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5.1j.2. Memory and Cognitive Science (Memory and Cognitive Science on PhilPapers)

Abry, Christian; Sato, Marc; Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Loevenbruck, Hélène & Cathiard, Marie-Agnès (2003). Attention-based maintenance of speech forms in memory: The case of verbal transformations. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):728-729.   (Google)
Abstract: One of the fundamental questions raised by Ruchkin, Grafman, Cameron, and Berndt's (Ruchkin et al.'s) interpretation of no distinct specialized neural networks for short-term storage buffers and long-term memory systems, is that of the link between perception and memory processes. In this framework, we take the opportunity in this commentary to discuss a specific working memory task involving percept formation, temporary retention, auditory imagery, and the attention-based maintenance of information, that is, the verbal transformation effect
Aizawa, Kenneth (2007). The biochemistry of memory consolidation: A model system for the philosophy of mind. Synthese 155 (1):65-98.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: This paper argues that the biochemistry of memory consolidation provides valuable model systems for exploring the multiple realization of psychological states
Allik, J. (2000). Available and accessible information in memory and vision. In Endel Tulving (ed.), Memory, Consciousness, and the Brain: The Tallinn Conference. Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis.   (Cited by 2 | Google)
Anderson, Norman H. (1997). Functional memory versus reproductive memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):19-20.   (Google)
Abstract: A functional theory of memory has already been developed as part of a general functional theory of cognition. The traditional conception of memory as “reproductive” touches on only a minor function. The primary function of memory is in constructing values for goal-directedness of everyday thought and action. This functional approach to memory rests on a solid empirical foundation
Andreasen, N. (2000). Is schizophrenia a disorder of memory or consciousness? In Endel Tulving (ed.), Memory, Consciousness, and the Brain: The Tallinn Conference. Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis.   (Cited by 1 | Google)
Andrade, Jackie (2001). The contribution of working memory to conscious experience. In Jackie Andrade (ed.), Working Memory in Perspective. Psychology Press.   (Cited by 2 | Google)
Baars, Bernard J. (2001). A biocognitive approach to the conscious core of immediate memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):115-116.   (Google)
Abstract: The limited capacity of immediate memory “rides” on the even more limited capacity of consciousness, which reflects the dynamic activity of the thalamocortical core of the brain. Recent views of the conscious narrow-capacity component of the brain are explored with reference to global workspace theory (Baars 1988; 1993; 1998). The radical limits of immediate memory must be explained in terms of biocognitive brain architecture
Baars, Bernard J. & Franklin, Stan (2003). How conscious experience and working memory interact. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (4):166-172.   (Cited by 42 | Google | More links)
Baars, Bernard J. (2003). Working memory requires conscious processes, not vice versa: A global workspace account. In Naoyuki Osaka (ed.), Neural Basis of Consciousness. John Benjamins.   (Cited by 2 | Google)
Bacon, E.; Danion, J. M.; Kauffmann-Muller, F. & Bruant, A. (2001). Consciousness in schizophrenia: A metacognitive approach to semantic memory. Consciousness and Cognition 10 (4):473-484.   (Cited by 12 | Google | More links)
Abstract: Recent studies have shown that schizophrenia may be a disease affecting the states of consciousness. The present study is aimed at investigating metamemory, i.e., the knowledge about one's own memory capabilities, in patients with schizophrenia. The accuracy of the Confidence level (CL) in the correctness of the answers provided during a recall phase, and the predictability of the Feeling of Knowing (FOK) when recall fails were measured using a task consisting of general information questions and assessing semantic memory. Nineteen outpatients were paired with 19 control subjects with respect to age, sex, and education. Results showed that patients with schizophrenia exhibited an impaired semantic memory. CL ratings as well as CL and FOK accuracy were not significantly different in the schizophrenic and the control groups. However, FOK ratings were significantly reduced for the patient group, and discordant FOK judgments were also observed more frequently. Such results suggest that FOK judgments are impaired in patients with schizophrenia, which confirms that schizophrenia is an illness characterized by an impaired conscious awareness of one's own knowledge
Baddeley, A. D. (1993). Working memory and conscious awareness. In A. Collins, S. Gathercole, Martin A. Conway & P. E. Morris (eds.), Theories of Memory. Lawrence Erlbaum.   (Cited by 37 | Google)
Barba, G. (2000). Memory, consciousness, and temporality: What is retrieved and who exactly is controlling the retrieval? In Endel Tulving (ed.), Memory, Consciousness, and the Brain: The Tallinn Conference. Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis.   (Google)
Bechtel, William P. (2001). The compatibility of complex systems and reduction: A case analysis of memory research. Minds And Machines 11 (4):483-502.   (Cited by 9 | Google | More links)
Abstract:   Some theorists who emphasize the complexity of biological and cognitive systems and who advocate the employment of the tools of dynamical systems theory in explaining them construe complexity and reduction as exclusive alternatives. This paper argues that reduction, an approach to explanation that decomposes complex activities and localizes the components within the complex system, is not only compatible with an emphasis on complexity, but provides the foundation for dynamical analysis. Explanation via decomposition and localization is nonetheless extremely challenging, and an analysis of recent cognitive neuroscience research on memory is used to illustrate what is involved. Memory researchers split between advocating memory systems and advocating memory processes, and I argue that it is the latter approach that provides the critical sort of decomposition and localization for explaining memory. The challenges of linking distinguishable functions with brain processes is illustrated by two examples: competing hypotheses about the contribution of the hippocampus and competing attempts to link areas in frontal cortex with memory processing
Bednar, James A. (2000). Internally-generated activity, non-episodic memory, and emotional salience in sleep. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):908-909.   (Google)
Abstract: (1) Substituting (as Solms does) forebrain for brainstem in the search for a dream “controller” is counterproductive, since a distributed system need have no single controller. (2) Evidence against episodic memory consolidation does not show that REM sleep has no role in other types of memory, contra Vertes & Eastman. (3) A generalization of Revonsuo's “threat simulation” model in reverse is more plausible and is empirically testable. [Hobson et al.; Solms; Revonsuo; Vertes & Eastman]
Benjamin, Aaron S. & Bjork, Robert A. (1997). Problematic aspects of embodied memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):20-20.   (Google)
Abstract: Glenberg's theory is rich and provocative, in our view, but we find fault with the premise that all memory representations are embodied. We cite instances in which that premise mispredicts empirical results or underestimates human capabilities, and we suggest that the motivation for the embodiment idea – to avoid the symbol-grounding problem – should not, ultimately, constrain psychological theorizing
Berry, Christopher J.; Shanks, David R. & Henson, Richard N. A. (2006). On the status of unconscious memory: Merikle and Reingold (1991) revisited. Journal of Experimental Psychology 32 (4):925-934.   (Cited by 2 | Google | More links)
Bánréti, Zoltán (1999). Interfaces in memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):96-96.   (Google)
Abstract: A distinction between interpretive processing and post-interpretive processing calls for a consideration of interface relations in systems of verbal memory. Syntactic movement of a phrase and the cognitive system of thought/mind interact. Systems of declarative memory and procedural memory interact
Bonanno, George A. (2006). The illusion of repressed memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (5):515-516.   (Google)
Abstract: Erdelyi's unified theory includes the idea that traumatic memories can be unconsciously repressed so that they are enduringly inaccessible to deliberate recall. I argue here that clinical evidence for repressed memory is illusory, and illustrate this claim by examining previous studies of putative repressed memories and also recent research on nonverbal behaviors among survivors of childhood sexual abuse
Born, Jan & Wagner, Ullrich (2004). Awareness in memory: Being explicit about the role of sleep. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (6):242-244.   (Cited by 7 | Google)
Brewer, William F. (1992). Phenomenal experience in laboratory and autobiographical memory. In Martin A. Conway, David C. Rubin, H. Spinnler & W. Wagenaar (eds.), Theoretical Perspectives on Autobiographical Memory. Kluwer.   (Cited by 8 | Google)
Brewer, William F. (1996). What is recollective memory? In David C. Rubin (ed.), Remembering Our Past: Studies in Autobiographical Memory. Cambridge University Press.   (Cited by 67 | Google)
Brown, Gordon D. A. & Chater, Nick (2001). The chronological organisation of memory. In Christoph Hoerl & Teresa McCormark (eds.), Time and Memory. Oxford University Press.   (Google)
Buckingham, Hugh W. (1998). Embodiment, muscle sense, and memory for speech. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (4):515-515.   (Google)
Abstract: MacNeilage's target article develops a theory for the evolution of human speech articulation along the lines of “slot- filler” structure. His content/frame schema commits him to the tenets of embodiment, muscle sense, and a memory for speech. My commentary ties these aspects together in their historical and current perspective
Bunting, Michael F. & Cowan, Nelson (2005). Working memory and flexibility in awareness and attention. Psychological Research/Psychologische Forschung 69 (5):412-419.   (Cited by 1 | Google | More links)
Butler, Laurie T. & Berry, Dianne C. (2001). Implicit memory: Intention and awareness revisited. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (5):192-197.   (Cited by 46 | Google)
Christiansen, Morten H. & MacDonald, Maryellen C. (1999). Fractionated working memory: Even in pebbles, it's still a soup stone. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):97-98.   (Google)
Abstract: We agree with Caplan & Waters that there are problems with the single-resource theory of sentence comprehension. However, we challenge their dual-resource alternative on theoretical and empirical grounds and point to a more coherent solution that abandons the notion of working memory resources
Coenen, Anton (2005). Where is the classic interference theory for sleep and memory? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):67-68.   (Google)
Abstract: Walker's target article proposes a refinement of the well known two-stage model of memory formation to explain the positive effects of sleep on consolidation. After a first stage in which a labile memory representation is formed, a further stabilisation of the memory trace takes place in the second stage, which is dependent on (REM) sleep. Walker has refined the latter stage into a stage in which a consolidation-based enhancement occurs. It is not completely clear what consolidation-based enhancement implies and how it can be dissociated from a stage for memory-stabilisation. A more serious consideration, however, is whether a second stage in memory consolidation that is solely dependent on sleep, is really necessary. The classical, passive, interference theory is able to explain adequately the findings related to the effects of sleep and memory, and can lead perhaps better to an understanding of the highly variable data in this field
