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5.1l.6.11. Courage (Courage on PhilPapers)

Balot, Ryan K. (2008). Socratic courage and athenian democracy. Ancient Philosophy 28 (1):49-69.   (Google)
Barash, Carol Isaacson (1996). Review essay : Ruth Hubbard, profitable promises: Essays on women, science and health (monroe, me, common courage press, 1995). Philosophy and Social Criticism 22 (3).   (Google)
Bauhn, Per (2003). The Value of Courage. Nordic Academic Press.   (Google)
Baylis, Françoise (2007). Of courage, honor, and integrity. In Lisa A. Eckenwiler & Felicia Cohn (eds.), The Ethics of Bioethics: Mapping the Moral Landscape. Johns Hopkins University Press.   (Google)
Benson, Hugh H. (1994). On manly courage: A study of Plato's laches. Ancient Philosophy 14 (2):383-386.   (Google)
Bonevac, Daniel (ms). Laches, or courage.   (Google)
Abstract: Lys. You have seen the exhibition of the man fighting in armour, Nicias and Laches, but we did not tell you at the time the reason why my friend Melesias and I asked you to go with us and see him. I think that we may as well confess what this was, for we certainly ought not to have any reserve with you. The reason was, that we were intending to ask your advice. Some laugh at the very notion of advising others, and when they are asked will not say what they think. They guess at the wishes of the person who asks them, and answer according to his, and not according to their own, opinion. But as we know that you are good judges, and will say exactly what you think, we have taken you into our counsels. The matter about which I am making all this preface is as follows: Melesias and I have two sons; that is his son, and he is named Thucydides, after his grandfather; and this is mine, who is also called after his grandfather, Aristides. Now, we are resolved to take the greatest care of the youths, and not to let them run about as they like, which is too often the way with the young
Chen, Lisheng (2010). Courage in the analects : A genealogical survey of the confucian virtue of courage. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 5 (1).   (Google)
Abstract: The different meanings of “courage” in The Analects were expressed in Confucius’ remark on Zilu’s bravery. The typological analysis of courage in Mencius and Xunzi focused on the shaping of the personalities of brave persons. “Great courage” and “superior courage”, as the virtues of “great men” or “ shi junzi 士君子 (intellectuals with noble characters)”, exhibit not only the uprightness of the “internal sagacity”, but also the rich implications of the “external kingship”. The prototype of these brave persons could be said to be between Zengzi’s courage and King Wen’s courage. The discussion entered a new stage of Neo-Confucianism in the Song and Ming dynasties, when admiration for “Yanzi’s great valor” became the key of various arguments. The order of “the three cardinal virtues” was also discussed because it concerned the relationship between “finished virtue” and “novice virtue”; hence, the virtue of courage became internalized as an essence of the internal virtuous life. At the turn of the 20 th century, when China was trembling under the threat of foreign powers, intellectuals remodeled the tradition of courage by redefining “Confucius’ great valor”, as Liang Qichao did in representative fashion in his book Chinese Bushido . Hu Shi’s Lun Ru 论儒 (On Ru ) was no more than a repetition of Liang’s opinion. In the theoretical structures of the modern Confucians, courage is hardly given a place. As one of the three cardinal virtues, bravery is but a concept. In a contemporary society where heroes and sages exist only in history books, do we need to talk about courage? How should it be discussed? These are questions which deserve our consideration
Daly, Mary (2006). Amazon Grace: Re-Calling the Courage to Sin Big. Palgrave Macmillan.   (Google)
Abstract: In her signature style, revolutionary Mary Daly takes you on a Quantum leap into a joyous future of victory for women. Daly, the groundbreaking author of such classics as Beyond God the Father and The Church and the Second Sex , explores the visions of Matilda Joslyn Gage, the great nineteenth-century philosopher, and reveals that her insights are stunningly helpful to twenty-first-century Voyagers seeking to overcome the fascism and life-hating fundamentalism that has infused current power structures. Daly shows us once again that Wild, Wise Women can learn to take charge of the current destructive patriarchal forces and use this as an Outlandish opportunity for change
Devereux, Daniel (1977). Courage and wisdom in Plato's. Journal of the History of Philosophy 15 (2).   (Google)
Roger Duncan, (1978). Courage in Plato's protagoras. Phronesis 23 (3):216-228.   (Google)
Funk, Rainer (1982). Erich Fromm: The Courage to Be Human. Continuum.   (Google)
Hamilton, Alastair (2007). Obedient heretics: Mennonite identitities in Lutheran Hamburg and altona during the confessional age. By Michael D. driedger and 'Elisabeth's manly courage': Testimonials and songs of martyred anabaptist women in the low countries. Edited and translated by hermina Joldersma and Louis grijp. Heythrop Journal 48 (3):480–481.   (Google | More links)
