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5.1l.6.9. Trust (Trust on PhilPapers)

Abramov, Igor (forthcoming). Building peace in fragile states – building trust is essential for effective public–private partnerships. Journal of Business Ethics.   (Google)
Abstract: Increasingly, the private sector is playing a greater role in supporting peace building efforts in conflict and post-conflict areas by providing critical expertise, know-how, and capital. However, reports of the corrupt practices of both governments and businesses have plagued international peace building efforts, deepening the distrust of stricken communities. Businesses are perceived as being selfish and indifferent to the impact their operations may have on the social and political development of local communities. Additionally, the corruption of local governments has been cited as interfering with the creation of stability in conflict areas. Within this framework, multinational Public–Private Partnerships can exert two forms of influence: they can either exacerbate these problems, or they can become part of the solution. Without a relationship of trust among local businesses, government, and the private sector, peace building efforts will at best be mixed, and could possibly perpetuate violence in fragile states. Public and private interests are better served when Public–Private Partnerships are based upon collaboration and assist in establishing principles of good governance in conflict areas. This in turn can help build trust and regain the credibility of both sectors among local communities, which are essential in making Public–Private Partnerships more effective
Acton, H. B. (1974). The Idea of a Spiritual Power: Auguste Comte Memorial Trust Lecture, Delivered on 15 May 1973 at the London School of Economics and Political Science. Athlone Press.   (Google)
Adler, Jonathan E. (1994). Testimony, trust, knowing. Journal of Philosophy 91 (5):264-275.   (Google | More links)
Andersen, Jon Aarum (2005). Trust in managers: A study of why swedish subordinates trust their managers. Business Ethics 14 (4):392–404.   (Google | More links)
Andreassen, R.i.x. & Rod, Det Etiske (1990). The importance of knowledge and trust in the definition of death. Bioethics 4 (3):232–236.   (Google | More links)
Argandoña, Antonio (1999). Sharing out in alliances: Trust and ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 21 (2-3).   (Google)
Abstract: Alliances are relatively new forms of relationships between businesses which allow cooperation in some areas of activity while maintaining competition in others, even in those areas where cooperation is the established procedure. Logically, this demands a mutual trust on the basis of which the cooperation can be established. The nature of this relationship is, furthermore, dynamic inasmuch as it develops over a period of time and generates new conditions which either enhance or destroy trust.This article reviews the general issues of alliances and, in particular, the special relationships between the parties. The discussion of the creation and development of trust in an alliance describes both what technical, psychological, sociological and, particularly, ethical conditions make an alliance possible and the ethical nature of the necessary step which must be taken as trust is transformed from mere possibility into the actual fact of placing trust in a partner
Atkins, Kim (2002). Friendship, trust and forgiveness. Philosophia 29 (1-4).   (Google)
Audi, Robert (2008). Some dimensions of trust in business practices: From financial and product representation to licensure and voting. Journal of Business Ethics 80 (1).   (Google)
Abstract: This paper is an examination of the role of trust in the previous seven papers in this issue of the Journal. Trust and trustworthiness are briefly characterized; their importance in business itself and in business ethics is briefly described; and each paper is discussed in relation to how trust figures in the ethical issues it raises. The overall discussion brings out the need for further work on the nature of trust and on the elements in business, such as transparency, that apparently help to sustain it
Ayios, Angela (2003). Competence and trust guardians as key elements of building trust in east-west joint ventures in russia. Business Ethics 12 (2):190–202.   (Google | More links)
Baier, Annette (1986). Trust and antitrust. Ethics 96 (2):231-260.   (Google | More links)
Baier, Annette C. (2007). Trust, suffering, and the aesculapian virtues. In Rebecca L. Walker & P. J. Ivanhoe (eds.), Working Virtue: Virtue Ethics and Contemporary Moral Problems. Oxford University Press.   (Google)
Baker, Reviewed by Judith (2000). Martin Hollis, trust within reason. Ethics 110 (2).   (Google)
Baurmann, Michael & Brennan, Geoffrey (2009). What should the voter know? Epistemic trust in democracy. Grazer Philosophische Studien 79 (1):159-186.   (Google)
Abstract: Alvin Goldman develops the concept of “core voter knowledge” to capture the kind of knowledge that voters need to have in order that democracy function successfully. As democracy is supposed to promote the people's goals, core voter knowledge must, according to Goldman, first and foremost answer the question which electoral candidate would successfully perform in achieving that voter's ends. In our paper we challenge this concept of core voter knowledge from different angles. We analyse the dimensions of political trustworthiness and their relevance for the voter; we contrast two alternative orientations that the voter might take—an “outcome-orientation” and a “process-orientation”; and we discuss how an expressive account of voting behaviour would shift the focus in regard to the content of voter knowledge. Finally, we discuss some varieties of epistemic trust and their relevance for the availability, acquisition and dissemination of voter knowledge in a democracy
Becker, Lawrence C. (1996). Trust as noncognitive security about motives. Ethics 107 (1):43-61.   (Google | More links)
Bellingham, Richard (2003). Ethical Leadership: Rebuilding Trust in Corporations. Hrd Press.   (Google)
Abstract: Creating an ethical culture -- Winning through people -- Winning with customers -- Winning for the community -- Action steps and strategies -- Summary -- Appendix A: An ETHICS evaluation tool: ethics assessment and goal-setting -- Appendix B: Debate and guidance: the literature and best practices.