Cowan, Nelson (2003). Varieties of procedural accounts of working memory retention systems. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):731-732.   (Google)
Abstract: The present commentary agrees with many of the points made by Ruchkin et al., but brings up several important differences in assumptions. These assumptions have to do with the nature of the capacity limit in working memory and the possible bases of working-memory activation
Dalla Barba, Gianfranco (2000). Memory, consciousness, and the brain. Brain and Cognition 42 (1):20-22.   (Google)
Dalla Barba, Gianfranco (2000). Memory, consciousness, and temporality: What is retrieved and who exactly is controlling the retrieval? In Endel Tulving (ed.), Memory, Consciousness, and the Brain: The Tallinn Conference.   (Google)
Danion, Jean-Marie; Huron, Caroline; Rizzo, Lydia & Vidailhet, Pierre (2004). Emotion, memory, and conscious awareness in schizophrenia. In Daniel Reisberg & Paula Hertel (eds.), Memory and Emotion. Oxford University Press.   (Cited by 1 | Google)
Duezel, E. (2000). What brain activity tells us about conscious awareness of memory retrieval. In Endel Tulving (ed.), Memory, Consciousness, and the Brain: The Tallinn Conference. Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis.   (Google)
Düzel, Emrah (2003). Some mechanisms of working memory may not be evident in the human EEG. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):732-732.   (Google)
Abstract: Ruchkin et al. use brain-activity data from healthy subjects to assess the physiological validity of a cognitive working memory model and to propose modifications. The conclusions drawn from this data are interesting and plausible, but they have limitations. Much of what is known about the neural mechanisms of working memory comes from single neuron recordings in animals, and it is currently not fully understood how these translate to scalp recordings of EEG
Duzel, Emrah (2000). What brain activity tells us about conscious awareness of memory retrieval. In Endel Tulving (ed.), Memory, Consciousness, and the Brain: The Tallinn Conference. Psychology Press.   (Google)
Eich, Eric (1984). Memory for unattended events: Remembering with and without awareness. Memory and Cognition 12:105-11.   (Cited by 79 | Google)
Faw, Bill (2003). Pre-frontal executive committee for perception, working memory, attention, long-term memory, motor control, and thinking: A tutorial review. Consciousness and Cognition 12 (1):83-139.   (Cited by 40 | Google | More links)
Fishbein, William (2000). The case against memory consolidation in Rem sleep: Balderdash! Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):934-936.   (Google)
Abstract: Unfortunately, some researchers think a good scientific theory is one that has been repeatedly confirmed, and a bad theory is one that has not received consistent confirmation. However, confirmation of a theory depends on the extent to which a hypothesis exposes itself to disconfirmation. One confirmation of a highly specific, falsifiable experiment can have a far greater impact than the disconfirmation of twenty experiments that are virtually unfalsifiable. This commentary (1) counteracts misleading biases regarding the REM sleep/memory consolidation theory, and (2) demonstrates how chaotic cerebral activation during sleep is an essential component of long-term memory storage processes. [Vertes & Eastman]
Foster, Jonathan K. (2001). Cantor coding and chaotic itinerancy: Relevance for episodic memory, amnesia, and the hippocampus? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (5):815-816.   (Google)
Abstract: This commentary provides a critique of Tsuda's target article, focusing on the hippocampus and episodic long-term memory. More specifically, the relevance of Cantor coding and chaotic itinerancy for long-term memory functioning is considered, given what we know about the involvement of the hippocampus in the mediation of long-term episodic memory (based on empirical neuroimaging studies and investigations of brain-damaged amnesic patients)
Foster, Jonathan K. & Wilson, Andrew C. (2005). Sleep and memory: Definitions, terminology, models, and predictions? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):71-72.   (Google)
Abstract: In this target article, Walker seeks to clarify the current state of knowledge regarding sleep and memory. Walker's review represents an impressively heuristic attempt to synthesize the relevant literature. In this commentary, we question the focus on procedural memory and the use of the term “consolidation,” and we consider the extent to which empirically testable predictions can be derived from Walker's model
Foster, Jonathan K. (2003). Thoughts from the long-term memory chair. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):734-735.   (Google)
Abstract: With reference to Ruchkins et al.'s framework, this commentary briefly considers the history of working memory, and whether, heuristically, this is a useful concept. A neuropsychologically motivated critique is offered, specifically with regard to the recent trend for working-memory researchers to conceptualise this capacity more as a process than as a set of distinct task-specific stores
Fuster, Joaquín M. (2003). More than working memory rides on long-term memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):737-737.   (Google)
Abstract: Single-unit data from the cortex of monkeys performing working-memory tasks support the main point of the target article. Those data, however, also indicate that the activation of long-term memory is essential to the processing of all cognitive functions. The activation of cortical long-term memory networks is a key neural mechanism in attention (working memory is a form thereof), perception, memory acquisition and retrieval, intelligence, and language
Gabriel, Michael & Smith, David M. (1999). What does the limbic memory circuit actually do? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (3):451-451.   (Google)
Abstract: We applaud Aggleton & Brown's affirmation of limbic diencephalic-hippocampal interaction as a key memory substrate. However, we do not agree with a thesis of diencephalic-hippocampal strict dedication to episodic memory. Instead, this circuitry supports the production of context-specific patterns of activation that subserve retrieval for a broad class of memory phenomena, including goal-directed instrumental behavior of animals and episodic memory of humans
Gardiner, John M. & Parkin, A. J. (1990). Attention and recollective experience in recognition memory. Memory and Cognition 18:579-583.   (Cited by 135 | Google)
Gardiner, John M. (2002). Episodic memory and autonoetic consciousness: A first-person approach. In Alan Baddeley, John P. Aggleton & Martin A. Conway (eds.), Episodic Memory: New Directions in Research. Oxford University Press.   (Cited by 36 | Google | More links)
Gennaro, Rocco J. (1992). Consciousness, self-consciousness, and episodic memory. Philosophical Psychology 5 (4):333-47.   (Cited by 4 | Annotation | Google)
Abstract: My aim in this paper is to show that consciousness entails self-consciousness by focusing on the relationship between consciousness and memory. More specifically, I addreess the following questions: (1) does consciousness require episodic memory?; and (2) does episodic memory require self-consciousness? With the aid of some Kantian considerations and recent empirical data, it is argued that consciousness does require episodic memory. This is done after defining episodic memory and distinguishing it from other types of memory. An affirmative answer to (2) is also warranted especially in the light of the issues raised in answering (1). I claim that 'consciousness entails self-consciousness' is thereby shown via the route through episodic memory, i.e. via affirmative answers to (1) and (2). My aim is to revive this Kantian thesis and to bring together current psychological research on amnesia with traditional philosophical perspectives on consciousness and memory
Glenberg, Arthur M. (1997). What memory is for. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):1-19.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: I address the commentators' calls for clarification of theoretical terms, discussion of similarities to other proposals, and extension of the ideas. In doing so, I keep the focus on the purpose of memory: enabling the organism to make sense of its environment so that it can take action appropriate to constraints resulting from the physical, personal, social, and cultural situations
Goertzel, Ben (1993). Phase transitions in associative memory networks. Minds and Machines 3 (3).   (Google)
Abstract:   Ideas from random graph theory are used to give an heuristic argument that associative memory structure depends discontinuously on pattern recognition ability. This argument suggests that there may be a certain minimal size for intelligent systems
Goshen-Gottstein, Yonatan (1999). The functional role of representations cannot explain basic implicit memory phenomena. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):768-769.   (Google)
Abstract: The propositional account of explicit and implicit knowledge interprets cognitive differences between direct and indirect test performance as emerging from the elements in different hierarchical levels of the propositional representation that have been made explicit. The hierarchical nature of explicitness is challenged, however, on the basis of neuropsychological dissociations between direct and indirect tests of memory, as well as the stochastic independence that has been observed between these two types of tests. Furthermore, format specificity on indirect test of memory challenges the basic notion of a propositional theory of implicit and explicit knowledge
Graham, Kim S. & Hodges, John R. (1999). Episodic memory in semantic dementia: Implications for the roles played by the perirhinal and hippocampal memory systems in new learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (3):452-453.   (Google)
Abstract: Aggleton & Brown (A&B) propose that the hippocampal-anterior thalamic and perirhinal-medial dorsal thalamic systems play independent roles in episodic memory, with the hippocampus supporting recollection-based memory and the perirhinal cortex, recognition memory. In this commentary we discuss whether there is experimental support for the A&B model from studies of long-term memory in semantic dementia
Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica & Corballis, Paul M. (2001). Working memory capacity and the hemispheric organization of the brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):121-122.   (Google)
Abstract: Different hypotheses about the mechanisms underlying working memory lead to different predictions about working memory capacity when information is distributed across the two hemispheres. We present preliminary data suggesting that memory scanning time (a parameter often associated with working memory capacity) varies depending on how information is subdivided across hemispheres. The data are consistent with a distributed model of working memory
Gärdenfors, Peter (1997). The role of memory in planning and pretense. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):24-25.   (Google)
Abstract: Corresponding to Glenberg's distinction between the automatic and effortful modes of memory, I propose a distinction between cued and detached mental representations. A cued representation stands for something that is present in the external situation of the representing organism, while a detached representation stands for objects or events that are not present in the current situation. This distinction is important for understanding the role of memory in different cognitive functions like planning and pretense
