his theory to the latter.
Sutton, John (forthcoming). The Feel of the World: exograms, habits, and the confusion of types of memory. In Andrew Kania (ed.), Philosophers on *Memento*. Routledge.   (Google)