Bell, Geoffrey G.; Oppenheimer, Robert J. & Bastien, Andre (2002). Trust deterioration in an international buyer-supplier relationship. Journal of Business Ethics 36 (1-2).   (Google)
Abstract: Despite an abundance of research on inter-organizational trust, researchers are only beginning to understand the process of trust deterioration as an inter-organizational phenomenon. This paper presents a case study examining the deteriorating relationship between two international high-tech firms. We surveyed respondents from the supplier firm to identify major elements that reduced the supplier's trust in its customer, using the dimensions of trust identified by Mayer et al. (1995). While violations of ability, integrity, and benevolence all contributed to trust reduction, early violations of trustee benevolence contributed importantly to trust deterioration. Over time, the relationship became "sensitive," and respondents reported many incidents of trust violation. Managers reported primarily integrity- and benevolence-related incidents, while no pattern emerged among operations personnel. We examine the results in light of Hosmer's (1995) ethically-based trust principles. The supplier and customer would likely differ in their opinion of whether the customer was acting "ethically." This suggests that scholars need to examine how many principles can be violated before trust is eliminated, and whether any of the principles are particularly salient in business relationships
Bernasek, Anna (2010). The Economics of Integrity: From Dairy Farmers to Toyota, How Wealth is Built on Trust and What That Means for Our Future. Harperstudio.   (Google)
Bicchieri, Cristina; Duffy, John & Tolle, and Gil (2004). Trust among strangers. Philosophy of Science 71 (3):286-319.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: The paper presents a simulation of the dynamics of impersonal trust. It shows how a "trust and reciprocate" norm can emerge and stabilize in populations of conditional cooperators. The norm, or behavioral regularity, is not to be identified with a single strategy. It is instead supported by several conditional strategies that vary in the frequency and intensity of sanctions
Bicchieri, Cristina; Xiao, Erte & Muldoon, Ryan (forthcoming). Trust if you wish, always reciprocate. Politics, Philosophy and Economics.   (Google)
Abstract: Previous literature has demonstrated the important role that trust plays in developing and maintaining well-functioning societies. However, if we are to learn how to increase levels of trust in society, we must first understand why people choose to trust others. One potential answer to this is that people view trust as normative: there is a social norm for trusting that imposes punishment for non-compliance. To test this, we report data from a survey with salient rewards to elicit people’s attitudes regarding punishment of distrusting behavior in a trust game. Our results show that that people do not behave as though trust is a norm. Our participants expected that most people would not punish untrusting investors, regardless of whether the potential trustee was a stranger or friend. In contrast, our participants behaved as though being trustworthy is a norm. Most people believe that most people would punish someone who failed to reciprocate a stranger or friend’s trust. We conclude that, while we were able to reproduce previous results establishing the norm of reciprocating trust, we find that there is no evidence for a corresponding norm of trust, even among friends.
Bicchieri, Cristina; Lev-On, Azi & Chavez, Alex (forthcoming). The medium or the message? Communication relevance and richness in trust games. Synthese.   (Google)
Abstract: Subjects communicated prior to playing trust games; the richness of the communication media and the topics of conversation were manipulated. Communication richness failed to produce significant differences in first-mover investments. However, the topics of conversation made a significant difference: the amounts sent were considerably higher in the unrestricted communication conditions than in the restricted communication and no-communication conditions. Most importantly, we find that first-movers’ expectations of second-movers’ reciprocation are influenced by communication and strongly predict their levels of investment
Bird, Stephanie J. & Housman, David E. (1995). Trust and the collection, selection, analysis and interpretation of data: A scientist's view. Science and Engineering Ethics 1 (4).   (Google)
Abstract:  Trust is a critical component of research: trust in the work of co-workers and colleagues within the scientific community; trust in the work of research scientists by the non-research community. A wide range of factors, including internally and externally generated pressures and practical and personal limitations, affect the research process. The extent to which these factors are understood and appreciated influence the development of trust in scientific research findings
Birmingham, Robert L. (1969). The prisoner's dilemma and mutual trust: Comment. Ethics 79 (2):156-158.   (Google | More links)
Bishop, Nicole (1996). Trust is not enough: Classroom self-disclosure and the loss of private lives. Journal of Philosophy of Education 30 (3):429–439.   (Google | More links)
Blois, Keith (2003). Is it commercially irresponsible to trust? Journal of Business Ethics 45 (3).   (Google)
Abstract: This paper considers a recent U.K. legal dispute where a supplier sued a large organization, which had been a long-term customer, for breach of implied contract. It uses this case to discuss aspects of the nature of trust between organizations. The discussion encompasses a consideration of the distinction between trust and reliability; and, why the concept of blanket trust is not helpful. In conclusion, by contrasting business-to-business and personal relationships, the paper suggests that firms in their relationships with other institutions should never follow an unquestioning form of strong trust
Bluhm, Louis H. (1987). Trust, terrorism, and technology. Journal of Business Ethics 6 (5).   (Google)
Abstract: The development of civilization implies an evolution of complex trust mechanisms which integrate the social system and form bonds which allow individuals to interact, even if they are strangers. Key elements of trust are predictability of consequences and an evaluation of consequences in terms of self-interest or values. Values, ethics, and norms enhance predictability. The terrorist introduces an unpredictable event which has negative consequences, thus destroying trust. However, terrorist-like situations occur in day-to-day activities. Technology itself makes the world more interdependent and less predictable. Furthermore, technological accidents and disasters, which are also unpredictable and negative, may prompt individuals to perceive technology as if it were a terrorist
Bolton, Jonathan (2000). Trust and the healing encounter: An examination of an unorthodox healing performance. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 21 (4).   (Google)