Greenwald, Anthony G.; Abrams, R. L.; Naccache, Lionel & Dehaene, Stanislas (2003). Long-term semantic memory versus contextual memory in unconscious number processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology 29 (2):235-247.   (Cited by 25 | Google | More links)
Abstract: Subjects classified visible 2-digit numbers as larger or smaller than 55. Target numbers were preceded by masked 2-digit primes that were either congruent (same relation to 55) or incongruent. Experiments 1 and 2 showed prime congruency effects for stimuli never included in the set of classified visible targets, indicating subliminal priming based on long-term semantic memory. Experiments 2 and 3 went further to demonstrate paradoxical unconscious priming effects resulting from task context. For example, after repeated practice classifying 73 as larger than 55, the novel masked prime 37 paradoxically facilitated the “larger” response. In these experiments task context could induce subjects to unconsciously process only the leftmost masked prime digit, only the rightmost digit, or both independently. Across 3 experiments, subliminal priming was governed by both task context and long-term semantic memory
Greenberg, Ramon (2005). Old wine (most of it) in new bottles: Where are dreams and what is the memory? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):72-73.   (Google)
Abstract: I discuss how the work in Walker's article adds to the considerable body of research on dreaming, sleep, and memory that appeared in the early days of modern sleep research. I also consider the issue of REM-independent and REM-dependent kinds of learning. This requires including emotional issues in our discussion, and therefore emphasizes the importance of studying and understanding dreams
Gremley, Shelley Marie, Self-awareness and memory deficits in sub-acute traumatic brain injury.   (Google)
Groeger, John A. & Dijk, Derk-Jan (2005). Consolidating consolidation? Sleep stages, memory systems, and procedures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):73-74.   (Google)
Abstract: We argue that by neglecting the fact that procedural memory may also have episodic qualities, and by considering only a systems approach to memory, Walker's account of consolidation of learning during subsequent sleep ignores alternative accounts of how sleep stages may be interdependent. We also question the proposition that sleep-based consolidation largely bypasses hippocampal structures
Grossberg, Stephen (2003). From working memory to long-term memory and back: Linked but distinct. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):737-738.   (Google)
Abstract: Neural models have proposed how short-term memory (STM) storage in working memory and long-term memory (LTM) storage and recall are linked and interact, but are realized by different mechanisms that obey different laws. The authors' data can be understood in the light of these models, which suggest that the authors may have gone too far in obscuring the differences between these processes
Grote, Irene (2003). More memory? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):738-739.   (Google)
Abstract: Modern investigators of cognition ask about the conditions under which faculties occur rather than about their existence. This tendency, combined with the axiom of parsimony, emphasizes a paradigm shift in the fundamental principles of economic thought in science, mimicking evolutionary conceptualizations. The Ruchkin model of memory-related brain activity replaces less economic models. From interdisciplinary approaches, proceduralist models for other memory-related processes analogously support this model
Hamann, S. B. & Squire, L. R. (1997). Intact perceptual memory in the absence of conscious memory. Behavioral Neuroscience 111:850-54.   (Cited by 96 | Google | More links)
Hampton, Robert R. & Hampstead, Benjamin M. (2006). Spontaneous behavior of a rhesus monkey (Macaca Mulatta) during memory tests suggests memory awareness. Behavioural Processes 72 (2):184-189.   (Google | More links)
Hamilton, Maryellen & Rajaram, Suparna (2003). States of awareness across multiple memory tasks: Obtaining a "pure" measure of conscious recollection. Acta Psychologica 112 (1):43-69.   (Cited by 5 | Google | More links)
Hassin, Ran R. (2005). Nonconscious control and implicit working memory. In Ran R. Hassin, James S. Uleman & John A. Bargh (eds.), The New Unconscious. Oxford Series in Social Cognition and Social Neuroscience. Oxford University Press.   (Google)
Hecht, Steven A. & Shackelford, Todd K. (2001). Pure short-term memory capacity has implications for understanding individual differences in math skills. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):124-125.   (Google)
Abstract: Future work is needed to establish that pure short-term memory is a coherent individual difference attribute that is separable from traditional compound short-term memory measures. Psychometric support for latent pure short-term memory capacity will provide an important starting point for future fine-grained analyses of the intrinsic factors that influence individual differences in math skills
Hermans, Dirk; Raes, Filip; Iberico, Carlos & Williams, J. Mark G. (2006). Reduced autobiographical memory specificity, avoidance, and repression. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (5):522-522.   (Google)
Abstract: Recent empirical work indicates that reduced autobiographical memory specificity can act as an avoidant processing style. By truncating the memory search before specific elements of traumatic memories are accessed, one can ward off the affective impact of negative reminiscences. This avoidant processing style can be viewed as an instance of what Erdelyi describes as the “subtractive” class of repressive processes
Hickok, Gregory & Buchsbaum, Bradley (2003). Temporal lobe speech perception systems are part of the verbal working memory circuit: Evidence from two recent fMRI studies. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):740-741.   (Google)
Abstract: In the verbal domain, there is only very weak evidence favoring the view that working memory is an active state of long-term memory. We strengthen existing evidence by reviewing two recent fMRI studies of verbal working memory, which clearly demonstrate activation in the superior temporal lobe, a region known to be involved in processing speech during comprehension tasks
Hirshman, E. & Master, S. (1997). Modeling the conscious correlates of recognition memory: Reflections on the remember-know paradigm. Memory and Cognition 25:345-351.   (Cited by 108 | Google)
Hirst, W. (1989). On consciousness, recall, recognition, and the architecture of memory. In S. Lewandowsky, J. M. Dunn & K. Kirsner (eds.), Implicit Memory: Theoretical Issues. Lawrence Erlbaum.   (Cited by 5 | Google)
Howe, Mark L. (2000). Consciousness, memory, and development. In Mark L. Howe (ed.), The Fate of Early Memories: Developmental Science and the Retention of Childhood Experiences. American Psychological Association.   (Google)
Ikegami, Takashi & Tani, Jun (2001). Chaotic itinerancy needs embodied cognition to explain memory dynamics. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (5):818-819.   (Google)
Abstract: Memory dynamics need both stable and unstable properties simultaneously. Hence memory dynamics cannot be simulated by chaotic itinerant dynamics alone, with no real world correspondence. Memory dynamics are constrained by both semantics and causalities in the embodied cognition
Jacoby, Larry L. (1991). A process dissociation framework: Separating automatic from intentional uses of memory. Journal of Memory and Language 30:513-41.   (Cited by 5 | Google)
Jonides, John & Awh, Edward (2003). What is the source of activation for working memory? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):741-742.   (Google)
Abstract: Attentional processes that operate on the contents of memory to produce the activation that is described as working memory by Ruchkin et al. and others, involve a network of brain regions that include both prefrontal and parietal sites. This network appears to mimic the one that is activated by attentional processes that operate on information entering via the senses
Jou, Jerwen (2001). The magic number four: Can it explain Sternberg's serial memory scan data? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):126-127.   (Google)
Abstract: Cowan's concept of a pure short-term memory (STM) capacity limit is equivalent to that of memory subitizing. However, a robust phenomenon well known in the Sternberg paradigm, that is, the linear increase of RT as a function of memory set size is not consistent with this concept. Cowan's STM capacity theory will remain incomplete until it can account for this phenomenon
J., P.; S., W. & F., F. (2003). The role of working memory in motor learning and performance. Consciousness and Cognition 12 (3):376-402.   (Google)
Abstract: Three experiments explore the role of working memory in motor skill acquisition and performance. Traditional theories postulate that skill acquisition proceeds through stages of knowing, which are initially declarative but later procedural. The reported experiments challenge that view and support an independent, parallel processing model, which predicts that procedural and declarative knowledge can be acquired separately and that the former does not depend on the availability of working memory, whereas, the latter does. The behaviour of these two processes was manipulated by providing or withholding visual (and auditory) appraisal of outcome feedback. Withholding feedback was predicted to inhibit the use of working memory to appraise success and, thus, prevent the formation of declarative knowledge without affecting the accumulation of procedural knowledge. While the first experiment failed to support these predictions, the second and third experiments demonstrated that procedural and declarative knowledge can be acquired independently. It is suggested that the availability of working memory is crucial to motor performance only when the learner has come to rely on its use
Kane, Kimberley A. (online). Electrophysiological indices of conscious and automatic memory processes.   (Google)
Kane, Michael J.; Conway, Andrew R. A. & Engle, Randall W. (1999). What do working-memory tests really measure? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):101-102.   (Google)
Abstract: Individuals may differ in the general-attention executive component or in the subordinate domain-specific “slave” components of working memory. Tasks requiring sustained memory representations across attention shifts are reliable, valid indices of executive abilities. Measures emphasizing specific processing skills may increase reliability within restricted samples but will not reflect the attention component responsible for the broad predictive validity of span tasks
Kaschak, Michael & Glenberg, Arthur (2004). Interactive alignment: Priming or memory retrieval? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (2):201-202.   (Google)
Abstract: Pickering & Garrod's (P&G's) interactive alignment model explains the existence of alignment between speakers via an automatic priming mechanism. We propose that it may be preferable to explain alignment through processes of memory retrieval. Our discussion highlights how memory retrieval can produce the same results as the priming mechanism and presents data that favor the memory-based view
Keenan, Janice M.; Hyönä, Jukka & Kaakinen, Johanna K. (2003). Incorporating semantics and individual differences in models of working memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):742-742.   (Google)
Abstract: Ruchkin et al.'s view of working memory as activated long-term memory is more compatible with language processing than models such as Baddeley's, but it raises questions about individual differences in working memory and the validity of domain-general capacity estimates. Does it make sense to refer to someone as having low working memory capacity if capacity depends on particular knowledge structures tapped by the task?