Harris, Howard (2001). Content analysis of secondary data: A study of courage in managerial decision making. Journal of Business Ethics 34 (3-4).   (Google)
Abstract: Empirical studies in business ethics often rely on self-reported data, but this reliance is open to criticism. Responses to questionnaires and interviews may be influenced by the subject''s view of what the researcher might want to hear, by a reluctance to talk about sensitive ethical issues, and by imperfect recall. This paper reviews the extent to which published research in business ethics relies on interviews and questionnaires, and then explores the possibilities of using secondary data, such as company documents and newspaper reports, as a source for empirical studies in applied ethics. A specific example is then discussed, describing the source material, the method, the development of the research questions, and the way in which reliability and validity were established. In the example, content analysis was used to examine the extent to which the executive virtue of courage was observed or called for in items published in four international daily newspapers, and to explore the meaning which was attributed to "courage" in the papers
Harris, Howard (2003). Enhancing the independence of supervisory agencies: The development of courage. Business Ethics 12 (4):369–377.   (Google | More links)
Harle, Tim (2005). Serenity, courage and wisdom: Changing competencies for leadership. Business Ethics 14 (4):348–358.   (Google | More links)
Hobbs, Angela (2000). Plato and the Hero: Courage, Manliness, and the Impersonal Good. Cambridge University Press.   (Google)
Abstract: Plato's thinking on courage, manliness and heroism is both profound and central to his work, but these areas of his thought remain underexplored. This book examines his developing critique of the notions and embodiments of manliness prevalent in his culture (particularly those in Homer), and his attempt to redefine such notions in accordance with his ethical, psychological and metaphysical principles. It further seeks to locate the discussion within the framework of Plato's general approach to ethics
Im, Manyul (2004). Moral knowledge and self control in mengzi: Rectitude, courage, and qi. Asian Philosophy 14 (1):59 – 77.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: In this paper, I reveal systematic aspects of the moral epistemology of the Warring States Confucian, Mengzi. Mengzi thinks moral knowledge is 'internally' available to humans because it is acquired through normative dictates built into the human heart-mind (xin). Those dictates are capable of motivating and justifying an agent's normative categorizations. Such dictates are linked to Mengzi's conception of human nature (ren xing) as good. I then interpret Mengzi's difficult discussion of courage and qi in Mengzi 2A: 2 as illuminating the idea of 'internal' justification. The epistemology of courage is intimately related in 2A: 2 to its practice. Finally, I indicate at the end in outline the ways in which Mengzi and Gaozi are engaged in a dispute about moral epistemology that pits each of them against Xunzi and also against Zhuangzi
Ives, Jonathan (2008). Does a belief in God lead to moral cowardice?: The difference between courage of moral conviction and acquisition. Think 7 (20):57-68.   (Google)
Leslie, E. Sekerka; Richard, P. Bagozzi & Richard Charnigo, (2009). Facing ethical challenges in the workplace: Conceptualizing and measuring professional moral courage. Journal of Business Ethics 89 (4).   (Google)
Mahoney, Jack (1998). Editorial adieu: Cultivating moral courage in business. Business Ethics 7 (4):187–192.   (Google | More links)
Müller, Jörn (2008). In war and peace : The virtue of courage in the writings of Albert the great and Thomas Aquinas. In István Pieter Bejczy (ed.), Virtue Ethics in the Middle Ages: Commentaries on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics, 1200 -1500. Brill.   (Google)
Mumbach, Mary (2010). The courage of reason and the scandal of education. In Bainard Cowan (ed.), Gained Horizons: Regensburg and the Enlargement of Reason. St. Augustine's Press.   (Google)
Norris, Christopher (2001). 'Courage not under fire': Realism, anti-realism, and the epistemological virtues. Inquiry 44 (3):269 – 290.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: This article offers a critical perspective on two lines of thought in recent epistemology and philosophy of science, namely Michael Dummett?s anti-realist approach to issues of truth, meaning, and knowledge and Bas van Fraassen?s influential programme of ?constructive empiricism?. While not denying the salient differences between them (the one a metaphysical doctrine premised on logicolinguistic considerations, the other a thesis primarily concerned with the scope and limits of empirical inquiry) it shows how they converge on a sceptical outlook concerning the realist claim that truth might always transcend the restrictions of some given (or indeed some future best-possible) state of knowledge. The author puts the case that such sceptical arguments, if followed through consistently, must involve giving up all claim to account for our knowledge of the growth of scientific knowledge. He also takes issue with Dummett?s idea of truth as nothing more than a matter of ?warranted assertibility? and with van Fraassen?s