Abstract: Just why a patient should trust a particular healer isa question that has not been adequately explored inthe literature on healing. This ethnographiccase-report examines the healing performance of achiropractor and proposes that it contains fourintrinsic claims to trustworthiness: he claims to bea qualified and sincere healer who is inpossession of knowledge and techniques that derivetheir power from their truth content and whichempower him to make beneficial changes in thepatient. Taking each claim in turn I described thenature of the claim, how it might be adequatelyvalidated, ways in which his healing performance mightvalidate it and how he might be assisted by thepatient, and how their actual validation may bedistorted by the healer and patient. It is suggestedthat while unusual in many regards, this unorthodoxhealing performance may be a foil by which toexamine other more orthodox healing performances
Boudreau, Cheryl; McCubbins, Mathew D. & Coulson, Seana (ms). Knowing when to trust others: An ERP study of decision-making after receiving information from unknown people.   (Google)
Abstract:      To address the neurocognitive mechanisms that underlie choices made after receiving information from an anonymous individual, reaction times (Experiment 1) and event-related brain potentials (Experiment 2) were recorded as participants played 3 variants of the Coin Toss game. In this game, participants guess the outcomes of unseen coin tosses, and a person in another room (dubbed "the reporter") observes the coin toss outcomes and then sends reports (which may or may not be truthful) to participants about whether the coins landed on heads or tails. Participants knew that the reporter's interests either were aligned with their own (Common Interests), opposed to their own (Conflicting Interests), or opposed to their own but that the reporter was penalized every time he or she sent a false report about the coin toss outcome (Penalty for Lying). In the Common Interests and Penalty for Lying conditions, participants followed the reporter's reports over 90% of the time, in contrast to less than 59% of the time in the Conflicting Interests condition. Reaction time results indicated that participants took similar amounts of time to respond in the Common Interests and Penalty for Lying conditions and that they were reliably faster than in the Conflicting Interests condition. Event-related potentials (ERPs) timelocked to the reporter's reports revealed a larger P2, P3, and LPC response in the Common Interests condition than in the other two, suggesting that participants' brains processed the reporter's reports differently in the Common Interests condition, relative to the other two conditions. Results suggest that even when people behave as if they trust information, they consider communicative efforts of individuals whose interests are aligned with their own to be slightly more informative than those of individuals who are made trustworthy by an institution, such as a penalty for lying
Brien, Andrew (1998). Professional ethics and the culture of trust. Journal of Business Ethics 17 (4).   (Google)
Abstract: The cause of ethical failure in organisations often can be traced to their organisational culture and the failure on the part of the leadership to actively promote ethical ideals and practices. This is true of all types of organisations, including the professions, which in recent years have experienced ongoing ethical problems. The questions naturally arise: what sort of professional culture promotes ethical behaviour? How can it be implemented by a profession and engendered in the individual professional? The answers to these questions are of interest to business ethicists since the causes of ethical problems in business are often the same and the professions, as ethically challenged organisations, make useful and informative analogues for the measures to be adopted or avoided when the attempt is made to raise the ethical standards of business.Given this focus on the professions, it will be argued that the usual, direct attempts to control unethical behaviour by using codes of ethics, legislation and self-regulatory regimes, are not successful
Brownlie, Julie (2008). Conceptualizing trust and health. In Julie Brownlie, Alexandra Greene & Alexandra Howson (eds.), Researching Trust and Health. Routledge.   (Google)
Brom, Frans W. A. (2000). Food, consumer concerns, and trust: Food ethics for a globalizing market. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 12 (2).   (Google)
Abstract: The use of biotechnology in food productiongives rise to consumer concerns. The term ``consumerconcern'' is often used as a container notion. Itincludes concerns about food safety, environmental andanimal welfare consequences of food productionsystems, and intrinsic moral objections againstgenetic modification. In order to create clarity adistinction between three different kinds of consumerconcern is proposed. Consumer concerns can be seen assigns of loss of trust. Maintaining consumer trustasks for governmental action. Towards consumerconcerns, governments seem to have limitedpossibilities for public policy. Under current WTOregulations designed to prevent trade disputes,governments can only limit their policies to 1) safetyregulation based upon sound scientific evidence and 2)the stimulation of a system of product labeling. Ananalysis of trust, however, can show that ifgovernments limit their efforts in this way, they willnot do enough to avoid the types of consumer concernsthat diminish trust. The establishment of a technicalbody for food safety – although perhaps necessary –is in itself not enough, because concerns that relatedirectly to food safety cannot be solved by ``pure''science alone. And labeling can only be a good way totake consumer concerns seriously if these concerns arerelated to consumer autonomy. For consumer concernsthat are linked to ideas about a good society,labeling can only provide a solution if it is seen asan addition to political action rather than as itssubstitution. Labeling can help consumers take uptheir political responsibility. As citizens, consumershave certain reasonable concerns that can justifiableinfluence the market. In a free-market society, theyare, as buyers, co-creators of the market, andsocietal steering is partly done by the market.Therefore, they need the information to co-create thatmarket. The basis of labeling in these cases, however,is not the good life of the individual but thepolitical responsibility people have in their role asparticipants in a free-market. Then, public concernsare taken seriously. Labeling in that case does nottake away the possibilities of reaching politicalgoals, but it adds a possibility
Brownlie, Julie; Greene, Alexandra & Howson, Alexandra (eds.) (2008). Researching Trust and Health. Routledge.   (Google)
Abstract: There is currently a lively debate about the nature of trust and the conditions necessary to establish and sustain it. Yet, to date, there has been little systematic exploration of these issues. While social scientists are beginning to tease out the nature of trust, there are few published accounts exploring these themes through empirical work There is thus a need for empirically based research, which intelligently unravels this complexity to support all stakeholders in the health arena. This multidisciplinary volume addresses this gap by contributing substantively to the exploration of trust in the experience, practice and organization of health. The authors examine a range of significant conceptual themes in relation to trust, including trust and auditing, consent, expert knowledges and social capital. Through reflecting on these emergent themes, the collection is a landmark contribution to the theoretical and empirical work on trust
Bruni, Luigino & Sugden, Robert (2000). Moral canals: Trust and social capital in the work of Hume, Smith and Genovesi. Economics and Philosophy 16 (1):21-45.   (Google)