Kelley, Clarence M. & Lindsay, D. S. (1996). Conscious and unconscious forms of memory. In E. Bjork & R. Bjork (eds.), Memory: Handbook of Perception and Cognition. Academic Press.   (Cited by 8 | Google)
Kemper, Susan & Kemtes, Karen A. (1999). The age invariance of working memory measures and noninvariance of producing complex syntax. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):102-103.   (Google)
Abstract: In challenging current conceptions of the role of working memory in sentence processing, Caplan & Waters consider studies comparing young and older adults on sentence processing. This commentary raises two challenges to Caplan & Waters's conclusions: first, working memory tasks appear to be age invariant. Second, the production of complex syntactic constructions appears not to be age invariant
Klimesch, Wolfgang & Schack, Bärbel (2003). Activation of long-term memory by alpha oscillations in a working-memory task? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):743-743.   (Google)
Abstract: We focus on the functional specificity of theta and alpha oscillations and show that theta is related to working memory, whereas alpha is related to semantic long-term memory. Recent studies, however, indicate that alpha oscillations also play an important role during short-term memory retention and retrieval. This latter finding provides support for the basic hypothesis suggested by Ruchkin et al
Konstantinou, Ira & Gardiner, John M. (2005). Conscious control and memory awareness when recognising famous faces. Memory 13 (5):449-457.   (Cited by 3 | Google | More links)
Koriat, Asher & Goldsmith, Morris (1998). Methodological and substantive implications of a metatheoretical distinction: More on correspondence versus storehouse metaphors of memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (1):165-168.   (Google)
Abstract: In response to Cohen, we point out that many of the assessment difficulties raised by the correspondence metaphor stem from the assessment of memory in meaningful, real-life contexts rather than from the assessment of memory accuracy per se; these difficulties are equally troublesome for the assessment of memory quantity in such contexts. Moreover, the need to focus on particular aspects of memory performance – correspondence-oriented or quantity-oriented – does not preclude the development of useful and general theoretical models. In response to Shanon, we argue that (1) the distinction between the correspondence and storehouse metaphors of memory is metatheoretical, not substantive or methodological, (2) the correspondence metaphor is compatible with both a “representationalist” view of memory and a more “direct” view, and (3) as an epistemological strategy, metaphorical pluralism is both acceptable and desirable
Koriat, Asher & Goldsmith, Morris (1997). The myriad functions and metaphors of memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):27-28.   (Google)
Abstract: Glenberg provides a new and exciting view that is especially useful for capturing some functional aspects of memory. However, memory and its functions are too multifarious to be handled by any one conceptualization. We suggest that Glenberg's proposal be restricted to its own “focus of convenience.” In addition, its value will ultimately depend on its success in generating detailed and testable theories
Kuhlmann, F. (1906). On the analysis of the memory consciousness: A study in the mental imagery and memory of meaningless visual forms. Psychological Review 13:316-48.   (Cited by 1 | Google)
Latash, Lev P. (1997). LTP is neither a memory trace nor an ultimate mechanism for its formation: The beginning of the end of the synaptic theory of neural memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (4):621-622.   (Google)
Abstract: The problem of neural memory storage is discussed, based on the results of studies of memory impairment after hippocampal lesions, motor learning, and electrophysiological research on “spinal memory.” I support Shors & Matzel's major statements. The absence of reliable evidence on the LTP memory storage function and other data cast doubt on the synaptic theory of memory
Lewis, Richard L. (1999). Accounting for the fine structure of syntactic working memory: Similarity-based interference as a unifying principle. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):105-106.   (Google)
Abstract: A promising approach to more refined models consistent with the Caplan & Waters hypothesis is based on similarity-based interference, a general principle that applies across working memory domains. This may explain both the fine details of syntactic working memory phenomena and the gross fractionation for which Caplan & Waters have found evidence. Detailed models of syntactic processing that embody similarity-based interference fare well cross-linguistically
Lockhart, Ian A. (2001). A Memory Model of Presymbolic Unconscious Mentation. Dissertation, University of South Africa   (Cited by 1 | Google)
Logie, Robert H. & Sala, Sergio Della (2003). Working memory as a mental workspace: Why activated long-term memory is not enough. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):745-746.   (Google)
Abstract: Working-memory retention as activated long-term memory fails to capture orchestrated processing and storage, the hallmark of the concept of working memory. The event-related potential (ERP) data are compatible with working memory as a mental workspace that holds and manipulates information on line, which is distinct from long-term memory, and deals with the products of activated traces from stored knowledge
Mace, John H. (2006). Episodic remembering creates access to involuntary conscious memory: Demonstrating involuntary recall on a voluntary recall task. Memory 14 (8):917-924.   (Google | More links)
Mace, John H. (2003). Involuntary aware memory enhances priming on a conceptual implicit memory task. American Journal of Psychology 116 (2):281-290.   (Cited by 3 | Google | More links)
MacLeod, Colin M. (1997). Is memory caught in the mesh? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):30-30.   (Google)
Abstract: Can memory be cast as a system that meshes events to actions? This commentary considers the concepts of mesh versus association, arguing that thus far the distinction is inadequate. However, the goal of shifting to an action-based view of memory has merit, most notably in emphasizing memory as a skill and in focusing on processes as opposed to structures
MacDorman, Carl F. (1997). Memory must also mesh affect. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):29-30.   (Google)
Abstract: To model potential interactions, memory must not only mesh prior patterns of action, as Glenberg proposes, but also their internal consequences. This is necessary both to discriminate sensorimotor information by its relevance and to explain how go als about the world develop. In the absence of internal feedback, Glenberg is forced to reintroduce a grounding problem into his otherwise sound model by presupposing interactive goals
Majerus, Steve; Van der Linden, Martial; Collette, Fabienne & Salmon, Eric (2003). Does sustained ERP activity in posterior lexico-semantic processing areas during short-term memory tasks only reflect activated long-term memory? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):746-747.   (Google)
Abstract: We challenge Ruchkin et al.'s claim in reducing short-term memory (STM) to the active part of long-term memory (LTM), by showing that their data cannot rule out the possibility that activation of posterior brain regions could also reflect the contribution of a verbal STM buffer
Martin, Randi C. (1999). Further fractionations of verbal working memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):106-107.   (Google)
Abstract: Although the working memory capacity involved in syntactic processing may be separate from the capacity involved in word list recall, other aspects of initial sentence interpretation appear to depend on some of the same capacities tapped by span tasks. Specifically, there appears to a capacity for lexical–semantic retention involved in both sentence comprehension and span measures
Maxwell, J. P.; Masters, R. S. W. & Eves, F. F. (2003). The role of working memory in motor learning and performance. Consciousness and Cognition 12 (3):376-402.   (Google)
Abstract: Three experiments explore the role of working memory in motor skill acquisition and performance. Traditional theories postulate that skill acquisition proceeds through stages of knowing, which are initially declarative but later procedural. The reported experiments challenge that view and support an independent, parallel processing model, which predicts that procedural and declarative knowledge can be acquired separately and that the former does not depend on the availability of working memory, whereas, the latter does. The behaviour of these two processes was manipulated by providing or withholding visual (and auditory) appraisal of outcome feedback. Withholding feedback was predicted to inhibit the use of working memory to appraise success and, thus, prevent the formation of declarative knowledge without affecting the accumulation of procedural knowledge. While the first experiment failed to support these predictions, the second and third experiments demonstrated that procedural and declarative knowledge can be acquired independently. It is suggested that the availability of working memory is crucial to motor performance only when the learner has come to rely on its use
Mazzoni, Giuliana (2000). Sleep can be related to memory, even if Rem sleep is not. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):971-971.   (Google)
Abstract: As reported by Vertes & Eastman, convincing evidence rules out any role for REM sleep in memory consolidation. However, they do not provide convincing evidence for their claim that sleep in generaI – as opposed to REM sleep per se – has no influence on memory consolidation. Recent correlational data suggest that the number of NREM/REM cycles is associated with performance on a verbal recall task. [Vertes & Eastman]
McBride, Dawn M. & Dosher, B. (2002). A comparison of conscious and automatic memory processes for picture and word stimuli: A process dissocation analysis. Consciousness and Cognition 11 (3):423-460.   (Cited by 8 | Google | More links)
McBride, Dawn M. (2007). Methods for measuring conscious and automatic memory: A brief review. Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (1):198-215.   (Cited by 1 | Google | More links)
Abstract: Memory researchers have discussed the relationship between consciousness and memory frequently in the last few decades. Beginning with research by Warrington and Weiskrantz (1968; 1970), memory has been shown to influence task performance even without awareness of retrieval. Data from amnesic patients show that a study episode influences task performance despite their lack of conscious memory for the study session. More recently, issues of intentionality, awareness, and the relationship between conscious and unconscious forms of memory have come to the forefront. Conscious memory has sometimes been defined by intention to retrieve and sometimes by awareness of retrieval. This distinction has been debated as measurement methodologies have developed. In addition, the functional relationship between conscious and automatic forms of memory has implications for measurement of memory processes and the development of models of memory task performance. Several measurement techniques for conscious and automatic memory are reviewed. The current state of these issues is also discussed
McCarthy, Rosaleen A. & Warrington, E. K. (1999). Backtracking? Rehearsing and replaying some old arguments about short-term memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):107-108.   (Google)