likewise verificationist conception of empirical warrant as the most we can have by way of epistemic justification. Thus it is wrong to suppose that the realist is merely indulging in a display of ?courage not under fire? when she assumes ontological commitments in excess of the observational data. This disavowal of realism in favour of a theory which ?saves the (empirical) appearances? has a less-than-distinguished prehistory in the range of compromise strategies adopted by upholders of a dominant metaphysics or world-view, starting out with the orthodox Catholic attempt to defuse the implications of the heliocentric hypothesis advanced by Copernicus and Galileo. Such theological motives are nowadays not so prominent although ? it is suggested fithey do emerge at certain points in Dummett?s writing. More constructively, this article presents a case for objectivism with regard to scientific truth and also for inference to the best causal explanation on both the micro- and the macrophysical scale as the only approach with an adequate claim to make sense of the history of advancements in scientific knowledge to date
O'Connell, Robert J. (1997). William James on the Courage to Believe. Fordham University Press.   (Google)
Abstract: William James’ celebrated lecture on “The Will to Believe” has kindled spirited controversy since the day it was delivered. In this lively reappraisal of that controversy, Father O’Connell contributes some fresh contentions: that James’ argument should be viewed against his indebtedness to Pascal and Renouvier; that it works primarily to validate our “over-beliefs” ; and most surprising perhaps, that James envisages our “passional nature” as intervening, not after, but before and throughout, our intellectual weighing of the evidence for belief
Penner, Terry (1992). What laches and nicias miss-and whether socrates thinks courage merely a part of virtue. Ancient Philosophy 12 (1):1-27.   (Google)
Pfau, Michael (2007). Who's afraid of fear appeals? Contingency, courage and deliberation in rhetorical theory and practice. Philosophy and Rhetoric 40 (2).   (Google)
Putman, Daniel (2001). The emotions of courage. Journal of Social Philosophy 32 (4):463–470.   (Google | More links)
Pybus, Elizabeth (1991). Human Goodness: Generosity and Courage. Harvester Wheatsheaf.   (Google)
Rabieh, Linda R. (2006). Plato and the Virtue of Courage. Johns Hopkins University Press.   (Google)
Abstract: Plato and the Virtue of Courage canvasses contemporary discussions of courage and offers a new and controversial account of Plato's treatment of the concept. Linda R. Rabieh examines Plato's two main thematic discussions of courage, in the Laches and the Republic, and discovers that the two dialogues together yield a coherent, unified treatment of courage that explores a variety of vexing questions: Can courage be separated from justice, so that one can act courageously while advancing an unjust cause? Can courage be legitimately called a virtue? What role does wisdom play in courage? What role does courage play in wisdom? Based on Plato's presentation, Rabieh argues that a refined version of traditional heroic courage, notwithstanding certain excesses to which it is prone, is worth honoring and cultivating for several reasons. Chief among these is that, by facilitating the pursuit of wisdom, such courage can provide a crucial foundation for the courage most deserving of the name
Sacksteder, William (1958). A senator looks at courage. Ethics 68 (2):137-139.   (Google | More links)
Sekerka, Leslie E.; Bagozzi, Richard P. & Charnigo, Richard (forthcoming). Facing ethical challenges in the workplace: Conceptualizing and measuring professional moral courage. Journal of Business Ethics.   (Google)
Sekerka, Leslie E. & Bagozzi, Richard P. (2007). Moral courage in the workplace: Moving to and from the desire and decision to act. Business Ethics 16 (2):132–149.   (Google | More links)
Sekerka, Leslie & Zolin, Roxanne (2005). Professional courage in the military: Regulation fit and establishing moral intent. Business and Professional Ethics Journal 24 (4):27-50.   (Google)
Stout, Robert (1923). The need of courage. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 1 (2):77 – 83.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: A brave man leaveth not the battle, He who flieth from it is no true warrior, In the field of this body a great war is toward Against Passion, Hunger, Pride and Greed, It is for the Kingdom of Truth, of Contentment and of Purity that this battle is raging: And the sword that ringeth most loudly is the sword Of His name. —KABIR, Hindu Poet
Tillich, Paul (2000). The Courage to Be. Yale University Press.   (Google)
Walton, Douglas N. (1990). Courage, relativism and practical reasoning. Philosophia 20 (1-2).   (Google)
Waterfield, Robin (2007). Plato and the virtue of courage. By Linda R. rabieh. Heythrop Journal 48 (6):992–993.   (Google | More links)
Weiss, Roslyn (1985). Courage, confidence, and wisdom in the protagoras. Ancient Philosophy 5 (1):11-24.   (Google)
Woodruff, Paul (2007). Socrates and political courage. Ancient Philosophy 27 (2):289-302.   (Google)
Yuen, Shirley (2005). Three Virtues of Effective Parenting: Lessons From Confucius on the Power of Benevolence, Wisdom, and Courage. Tuttle Pub..   (Google)