Abstract: It is a truism that a market economy cannot function without trust. We must be able to rely on other people to respect our property rights, and on our trading partners to keep their promises. The theory of economics is incomplete unless it can explain why economic agents often trust one another, and why that trust is often repaid. There is a long history of work in economics and philosophy which tries to explain the kinds of reasoning that people use when they engage in practices of trust: this work develops theories of trust. A related tradition in economics, sociology and political science investigates the kinds of social institution that reproduce whatever habits, dispositions or modes of reasoning are involved in acts of trust: this work develops theories of social capital. A recurring question in these literatures is whether a society which organizes its economic life through markets is capable of reproducing the trust on which those markets depend. In this paper, we look at these themes in relation to the writings of three eighteenth-century philosopher-economists: David Hume, Adam Smith, and Antonio Genovesi
Buchanan, Allen (2000). Trust in managed care organizations. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 10 (3).   (Google)
Abstract: : Two basic criticisms of managed care are that it erodes patient trust in physicians and subjects physicians to incentives and pressures that compromise the physician's fiduciary obligation to the patient. In this article, I first distinguish between status trust and merit trust, and then argue (1) that the value of status trust in physicians is probably over-rated and certainly underdocumented; (2) that erosion of status trust may not be detrimental if accompanied by an increase in well-founded merit trust; and (3) that under conditions of managed care the physician's commitment to traditional medical ethics cannot serve as an adequate basis for merit trust. Next, drawing on an analogy between managed care organizations and polities, I argue that (4) the most appropriate basis for merit trust in managed care is a conception of organizational legitimacy that includes procedural justice, empowerment of constructive criticism within the organization, and organizational accommodation of the noninstrumental commitment to patient well-being that is distinctive of medical professionalism. I then explore the conditions necessary for robust competition for merit trust among managed care organizations and indicate the kinds of public policies needed to facilitate such competition. Finally, I show how the account of organization-based merit trust can accommodate the special fiduciary obligation of medical professionals, without indulging in the delusion that it is the physician's fiduciary obligation always to provide all care that is expected to be of any net benefit to the patient
Bueno, Otávio & Azzouni, Jody (2005). Donald Mac kenzie. Mechanizing proof: Computing, risk, and trust. Cambridge, mass.: Mit press, 2001. Pp. XI + 427. Philosophia Mathematica 13 (3).   (Google)
Burri, Regula Valérie (2007). Deliberating risks under uncertainty: Experience, trust, and attitudes in a swiss nanotechnology stakeholder discussion group. NanoEthics 1 (2).   (Google)
Abstract: Scientific knowledge has not stabilized in the current, early, phase of research and development of nanotechnologies creating a challenge to ‘upstream’ public engagement. Nevertheless, the idea that the public should be involved in deliberative discussions and assessments of emerging technologies at this early stage is widely shared among governmental and nongovernmental stakeholders. Many forums for public debate including focus groups, and citizen juries, have thus been organized to explore public opinions on nanotechnologies in a variety of countries over the past few years. In Switzerland the Centre for Technology Assessment (TA-Swiss) organized such a citizen panel in fall 2006. Drawing from an ethnographic study of this panel called ‘publifocus on nanotechnologies, health, and environment’ this paper looks at the ways members of a stakeholder group deal with the epistemic uncertainty in their deliberation of nanotechnologies. By exploring the statements of the participants in the stakeholder discussion group, this paper reconstructs the narratives that constitute the epistemic foundations of the participants’ evaluations of nanotechnologies
Caldwell, Cam; Hayes, Linda A.; Bernal, Patricia & Karri, Ranjan (2008). Ethical stewardship – implications for leadership and trust. Journal of Business Ethics 78 (1-2).   (Google)
Abstract: Great leaders are ethical stewards who generate high levels of commitment from followers. In this paper, we propose that perceptions about the trustworthiness of leader behaviors enable those leaders to be perceived as ethical stewards. We define ethical stewardship as the honoring of duties owed to employees, stakeholders, and society in the pursuit of long-term wealth creation. Our model of relationship between leadership behaviors, perceptions of trustworthiness, and the nature of ethical stewardship reinforces the importance of ethical governance in dealing with employees and in creating organizational systems that are congruent with espoused organizational values
Caldwell, Cam & Dixon, Rolf D. (2010). Love, forgiveness, and trust: Critical values of the modern leader. Journal of Business Ethics 93 (1).   (Google)
Abstract: In a world that has become increasingly dependent upon employee ownership, commitment, and initiative, organizations need leaders who can inspire their␣employees and motivate them individually. Love, forgiveness, and trust are critical values of today’s organization leaders who are committed to maximizing value for organizations while helping organization members to become their best. We explain the importance of love, forgiveness, and trust in the modern organization and identify 10 commonalities of these virtues
Caldwell, Cam & Karri, Ranjan (2005). Organizational governance and ethical systems: A covenantal approach to building trust. Journal of Business Ethics 58 (1-3).   (Google)
Abstract: . American businesses and corporate executives are faced with a serious problem the loss of public confidence. Public criticism, increased government controls, and growing expectations for improved financial performance and accountability have accompanied this decline in trust. Traditional approaches to corporate governance, typified by agency theory and stakeholder theory, have been expensive to direct and have focused on short-term profits and organizational systems that fail to achieve desired results. We explain why the organizational governance theories are fundamentally, inadequate to build trust. We advance a conceptual framework based on stewardship theory characterized by “covenantal relationships” and argue that design of governance mechanisms using a covenantal approach is more effective in building trust in organizations. A covenantal relationship is a specialized form of a relational contract between an employee and his or her organization. We argue that regardless of incentives and control mechanisms carefully designed through contractual mechanisms, in the absence of covenantal relationships it is extremely difficult to build trust within organizations. We propose that organizations are more likely to build trust – both at the organizational level and at the interpersonal level – when they create reinforcing and integrated systems that honor implied duties of “covenantal relationships.”