Abstract: We discuss the role of short-term auditory verbal storage within a working memory system. Data from single case studies of patients with left parietal lesions and selective impairment of memory span are discussed in order to address the question of the functions of short-term memory in language processing. The backup resource of auditory verbal short-term memory is required for those tasks that necessitate backtracking in order to integrate a verbal message within a developing central cognitive representation
McEvoy, Cathy L. & Nelson, Douglas L. (2006). Measuring, manipulating, and modeling the unconscious influences of prior experience on memory for recent experiences. In Reinout W. Wiers & Alan W. Stacy (eds.), Handbook of Implicit Cognition and Addiction. Sage Publications Ltd.   (Google)
McKone, Elinor (2001). Capacity limits in continuous old-new recognition and in short-term implicit memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):130-131.   (Google)
Abstract: Using explicit memory measures, Cowan predicts a new circumstance in which the central capacity limit of 4 chunks should obtain. Supporting results for such an experiment, using continuous old-new recognition, are described. With implicit memory measures, Cowan assumes that short-term repetition priming reflects the central capacity limit. I argue that this phenomenon instead reflects limits within individual perceptual processing modules
McNamara, Timothy P. (1997). Semantic memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):30-31.   (Google)
Abstract: Glenberg tries to explain how and why memories have semantic content. The theory succeeds in specifying the relations between two major classes of memory phenomena – explicit and implicit memory – but it may fail in its assignment of relative importance to these phenomena and in its account of meaning. The theory is syntactic and extensional, instead of semantic and intensional
Merikle, Philip M. & Reingold, Eyal M. (1991). Comparing direct (explicit) to indirect (implicit) measures to study unconscious memory. Journal Of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory And Cognition 17 (2):224-233.   (Cited by 85 | Google)
Morrison, Adrian R. & Sanford, Larry D. (2000). Critical brain characteristics to consider in developing dream and memory theories. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):977-978.   (Google)
Abstract: Dreaming in sleep must depend on the activity of the brain as does cognition and memory in wakefulness. Yet our understanding of the physiological subtleties of state differences may still be too primitive to guide theories adequately in these areas. One can state nonetheless unequivocally that the brain in REM is poorly equipped to practice for eventualities of wakefulness through dreaming, or for consolidating into memory the complex experiences of that state. [Hobson et al., Nielsen, Solms, Vertes & Eastman, Revonsuo]
Morra, Sergio (2003). Developmental evidence for working memory as activated long-term memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):750-750.   (Google)
Abstract: There is remarkable agreement between Ruchkin et al.'s psychophysiological views and my own model, based on developmental-experimental evidence, of working memory as activated long-term memory (LTM). I construe subvocal rehearsal as an operative scheme that maintains order information and demands attentional resources. Encoding and retrieving operations also demand attention. Another share of resources is used for keeping activated specific LTM representations
Moscovitch, Morris (1992). A neuropsychological model of memory and consciousness. In L. R. Squire & N. Butters (eds.), Neuropsychology of Memory. Guilford Press.   (Cited by 41 | Google)
Moscovitch, Morris (2000). Theories of memory and consciousness. In Endel Tulving & Fergus I. M. Craik (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Memory. Oxford University Press.   (Cited by 29 | Google)
Murray, David J. (2001). Partial matching theory and the memory span. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):133-134.   (Google)
Abstract: Partial matching theory, which maintains that some memory representations of target items in immediate memory are overwritten by others, can predict both a “theoretical” and an “actual” maximum memory span provided no chunking takes place during presentation. The latter is around 4 ± 2 items, the exact number being determined by the degree of similarity between the memory representations of two immediately successive target items
Murray, David J. (2002). The SOC framework and short-term memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (3):347-348.   (Google)
Abstract: Using a particular formula for quantifying the effortlessness that Perruchet & Vinter suggest accompanies the detection of repetition among a set of representations concurrently in consciousness, it is shown that both the Sternberg function and the Cavanagh function, associated with immediate probed recognition tasks and memory span tasks, can be predicted
Musen, Gail (1997). Is memory like understanding? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):31-32.   (Google)
Abstract: There are three major weaknesses with Glenberg's theory. The first is that his theory makes assumptions about internal representations that cannot be adequately tested. The second is that he tries to accommodate data from three disparate domains: mental models, linguistics, and memory. The third is that he makes light of advances in cognitive neuroscience
Muter, Paul (2001). The nature of forgetting from short-term memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):134-134.   (Google)
Abstract: Memory and forgetting are inextricably intertwined. Any account of short-term memory (STM) should address the following question: If three, four, or five chunks are being held in STM, what happens after attention is diverted?
Naghavi, Hamid R. & Nyberg, Lars (2005). Common fronto-parietal activity in attention, memory, and consciousness: Shared demands on integration? Consciousness and Cognition 14 (2):390-425.   (Cited by 21 | Google)
Nelson, Katherine (1997). Functional memory: A developmental perspective. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):32-33.   (Google)
Abstract: The functional theory of memory set out in Glenberg's target article accords with recent proposals in the developmental literature with respect to event memory, conceptualization, and language acquisition from an embodied, experiential view. The theory, however, needs to be supplemented with a recognition of the sociocultural contribution to these cognitive processes and emerging structures
Osaka, Naoyuki (2002). Neural Correlates of Visual Working Memory for Motion. In Kunio Yasue, Marj Jibu & Tarcisio Della Senta (eds.), No Matter, Never Mind: Proceedings of Toward a Science of Consciousness: Fundamental Approaches (Tokyo '99). John Benjamins.   (Google)
Osaka, Naoyuki (2004). The world as an inside working memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (6):905-906.   (Google)
Abstract: O'Regan & Noë's (O&N's) theoretical framework for studying visual perception and awareness is intriguing. This framework, based on sensorimotor contingency, can be examined in recent visual brain theories using neuroimaging methodologies. Here, I consider how a working memory (WM) system explains the sensorimotor account of visual consciousness. I believe WM inside the brain provides at least partial support for O&N's theory
Osaka, Naoyuki (2003). Working memory-based consciousness: An individual difference approach. In Naoyuki Osaka (ed.), Neural Basis of Consciousness. John Benjamins.   (Cited by 15 | Google)
Paller, K. A. (2000). Neural measures of conscious and unconscious memory. Behavioural Neurology 12 (3):127-141.   (Cited by 19 | Google | More links)
Pascual-Leone, Juan (2004). Hidden operators of mental attention applying on LTM give the illusion of a separate working memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (5):709-711.   (Google)
Abstract: The authors' results support a functionalist conception of working memory: a manifold repertoire of schemes/schemas (long-term memory) and a small set of general-purpose “hidden operators.” Using some of these operators I define mental (i.e., endogenous) attention. Then, analyzing two of the authors' unexplained important findings, I illustrate the mental-attention model's explanatory power. Multivariate methodology that varies developmental, task differences, and individual differences is recommended
Payne, Jessica D.; Britton, Willoughby B.; Bootzin, Richard R. & Nadel, Lynn (2005). Beyond acetylcholine: Next steps for sleep and memory research. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):77-77.   (Google)
Abstract: We consider Walker's thorough review in the context of thinking about future research on the relation between sleep and memory. We first address methodological issues including type of memory and sleep-stage dependency. We suggest a broader investigation of potential signaling molecules that may be critical to sleep-related consolidation. A brief review of the importance of the stress hormone cortisol illustrates this point
Pearlmutter, Neal J. (1999). Problems with plausibility and alternatives to working memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):109-109.   (Google)
Abstract: Caplan & Waters propose a dedicated linguistic working memory to handle “interpretive” language comprehension, but there are data suggesting that more general working memory capacity can predict syntactic comprehension difficulty, and their claims depend on the existence of a principled distinction between “interpretive” and “post-interpretive” processes, which seems unlikely. Other conceptions of the source of individual differences also deserve consideration, as more flexible explanations of the phenomena
Peigneux, Philippe; Destrebecqz, Arnaud; Hotermans, Christophe & Cleeremans, Axel (2005). Filling one gap by creating another: Memory stabilization is not all-or-nothing, either. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):78-78.   (Google)
Abstract: Walker proposes that procedural memory formation involves two specific stages of consolidation: wake-dependent stabilization, followed by sleep-dependent enhancement. If sleep-based enhancement of procedural memory formation is now well supported by evidence obtained at different levels of cognitive and neurophysiological organization, wake-dependent mechanisms for stabilization have not been demonstrated as convincingly, and still require more systematic characterization
Petrusic, William M. & Baranski, Joseph V. (2002). Mental imagery in memory psychophysics. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (2):206-207.   (Google)
Abstract: Imagery has played an important, albeit controversial, role in the study of memory psychophysics. In this commentary we critically examine the available data bearing on whether pictorial based depictions of remembered perceptual events are activated and scanned in each of a number of different psychophysical tasks
Piggott, Margaret A. & Perry, Elaine K. (2005). New perspectives on sleep disturbances and memory in human pathological and psychopharmacological states. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):78-79.   (Google)
Abstract: Matthew Walker's article has prompted us to consider neuropsychiatric disorders and pharmacological effects associated with sleep alterations, and aspects of memory affected. Not all disorders involving insomnia show memory impairment, and hypersomnias can be associated with memory deficits. The use of cholinergic medication in dementia indicates that consideration of the link between sleep and memory is more than academic
Piolino, Pascale; Desgranges, Béatrice; Clarys, David; Guillery-Girard, Bérengère; Taconnat, Laurence; Isingrini, Michel & Eustache, Francis (2006). Autobiographical memory, autonoetic consciousness, and self-perspective in aging. Psychology and Aging 21 (3):510-525.   (Cited by 4 | Google | More links)