Caldwell, Cam; Davis, Brian & Devine, James A. (forthcoming). Trust, faith, and betrayal: Insights from management for the wise believer. Journal of Business Ethics.   (Google)
Cam Caldwell, Linda; A. Hayes, Patricia Bernal & Ranjan Karri, (forthcoming). Ethical stewardship – implications for leadership and trust. Journal of Business Ethics.   (Google)
Abstract: Great leaders are ethical stewards who generate high levels of commitment from followers. In this paper, we propose that perceptions about the trustworthiness of leader behaviors enable those leaders to be perceived as ethical stewards. We define ethical stewardship as the honoring of duties owed to employees, stakeholders, and society in the pursuit of long-term wealth creation. Our model of relationship between leadership behaviors, perceptions of trustworthiness, and the nature of ethical stewardship reinforces the importance of ethical governance in dealing with employees and in creating organizational systems that are congruent with espoused organizational values
Carusi, Annamaria (2008). Scientific visualisations and aesthetic grounds for trust. Ethics and Information Technology 10 (4).   (Google)
Abstract: The collaborative ‹Big Science’ approach prevalent in physics during the mid- and late-20th century is becoming more common in the life sciences. Often computationally mediated, these collaborations challenge researchers’ trust practices. Focusing on the visualisations that are often at the heart of this form of scientific practice, the paper proposes that the aesthetic aspects of these visualisations are themselves a way of securing trust. Kant’s account of aesthetic judgements in the Third Critique is drawn upon in order to show that the image-building capability of imagination, and the sensus communis, both of which are integral parts of aesthetic experience, play an important role in building and sustaining community in these forms of science. Kant’s theory shows that the aesthetic appeal of scientific visualisations is not isolated from two other dimensions of the visualisations: the cognitive-epistemic, aesthetic-stylistic and interpersonal dimensions, and that in virtue of these inter-relationships, visualisations contribute to building up the intersubjectively shared framework of agreement which is basic for trust
Castaldo, Sandro; Perrini, Francesco; Misani, Nicola & Tencati, Antonio (2009). The missing link between corporate social responsibility and consumer trust: The case of fair trade products. Journal of Business Ethics 84 (1).   (Google)
Abstract: This paper investigates the link between the consumer perception that a company is socially oriented and the consumer intention to buy products marketed by that company. We suggest that this link exists when at least two conditions prevail: (1) the products sold by that company comply with ethical and social requirements; (2) the company has an acknowledged commitment to protect consumer rights and interests. To test these hypotheses, we conducted a survey among the clients of retail chains offering Fair Trade products. The results show that socially oriented companies can successfully leverage their reputation to market products with high symbolic values
Castaldo, Sandro; Premazzi, Katia & Zerbini, Fabrizio (forthcoming). The meaning(s) of trust. A content analysis on the diverse conceptualizations of trust in scholarly research on business relationships. Journal of Business Ethics.   (Google)
Abstract: Scholarly research largely converges on the argument that trust is of paramount importance to drive economic agents toward mutually satisfactory, fair, and ethically compliant behaviors. There is, however, little agreement on the meaning of trust, whose conceptualizations differ with respect to actors, relationships, behaviors, and contexts. At present, we know much better what trust does than what trust is . In this article, we present an extensive review and analysis of the most prominent articles on trust in market relationships. Using computer-aided content analysis and network analysis methods, we identify key, recurring dimensions that guided the conceptualization of trust in past research, and show how trust can be developed as a multifaceted and layered construct. Our results are an important contribution to a convergence of research toward a shared and common view of the meaning of trust. This process is important to ensure the body of trust research’s internal theoretical consistency, and to provide reliable and common principles for the management of business relationships – a context in which opportunism and imperfect information may induce economic actors to cheat and stray from fair and ethically compliant behaviors
Chan, Marjorie (2003). Corporate espionage and workplace trust/distrust. Journal of Business Ethics 42 (1).   (Google)
Abstract: The central focus of this research is: The growing corporate espionage activities due to fierce competition lead to highly controlling security measures and intensive employee monitoring which bring about distrust in the workplace. The paper examines various research works on trust and distrust. It highlights the conflictful demands managers face. They have to deter espionage activities, but at the same time, build trusting relationships in the workplace. The paper also describes various operations, personnel, physical and technical countermeasuresto combat corporate espionage together with three espionage case examples which illustrate the importance of some of these countermeasures. Various authors'' trust and distrust arguments are used to assess the cases. The paper ends with suggestions for future research
Chen, Yu-Shan (2010). The drivers of green brand equity: Green brand image, green satisfaction, and green trust. Journal of Business Ethics 93 (2).   (Google)
Abstract: This article proposed four novel constructs – green brand image, green satisfaction, green trust, and green brand equity, and explored the positive relationships between green brand equity and its three drivers – green brand image, green satisfaction, and green trust. The object of this research study was information and electronics products in Taiwan. This research employed an empirical study by use of the questionnaire survey method. The questionnaires were randomly mailed to consumers who had the experience of purchasing information and electronics products. The results showed that green brand image, green satisfaction, and green trust are positively related to green brand equity. Furthermore, the positive relationship between green brand image and green brand equity is partially mediated by green satisfaction and green trust. Hence, investing on resources to increase green brand image, green satisfaction, and green trust is helpful to enhance green brand equity
Chiou, Jyh-Shen & Pan, Lee-Yun (2008). The impact of social darwinism perception, status anxiety, perceived trust of people, and cultural orientation on consumer ethical beliefs. Journal of Business Ethics 78 (4).   (Google)
Abstract: This study intends to explore the effects of political, social and cultural values on consumers’ ethical beliefs regarding questionable consumption behaviors. The variables examined include status anxiety, social Darwinism perception, perceived trust of people, and cultural orientation. Based on a field survey in Taiwan, the results showed that consumers with low ethical beliefs have higher perception of social Darwinism and status anxiety than consumers possess neutral and high ethical beliefs. The result also showed that the neutral ethics group had higher trust on people than the low ethics groups. Finally, the high ethics group expressed significantly higher perception of vertical collectivism than those consumers of the low and neutral ethics group
Choi, Chong Ju; Eldomiaty, Tarek Ibrahim & Kim, Sae Won (2007). Consumer trust, social marketing and ethics of welfare exchange. Journal of Business Ethics 74 (1).   (Google)
Clarke, Simon (ms). A trust-based argument against paternalism.   (Google)
Abstract: This essay addresses the role of trust in political philosophy. In particular, it examines the idea that trust is necessary for a particular type of government action — paternalistic action — to be justified. Liberal theory and liberal democratic practice are characterized by a large degree of anti-paternalism, understanding paternalism to be the restriction of individual liberty for a person’s good, instead of to protect or benefit others. It would be a mistake to think that liberal democracies have no paternalism; seatbelt, motorcycle helmet, and drug prohibition laws, for example, are probably at least partly motivated by paternalistic reasons. But it is easy to imagine more pervasive paternalism. Society could, and does in some cultures, restrict people’s choices of occupation, marriage partners, and where to live, with the rationale that these restrictions are for people’s good. Many people believe that the liberal position is the correct one, that more pervasive paternalism would be unjustified, but what is the philosophical justification for anti-paternalism?
Clark, Chalmers C. (2002). Trust in medicine. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 27 (1):11 – 29.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: Trust relations in medicine are argued to be a requisite response to the special vulnerability of persons as patients. Even so, the problem of motivating trust remains a vital concern. On this score, it is argued that a strong motivation can be found in recognizing that professional self-interest actually entails cultivation of patient trust as a means to maintain professional self-governance. And while the initial move to restore trust must be provoked from such narrow concerns, the process of sustaining trust will require educational initiatives aimed at restoring attitudes and skills suggestive of Percival's concept of empathic care. By including such initiatives, future waves of medical professionals are apt to sustain trust with deepened commitments to character, care, and trust as constitutive properties of their professional mission
Cleeremans, Axel, Is it better to think unconsciously or to trust your first impression? A reassessment of unconscious thought theory.   (Google)
Abstract: According to Unconscious Thought Theory (Dijksterhuis & Nordgren, 2006), complex decisions are best made after a period of distraction assumed to elicit “unconscious thought”. Here, we suggest instead that the superiority of decisions made after distraction results from the fact that conscious deliberation can deteriorate impressions formed online during information acquisition. We found that participants instructed to form an impression made better decisions after distraction than after deliberation, thereby replicating earlier findings. However, decisions made immediately were just as good as decisions made after distraction, which suggests (1) that people had already made their decision during information acquisition, (2) that deliberation-without-attention does not occur during distraction, and (3) that ruminating about one's first impression can deteriorate decision quality. Strikingly, in another condition that should have favored unconscious thought even more, deliberated decisions were better than immediate or distracted decisions. These findings were replicated in a field study
Clément, Fabrice; Koenig, Melissa & Harris, Paul (2004). The ontogenesis of trust. Mind and Language 19 (4):360–379.   (Google | More links)
Abstract:   Psychologists have emphasized children's acquisition of information through firsthand observation. However, many beliefs are acquired from others' testimony. In two experiments, most 4yearolds displayed sceptical trust in testimony. Having heard informants' accurate or inaccurate testimony, they anticipated that informants would continue to display such differential accuracy and they trusted the hitherto reliable informant. Yet they ignored the testimony of the reliable informant if it conflicted with what they themselves had seen. By contrast, threeyearolds were less selective in trusting a reliable informant. Thus, young children check testimony against their own experience and increasingly recognise that some informants are more trustworthy than others
Conces, Rory J. (1997). Contract, Trust, and Resistance in the 'Second Treatise'. The Locke Newsletter (28):117-33.   (Google)
Cook, Karen S. & Stepanikova, Irena (2008). The health care outcomes of trust: A review of empirical evidence. In Julie Brownlie, Alexandra Greene & Alexandra Howson (eds.), Researching Trust and Health. Routledge.   (Google)
Craig, Robin Kundis, A comparative guide to the western states' public trust doctrines: Public values, private rights, and the evolution toward an ecological public trust.   (Google)