Piolino, Pascale; Desgranges, Béatrice; Belliard, Serge; Matuszewski, Vanessa; Lalevée, Catherine; de La Sayette, Vincent & Eustache, Francis (2003). Autobiographical memory and autonoetic consciousness: Triple dissociation in neurodegenerative diseases. Brain 126 (10):2203-2219.   (Cited by 42 | Google | More links)
Piolino, Pascale; Belliard, Serge; Desgranges, Béatrice; Perron, Mélisa & Eustache, Francis (2003). Autobiographical memory and autonoetic consciousness in a case of semantic dementia. Cognitive Neuropsychology 20 (7):619-639.   (Google)
Pyysiäinen, Ilkka (2006). Does meditation swamp working memory? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (6):626-627.   (Google)
Abstract: Religionists often presuppose that “mysticism” aims at somehow emptying the mind. In the light of evidence, however, meditation seems rather to consist of ritualized action without an explicit emphasis on subjective experience. Boyer & Lienard's (B&L's) theory of ritualized action as “swamping” working memory thus might help explain the effects of meditation without postulating experiential goals the “mystics” obviously do not have. (Published Online February 8 2007)
Raffone, Antonino; Wolters, Gezinus & Murre, Jacob M. (2001). A neurophysioiogical account of working memory limits: Between-item segregation and within-chunk integration. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):139-141.   (Google)
Abstract: We suggest a neurophysiological account of the short-term memory capacity limit based on a model of visual working memory (Raffone & Wolters, in press). Simulations have revealed a critical capacity limit of about four independent patterns. The model mechanisms may be applicable to working memory in general and they allow a reinterpretation of some of the issues discussed by Cowan
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Reymann, Klaus G. (1997). As in long-term memory, LTP is consolidated by reinforcers. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (4):627-628.   (Google)
Abstract: Recent evidence from our lab indicates that LTP shares an important property with memory consolidation: it is consolidated by natural reinforcement. Nevertheless, the hypothesis, that LTP-like mechanisms or other forms of enhanced synaptic efficacy are basic elements in learning is not unequivocally supported. Skepticism aside, LTP is an accessible experimental model that is optimally equipped for the investigation of the cellular and molecular machinery involved in synaptic weight changes
Richardson-Klavehn, A. & Gardner, J. M. (1996). Cross-modality priming in stem completion reflects conscious memory, but not voluntary memory. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 3:238-44.   (Cited by 37 | Google)
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Roediger, Henry L. & Amir, Nader (2005). Implicit memory tasks: Retention without conscious recollection. In Wenzel, Amy; Rubin, David C. (2005). Cognitive Methods and Their Application to Clinical Research. (Pp. 121-127). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association. Ix, 289 Pp.   (Google)
Rossetti, Yves & Procyk, Emmanuel (1997). What memory is for action: The gap between percepts and concepts. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):34-36.   (Google)
Abstract: The originality of Glenberg's theoretical account lies in the claim that memory works in the service of physical interaction with the three-dimensional world. Little consideration is given, however, to the role of memory in action. We present and discuss data on spatial memory for action. These empirical data constitute the first step of reasoning about the link between memory and action, and allow several aspects of Glenberg's theory to be tested
Rovee-Collier, Carolyn; Hayne, Harlene & Colombo, Michael (2001). The Development of Implicit and Explicit Memory. Amsterdam: J Benjamins.   (Cited by 43 | Google | More links)
Abstract: Dissociations in infant memory: Rethinking the development of implicit and explicit memory. Psychological Review, 104, 467-^198. Rovee-Collier, C., Adler, ...
Rowlatt, Penelope (2009). Consciousness and Memory. Journal of Consciousness Studies 16 (5):68-78.   (Google)
Abstract: Defining consciousness along the lines of Nagel, an organism has consciousness iff there is something it is like to be that organism, I relate three types of consciousness (phenomenal, access and reflexive) to the three types of short-term memory (sensory memories, short-term working memory and the central executive). The suggestion is that these short-term memory stores may be a key feature of consciousness.
Rösler, Frank & Heil, Martin (2003). Working memory as a state of activated long-term memory: A plausible theory, but other data provide more compelling evidence. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):754-755.   (Google)
Abstract: The identity of working-memory and long-term memory representations follows from many lines of evidence. However, the data provided by Ruchkin et al. are hardly compelling, as they make unproved assumptions about hypothetical generators. We cite studies from our lab in which congruent slow-wave topographies were found for short-term and long-term memory tasks, strongly suggesting that both activate identical cell assemblies
Ruchkin, Daniel S.; Grafman, Jordan; Cameron, Katherine & Berndt, Rita S. (2003). Working memory retention systems: A state of activated long-term memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):709-728.   (Google)
Abstract: High temporal resolution event-related brain potential and electroencephalographic coherence studies of the neural substrate of short-term storage in working memory indicate that the sustained coactivation of both prefrontal cortex and the posterior cortical systems that participate in the initial perception and comprehension of the retained information are involved in its storage. These studies further show that short-term storage mechanisms involve an increase in neural synchrony between prefrontal cortex and posterior cortex and the enhanced activation of long-term memory representations of material held in short-term memory. This activation begins during the encoding/comprehension phase and evidently is prolonged into the retention phase by attentional drive from prefrontal cortex control systems. A parsimonious interpretation of these findings is that the long-term memory systems associated with the posterior cortical processors provide the necessary representational basis for working memory, with the property of short-term memory decay being primarily due to the posterior system. In this view, there is no reason to posit specialized neural systems whose functions are limited to those of short-term storage buffers. Prefrontal cortex provides the attentional pointer system for maintaining activation in the appropriate posterior processing systems. Short-term memory capacity and phenomena such as displacement of information in short-term memory are determined by limitations on the number of pointers that can be sustained by the prefrontal control systems. Key Words: coherence; event-related potentials; imaging; long-term memory; memory; short-term memory; working memory
Ruchkin, Daniel S.; Grafman, Jordan; Cameron, Katherine & Berndt, Rita S. (2003). Working memory: Unemployed but still doing day labor. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):760-769.   (Google)
Abstract: The goal of our target article is to establish that electrophysiological data constrain models of short-term memory retention operations to schemes in which activated long-term memory is its representational basis. The temporary stores correspond to neural circuits involved in the perception and subsequent processing of the relevant information, and do not involve specialized neural circuits dedicated to the temporary holding of information outside of those embedded in long-term memory. The commentaries ranged from general agreement with the view that short-term memory stores correspond to activated long-term memory (e.g., Abry, Sato, Schwartz, Loevenbruck & Cathiard [Abry etal.], Cowan, Fuster, Grote, Hickok & Buchsbaum, Keenan, Hyönä & Kaakinen [Keenan et al.], Martin, Morra), to taking a definite exception to this view (e.g., Baddeley, Düzel, Logie & Della Sala, Kroger, Majerus, Van der Linden, Colette & Salmon [Majerus et al.], Vallar)
Ryan, Jennifer D. & Cohen, Neal J. (2003). The contribution of long-term memory and the role of frontal-lobe systems in on-line processing. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):756-756.   (Google)
Abstract: Ruchkin et al. ascribe a pivotal role to long-term memory representations and binding within working memory. Here we focus on the interaction of working memory and long-term memory in supporting on-line representations of experience available to guide on-going processing, and we distinguish the role of frontal-lobe systems from what the hippocampus contributes to relational long-term memory binding
Ryan, Jennifer D. & Cohen, Neal J. (2001). The existence of internal visual memory representations. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (5):1002-1003.   (Google)
Abstract: Although O'Regan & Noë (O&N) claim that the world may serve as the viewers' external visual memory, findings from the field of memory research have demonstrated the existence of internal visual representations. These representations are stored in the viewer's brain, contain information regarding visual objects and their relations, guide subsequent exploration of the visual world and promote change detection
Rypma, Bart & Gabrieli, John D. E. (2001). Functional neuroimaging of short-term memory: The neural mechanisms of mental storage. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):143-144.   (Google)
Abstract: Cowan argues that the true short-term memory (STM) capacity limit is about 4 items. Functional neuroimaging data converge with this conclusion, indicating distinct neural activity patterns depending on whether or not memory task-demands exceed this limit. STM for verbal information within that capacity invokes focal prefrontal cortical activation that increases with memory load. STM for verbal information exceeding that capacity invokes widespread prefrontal activation in regions associated with executive and attentional processes that may mediate chunking processes to accommodate STM capacity limits
Schrauf, Robert W. (2002). Bilingual inner speech as the medium of cross-modular retrieval in autobiographical memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (6):698-699.   (Google)
Abstract: Carruthers’ notion that natural language(s) might serve as the medium of non-domain-specific, propositionally based inferential thought is extended to the case of effortful retrieval of autobiographical memory among bilinguals. Specifically, the review suggests that the resources of bilingual inner speech might play a role in the cyclical activation of information from various informational domains during memory retrieval
Schneider, Werner X.; Deubel, Heiner & Wesenick, Maria-Barbara (2001). Characterizing chunks in visual short-term memory: Not more than one feature per dimension? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):144-145.   (Google)
Abstract: Cowan defines a chunk as “a collection of concepts that have strong associations to one another and much weaker associations to other chunks currently in use.” This definition does not impose any constraints on the nature and number of elements that can be bound into a chunk. We present an experiment to demonstrate that such limitations exist for visual short-term memory, and that their analysis may lead to important insights into properties of visual memory