Abstract: This companion article to the Fall 2007 A Comparative Guide to the Eastern Public Trust Doctrines explores the state public trust doctrines – emphasis on the plural – in the 19 western states. In so doing, this Article seeks to make the larger point that, while the broad contours of the public trust doctrine, especially regarding state ownership of the beds and banks of navigable waters, have a federal law basis, the details of how public trust principles actually apply vary considerably from state to state. Public trust law, in other words, is very much a species of state common law. Moreover, as with other forms of common law, states have evolved their public trust doctrines in light of the particular histories, perceived needs, and perceived problems of each state. This Article notes that, in the West, four factors have been most important in the evolution of state public trust doctrines: (1) the severing of water rights from real property ownership and the riparian rights doctrine; (2) subsequent state declarations of public ownership of fresh water; (3) clear and explicit perceptions of shortages of water, submerged lands, and environmental amenities; and (4) a willingness to raise water and other environmental issues to constitutional status and/or to incorporate broad public trust mandates into statutes. From these factors, two important trends in western states’ public trust doctrines have emerged: (1) the extension of public rights based on states’ ownership of the water itself; and (2) an increasing, and still cutting-edge, expansion of public trust concepts into ecological public trust doctrines that are increasingly protecting species, ecosystems and the public values that they provide. The Article includes an extensive Appendix that summarizes each of the 19 states’ public trust doctrines. These summaries include relevant constitutional provisions, statutory provisions, and cases
Croonen, Evelien (2010). Trust and fairness during strategic change processes in franchise systems. Journal of Business Ethics 95 (2).   (Google)
Abstract: A very important challenge for franchisors is adapting the strategies of their franchise systems to new threats and opportunities. During such strategic change processes (SCPs) franchisees are often required to make major financial investments and/or adjustments in their trade practices without any guarantee of positive benefits. It is, therefore, important that franchisees trust their franchisors during such change processes and that they perceive the change process as fair. This article aims to generate theory on franchisees’ perceptions of trust and fairness during SCPs. On the basis of case studies regarding eight change processes in four Dutch drugstore franchise systems, this article distinguishes different levels of franchisee trust and discusses five instruments that franchisors can “institutionalize” in their franchise systems to influence their franchisees’ trust and fairness perceptions
Cytowic, Richard (2003). The clinician's paradox: Believing those you must not trust. Journal of Consciousness Studies 10.   (Google)
Daukas, Nancy (2006). Epistemic trust and social location. Episteme 3 (1-2).   (Google)
Abstract: : Epistemic trustworthiness is defined as a complex character state that supervenes on a relation between first- and second-order beliefs, including beliefs about others as epistemic agents. In contexts shaped by unjust power relations, its second-order components create a mutually supporting link between a deficiency in epistemic character and unjust epistemic exclusion on the basis of group membership. In this way, a deficiency in the virtue of epistemic trustworthiness plays into social/epistemic interactions that perpetuate social injustice. Overcoming that deficiency and, along with it, normalized practices of epistemic exclusion, requires developing a self-critical perspective on the partial, socially-located character of one's perspective and the consequent epistemic value of inclusiveness
Davies, A. C. L. (ms). Don't trust me, I'm a doctor: Medical regulation and the 1999 NHS reforms.   (Google)
Abstract:      This article examines recent developments in the regulation of the medical profession in England, with particular reference to doctors working in the National Health Service (NHS). It is argued that the Health Act 1999 and associated government policies are bringing about a shift from a 'light touch', self-regulatory paradigm to a government-driven, interventionist approach. It is suggested that the reason for the change is not simply a governmental concern with the quality and nature of care provided by doctors, but more significantly, a concern with the cost of that care. The article offers a critique of the new regime, drawing on the socio-legal literature on regulation. Some aspects of the reforms ignore the need to persuade doctors to comply, and may therefore result in cheating or 'creative compliance'; other aspects of the reforms provide doctors with opportunities to 'neutralize' their impact. It concludes with an examination of the wider significance of the change in regulatory paradigm, and of the agenda for future research in this field
Dees, Richard H. (1998). Trust and the rationality of toleration. Noûs 32 (1):82-98.   (Google | More links)
Dees, Richard H. (2004). Trust and Toleration. Routledge.   (Google)
Abstract: This book outlines the social, conceptual, and psychological preconditions for toleration.By looking closely at the religious wars of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in France and England and at contemporary controversies about the rights of homosexuals, Richard Dees demonstrates how trust between the opposing parties is needed first, but in just these cases, distrust is all-too-rational. Ultimately, that distrust can only be overcome if the parties undergo a fundamental shift of values - a conversion. Only then can they accept some form of toleration
de Laat, Paul B. (forthcoming). How can contributors to open-source communities be Trusted? On the assumption, inference, and substitution of trust. Ethics and Information Technology.   (Google)