Schacter, Daniel L.; Bowers, J. & Booker, J. (1989). Intention, awareness, and implicit memory: The retrieval intentionality criterion. In S. Lewandowsky, J. M. Dunn & K. Kirsner (eds.), Implicit Memory: Theoretical Issues. Lawrence Erlbaum.   (Cited by 136 | Google)
Schacter, Daniel L. (1989). On the relation between memory and consciousness: Dissociable interactions and conscious experience. In Henry L. I. Roediger & Fergus I. M. Craik (eds.), Varieties of Memory and Consciousness.   (Cited by 99 | Google)
Schacter, Daniel L. (1989). On the Relation Between Memory and Consciousness: Dissociable Interactions and Conscious Experience. In (H. Roediger & F. In Henry L. I. Roediger & Fergus I. M. Craik (eds.), Varieties of Memory and Consciousness. Lawrence Erlbaum.   (Cited by 99 | Google)
Schredl, Michael (2005). Rem sleep, dreaming, and procedural memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):80-81.   (Google)
Abstract: In this commentary the “incredibly robust” evidence for the relationship between sleep and procedural memory is questioned; inconsistencies in the existing data are pointed out. In addition, some suggestions about extending research are made, for example, studying REM sleep augmentation or memory consolidation in patients with sleep disorders. Last, the possibility of a relationship between dreaming and memory processes is discussed
Shapiro, Matthew & Hargreaves, Eric (1997). Long term potentiation: Attending to levels of organization of learning and memory mechanisms. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (4):631-632.   (Google)
Abstract: Shors & Matzel set up a straw man, that LTP is a memory storage mechanism, and knock him down without due consideration of the important relations among different levels of organization and analysis regarding LTP, learning, and memory. Assessing these relationships requires analysis and hypotheses linking specific brain regions, neural circuits, plasticity mechanisms, and task demands. The issue addressed by the authors is important, but their analysis is off target
Sheth, Bhavin R. (2005). Memory consolidation during sleep: A form of brain restitution. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):81-82.   (Google)
Abstract: Does sleep restore brain function or does it consolidate memory? I argue that memory consolidation during sleep is an offshoot of restitution. Continual learning causes local synapse-specific neural fatigue, which then masks expression of that learning, especially on time-limited tests of procedural skills. Sleep serves to restore the fatigued synapses, revealing the consolidation-based enhancement observed as a “latent” overnight improvement in learning
Shors, Tracey J. & Matzel, Louis D. (1997). LTP: Memory, arousal, neither, both. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (4):634-645.   (Google)
Abstract: The neurophysiological phenomenon of LTP (long term potentiation) is considered by many to represent an adequate mechanism for acquiring or storing memories in the mammalian brain. In our target article, we reviewed the various arguments put forth in support of the LTP/memory hypothesis. We concluded that these arguments were inconsistent with the purported data base and proposed an alternative interpretation that we suggested was at least as compatible with the available data as the more widely held view. In doing so, we attempted to illustrate that the inadequacy of present experimental designs did not permit us to distinguish between equally viable hypotheses. In the four years since we wrote the first draft of our target article, hundreds of additional studies on LTP have been published and their results have been incorporated into current theories about memory. A diverse group of commentators responded to our target article with their own theories of how memories might be stored in the brain, some of which rely on LTP. Some commentators doubted whether memories can be stored through modifications of synaptic strength. Some assert that it will never be possible to understand the neural mechanisms of memory; still others remain hopeful that we will accomplish some semblance of a resolution, provided we appreciate LTP's role in a subset of seemingly amorphous memory systems. In summary, although it is commonly written that “LTP is a memory storage device,” the divergence of views among the commentators suggests, at least as strongly as our target article, that such conviction is unwarranted and fails to acknowledge both the lack of consensus regarding the role of LTP in memory and the complexity of the phenomenon of memory itself
Shors, Tracey J. & Matzel, Louis D. (2000). The status of LTP as a mechanism of memory formation in the mammalian brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (2):288-290.   (Google)
Abstract: Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a long-lasting increase in synaptic efficacy that many consider the best candidate currently available for a neural mechanism of memory formation and/or storage in the mammalian brain. In our target article, LTP: What's learning got to do with it?, we concluded that there was insufficient data to warrant such a conclusion. In their commentaries, Jeffery and Zhadin raise a number of important issues that we did not raise, both for and against the hypothesis. Although we agree with a number of these issues, we maintain that there remains insufficient evidence that LTP is a memory mechanism
Smith, Carlyle & Rose, Gregory M. (2000). Evaluating the relationship between Rem and memory consolidation: A need for scholarship and hypothesis testing. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):1007-1008.   (Google)
Abstract: The function of REM, or any other stage of sleep, can currently only be conjectured. A rational evaluation of the role of REM in memory processing requires systematic testing of hypotheses that are optimally derived from a complete synthesis of existing knowledge. Our view is that the large number of studies supporting a relationship between REM-related brain activity and memory is not easily explained away. [Vertes & Eastman]
Stern, D. G. (1991). Models of memory: Wittgenstein and cognitive science. Philosophical Psychology 4 (2):203-18.   (Cited by 5 | Google)
Abstract: The model of memory as a store, from which records can be retrieved, is taken for granted by many contemporary researchers. On this view, memories are stored by memory traces, which represent the original event and provide a causal link between that episode and one's ability to remember it. I argue that this seemingly plausible model leads to an unacceptable conception of the relationship between mind and brain, and that a non-representational, connectionist, model offers a promising alternative. I also offer a new reading of Wittgenstein's paradoxical remarks about thought and brain processes: as a critique of the cognitivist thesis that information stored in the brain has a linguistic structure and a particular location. On this reading, Wittgenstein's criticism foreshadows some of the most promising contemporary work on connectionist models of neural functioning
Stolz, J. A. & Merikle, Philip M. (2000). Conscious and unconscious influences of memory: Temporal dynamics. Memory 8 (5):333-343.   (Cited by 5 | Google | More links)
Sutton, John (2003). Constructive memory and distributed cognition: Towards an interdisciplinary framework. In B. Kokinov & W Hirst (eds.), Constructive Memory. New Bulgarian University.   (Google)
Abstract: Memory is studied at a bewildering number of levels, with a vast array of methods, and in a daunting range of disciplines and subdisciplines. Is there any sense in which these various memory theorists – from neurobiologists to narrative psychologists, from the computational to the cross-cultural – are studying the same phenomena? In this exploratory position paper, I sketch the bare outline of a positive framework for understanding current work on constructive remembering, both within the various cognitive sciences, and across gulfs between the cognitive and the social sciences. I pinpoint some lines of psychological theory and research which offer promising and compatible ways of thinking about individual memory and shared or social memory simultaneously. These are obviously ambitious projects, and this paper seeks more to elicit help with forging these connections than to present firm results. The aim is to draw out some consequences of empirical work on social memory and in developmental psychology
Sutton, John (2006). Introduction: Memory, embodied cognition, and the extended mind. Philosophical Psychology 19 (3):281-289.   (Cited by 21 | Google | More links)
Abstract: I introduce the seven papers in this special issue, by Andy Clark, J
Sutton, John (2007). Language, memory, and concepts of memory: Semantic diversity and scientific psychology. In Mengistu Amberber (ed.), The Language of Memory in a Cross-linguistic Perspective. John Benjamins.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: There are many different ways to think about what has happened before. I think about my own recent actions, and about what happened to me a long time ago; I can think about times before I lived, and about what will happen after my death. I know many things about the past, and about what has happened because people did things before now, or because some good or bad things happened to me
Sweller, John (1998). Can we measure working memory without contamination from knowledge held in long-term memory? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (6):845-846.   (Google)
Abstract: The metric devised by Halford, Wilson & Phillips may have considerable potential in distinguishing between the working memory demands of different tasks but may be less effective in distinguishing working memory capacity between individuals. Despite the strengths of the metric, determining whether an effect is caused by relational complexity or by differential levels of expertise is currently problematic
Taatgen, Niels A. (2001). Dispelling the magic: Towards memory without capacity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):147-148.   (Google)
Abstract: The limited capacity for unrelated things is a fact that needs to be explained by a general theory of memory, rather than being itself used as a means of explaining data. A pure storage capacity is therefore not the right assumption for memory research. Instead an explanation is needed of how capacity limitations arise from the interaction between the environment and the cognitive system. The ACT-R architecture, a theory without working memory but a long-term memory based on activation, may provide such an explanation
McCormack, Teresa & Hoerl, Christoph (2008). Temporal Decentering and the Development of Temporal Concepts. In P. Indefrey & M. Gullberg (eds.), Time to Speak. Cognitive and Neural Prerequisites of Time in Language. Blackwell.   (Google)
Abstract: This article reviews some recent research on the development of temporal cognition, with reference to Weist's (1989) account of the development of temporal understanding. Weist's distinction between two levels of temporal decentering is discussed, and empirical studies that may be interpreted as measuring temporal decentering are described. We argue that if temporal decentering is defined simply in terms of the coordination of the temporal locations of three events, it may fail to fully capture the properties of mature temporal understanding. Characterizing the development of mature temporal cognition may require, in addition, distinguishing between event-dependent and event-independent thought about time. Experimental evidence relevant to such a distinction is described; these findings suggest that there may be important changes between 3 and 5 years in children's ability to think about points in time independently of the events that occur at those times.
Thompson, R. F. & Kim, J. J. (1996). Memory systems in the brain and the localization of a memory. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences Of The United States Of America 93 (24):13438-13444.   (Cited by 120 | Google | More links)
Thompson, Richard F. & Madigan, Stephen A. (2005). Memory: The Key to Consciousness. Princeton University Press.   (Google)
Toomela, Aaro; Jü, & Allik, ri (1999). Components of verbal working memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):110-110.   (Google)
Abstract: The target article differentiates a new, syntactic component in verbal working memory. We suggest that several more components could be differentiated to make a model of working memory complete. Next, syntax is not always separable from the subject's verbal memory capacity as measured by standard working memory tasks. Finally, interference between different processes cannot be taken as evidence for the processes sharing the same resources. Interference might be a result of active mutual inhibition
Toth, J. P.; Lindsay, D. S. & Jacoby, Larry L. (1992). Awareness, automaticity, and memory dissociations. In L. R. Squire & N. Butters (eds.), Neuropsychology of Memory. Guilford Press.   (Cited by 11 | Google)
Towse, John N. (2001). Memory limits: “Give us an answer!”. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):150-151.   (Google)
Abstract: Cowan has written a meticulous and thought-provoking review of the literature on short-term memory. However, reflections on one area of evidence, that of working memory span, shows the extent to which the research debate can be circumscribed by choice of experimental paradigms
Treves, Alessandro (1999). Mere functional characterization is not enough to understand memory circuits. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (3):466-467.   (Google)
Abstract: What exactly is going on via fornical connections? Aggleton & Brown's target article correctly stresses their importance, but a detailed understanding of their role in memory appears to require fresh research approaches
Tulving, Endel (2005). Episodic memory and autonoesis: Uniquely human? In Herbert S. Terrace & Janet Metcalfe (eds.), The Missing Link in Cognition: Origins of Self-Reflective Consciousness. Oxford University Press.   (Cited by 17 | Google)
Tulving, Endel (1999). Memory, Consciousness, and the Brain: The Tallinn Conference. Psychology Pr.   (Cited by 8 | Google)
Uttl, B.; Graf, P.; Miller, J. & Tuokko, H. (2001). Pro- and retrospective memory in late adulthood. Consciousness and Cognition 10 (4):451-472.   (Google)
Abstract: Everyday tasks, such as getting groceries en route from work, involve two distinct components, one prospective (i.e., remembering the plan) and the other retrospective (i.e., remembering the grocery list). The present investigation examined the size of the age-related performance declines in these components, as well as the relationship between these components and age-related differences in processing resources. The subjects were 133 community-dwelling adults between 65 and 95 years of age. They completed a large battery of tests, including tests of pro- and retrospective memory as well as tests for indexing processing resources. The results showed similar age-related declines in pro- and retrospective memory. There was only a weak relationship between pro- and retrospective memory, and the age-related decline in processing resources was related more strongly to retro- than prospective memory
Vallar, Giuseppe (2003). The short-term/long-term memory distinction: Back to the past? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):757-758.   (Google)
Abstract: The view that short-term memory should be conceived of as being a process based on the activation of long-term memory is inconsistent with neuropsychological evidence. Data from brain-damaged patients, showing specific patterns of impairment, are compatible with a vision of memory as a multiple-component system, whose different aspects, in neurologically unimpaired subjects, show a high degree of interaction
Velichkovsky, Boris M. (1997). The “mesh” approach to human memory: How much of cognitive psychology has to be thrown away? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):39-39.   (Google)
Abstract: While sharing the author's interest in the development of an action-based framework for memory research, I think the present version is neither new nor particularly productive. More differentiation is needed to describe memory functioning in a variety of domains and on the many levels of activity regulation. Above all, Glenberg's proposals seem to contradict empirical data
Verleger, Rolf (2003). Double dissociation in the effects of brain damage on working memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):758-759.   (Google)
Abstract: As revealed by standard neuropsychological testing, patients with damage either to the frontal lobe or to the hippocampus suffer from distinct impairments of working memory. It is unclear how Ruchkin et al.'s model integrates the role played by the hippocampus
Vertes, Robert P. & Eastman, Kathleen E. (2000). Rem sleep is not committed to memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):1057-1063.   (Google)
Abstract: We believe that this has been a constructive debate on the topic of memory consolidation and REM sleep. It was a lively and spirited exchange – the essence of science. A number of issues were discussed including: the pedestal technique, stress, and early REMD work in animals; REM windows; the processing of declarative versus procedural memory in REM in humans; a mnemonic function for theta rhythm in waking but not in REM sleep; the lack of cognitive deficits in patients on antidepressant drugs that suppress or eliminate REM sleep; the disposition of conscious (dreams) and nonconscious material of REM sleep; and finally our theory of REM sleep. Although our position was strongly challenged, we still hold that REM sleep serves no role in the processing and consolidation of memory
Walker, David L. & Gold, Paul E. (1997). NMDA receptors: Substrates or modulators of memory formation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (4):634-634.   (Google)
Abstract: We agree with Shors & Matzel's general hypothesis that the proposed link between NMDA-dependent LTP and memory is weak. They suggest that NMDA-dependent LTP is important to arousal or attentional processes which influence learning in an anterograde manner. However, current evidence is also consistent with the view that NMDA receptors modulate memory consolidation retroactively, as occurs in several other receptor classes
Walker, Matthew P. (2005). Past, present, and the future: Discussions surrounding a new model of sleep-dependent learning and memory processing. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):87-104.   (Google)
Abstract: Following on from the target article, which presented a new model of procedural skill memory development, in this response I will reflect on issues raised by invited commentators and further expound attributes of the model. Discussion will focus on: evidence against sleep-dependent memory processing, definitions of memory stages and memory systems, and relationships between memory enhancement, sleep-stages, dreaming, circadian time, and sleep-disorders
Walenski, Matthew & Swinney, David (1999). Sources of variability in correlating syntactic complexity and working memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):112-112.   (Google)
Abstract: Caplan & Waters's model differentiating levels of processing and the role of working memory is important and likely right. However, their claim rests on a lack of correlation between working memory and structural complexity. We examine sources of variability in these measures that remain unaccounted for (by anyone), variability that muddies a straightforward claim that the lack of correlation is cleanly established
Wang, Yingxu; Liu, Dong & Wang, Ying (2003). Discovering the capacity of human memory. Brain and Mind 4 (2).   (Google)
Abstract: Despite the fact that the number of neurons in the human brain has been identified in cognitive and neural sciences, the magnitude of human memory capacity is still unknown. This paper reports the discovery of the memory capacity of the human brain, which is on the order of 10 8432 bits. A cognitive model of the brain is created, which shows that human memory and knowledge are represented by relations, i.e., connections of synapses between neurons, rather than by the neurons themselves as the traditional container metaphor described. The determination of the magnitude of human memory capacity is not only theoretically significant in cognitive science, but also practically useful to unveil the human potential, as well as the gap between the natural and machine intelligence
Weiss, Sabine & Mueller, Horst M. (2003). Neuronal synchronization accompanying memory processing. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):759-760.   (Google)
Abstract: In their target article, Ruchkin et al. propose sustained neuronal interaction of prefrontal and posterior cortex involved in memory-storage mechanisms with respect to electrophysiological findings on the relationship of short-term and long-term memory processes. We will evaluate this claim in light of recent evidence from our laboratory on EEG coherence analysis of memory processes accompanying language comprehension
Wheeler, Mark A. (2000). Episodic memory and autonoetic awareness. In Endel Tulving & Fergus I. M. Craik (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Memory. Oxford University Press.   (Cited by 20 | Google)
Wheeler, M. (2000). Varieties of consciousness and memory in the developing child. In Endel Tulving (ed.), Memory, Consciousness, and the Brain: The Tallinn Conference. Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis.   (Cited by 3 | Google)
Wingfield, Arthur (1999). Working memory and sentence comprehension: Whose burden of proof? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):113-114.   (Google)
Abstract: Caplan & Waters argue that the processing resources used for sentence comprehension are not drawn from an undifferentiated verbal working memory resource. This commentary cites data from normal aging to support this position. Still lacking in theory development is a specification of the transient memory representations necessary for interpretive and post-interpretive operations
Wynn, Thomas & Coolidge, Fred (2002). The role of working memory in skilled and conceptual thought. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (6):703-704.   (Google)
Abstract: Models of working memory challenge some aspects of Carruthers’ account but enhance others. Although the nature of the phonological store and central executive appear fully congruent with Carruthers’ proposal, current models of the visuo-spatial sketchpad provide a better account of skilled action. However, Carruthers’ model may provide a way around the homunculus problem that has plagued models of working memory
Yonelinas, Andrew P. (2001). Consciousness, control, and confidence: The 3 cs of recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology 130 (3):361-379.   (Cited by 60 | Google | More links)