Abstract: Open-source communities that focus on content rely squarely on the contributions of invisible strangers in cyberspace. How do such communities handle the problem of trusting that strangers have good intentions and adequate competence? This question is explored in relation to communities in which such trust is a vital issue: peer production of software (FreeBSD and Mozilla in particular) and encyclopaedia entries (Wikipedia in particular). In the context of open-source software, it is argued that trust was inferred from an underlying ‘hacker ethic’, which already existed. The Wikipedian project, by contrast, had to create an appropriate ethic along the way. In the interim, the assumption simply had to be that potential contributors were trustworthy; they were granted ‘substantial trust’. Subsequently, projects from both communities introduced rules and regulations which partly substituted for the need to perceive contributors as trustworthy. They faced a design choice in the continuum between a high-discretion design (granting a large amount of trust to contributors) and a low-discretion design (leaving only a small amount of trust to contributors). It is found that open-source designs for software and encyclopaedias are likely to converge in the future towards a mid-level of discretion. In such a design the anonymous user is no longer invested with unquestioning trust
de Laat, Paul B. (2008). Online diaries: Reflections on trust, privacy, and exhibitionism. Ethics and Information Technology 10 (1).   (Google)
Abstract:   Trust between transaction partners in cyberspace has come to be considered a distinct possibility. In this article the focus is on the conditions for its creation by way of assuming, not inferring trust. After a survey of its development over the years (in the writings of authors like Luhmann, Baier, Gambetta, and Pettit), this mechanism of trust is explored in a study of personal journal blogs. After a brief presentation of some technicalities of blogging and authors’ motives for writing their diaries, I try to answer the question, ‘Why do the overwhelming majority of web diarists dare to expose the intimate details of their lives to the world at large?’ It is argued that the mechanism of assuming trust is at play: authors simply assume that future visitors to their blog will be sympathetic readers, worthy of their intimacies. This assumption then may create a self-fulfilling cycle of mutual admiration. Thereupon, this phenomenon of blogging about one’s intimacies is linked to Calvert’s theory of ‘mediated voyeurism’ and Mathiesen’s notion of ‘synopticism’. It is to be interpreted as a form of ‘empowering exhibitionism’ that reaffirms subjectivity. Various types of ‘synopticon’ are distinguished, each drawing the line between public and private differently. In the most ‘radical’ synopticon blogging proceeds in total transparency and the concept of privacy is declared obsolete; the societal gaze of surveillance is proudly returned and nullified. Finally it is shown that, in practice, these conceptions of blogging are put to a severe test, while authors often have to cope with known people from ‘real life’ complaining, and with ‘trolling’ strangers
de Laat, Paul B. (2005). Trusting virtual trust. Ethics and Information Technology 7 (3).   (Google)
Abstract: Can trust evolve on the Internet between virtual strangers? Recently, Pettit answered this question in the negative. Focusing on trust in the sense of ‘dynamic, interactive, and trusting’ reliance on other people, he distinguishes between two forms of trust: primary trust rests on the belief that the other is trustworthy, while the more subtle secondary kind of trust is premised on the belief that the other cherishes one’s esteem, and will, therefore, reply to an act of trust in kind (‘trust-responsiveness’). Based on this theory Pettit argues that trust between virtual strangers is impossible: they lack all evidence about one another, which prevents the imputation of trustworthiness and renders the reliance on trust-responsiveness ridiculous. I argue that this argument is flawed, both empirically and theoretically. In several virtual communities amazing acts of trust between pure virtuals have been observed. I propose that these can be explained as follows. On the one hand, social cues, reputation, reliance on third parties, and participation in (quasi-) institutions allow imputing trustworthiness to varying degrees. On the other, precisely trust-responsiveness is also relied upon, as a necessary supplement to primary trust. In virtual markets, esteem as a fair trader is coveted while it contributes to building up one’s reputation. In task groups, a hyperactive style of action may be adopted which amounts to assuming (not: inferring) trust. Trustors expect that their virtual co-workers will reply in kind while such an approach is to be considered the most appropriate in cyberspace. In non-task groups, finally, members often display intimacies while they are confident someone else ‘out there’ will return them. This is facilitated by the one-to-many, asynchronous mode of communication within mailing lists
DeVille, Kenneth & Kopelman, Loretta M. (2003). Diversity, trust, and patient care: Affirmative action in medical education 25 years after Bakke. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 28 (4):489 – 516.   (Google)
Abstract: The U.S. Supreme Court's seminal 1978 Bakke decision, now 25 years old, has an ambiguous and endangered legacy. Justice Lewis Powell's opinion provided a justification that allowed leaders in medical education to pursue some affirmative action policies while at the same time undermining many other potential defenses. Powell asserted that medical schools might have a "compelling interest" in the creation of a diverse student body. But Powell's compromise jeopardized affirmative action since it blocked many justifications for responding to increases in political opposition and legal challenges. The Bakke decision and itsmoral background and legal legacy are traced and analyzed. Despite recent legal setbacks, the framework sketched by Powell can be used to defend diversity inmedical education bothmorally and legally as a "compelling state interest." Because trust is a central component of the physician-patient relationship and a prerequisite to the profession's ability to provide effectivemedical care, the state has a compelling interest in training physicians with whom patients can feel comfortable and safe if the population is (1) distrustful; (2) underserved; (3) faces significant discrimination in the allocation of benefits, goods and services and (4) affirmative action programs would be likely to promote their trust in the system. Similar narrowly-tailored arguments could be used in other professions and for other groups. Bakke is an important background for the pending Grutter case
Dimitrova-Grajzl, Valentina P.; Simon, Eszter & Fischer, Alex, Political trust and initial conditions: The effect of varieties of socialism.   (Google)
Abstract:      We introduce and test new hypotheses about the determinants of political trust, a key lever of democratic participation. We stipulate that trust in government is significantly determined by historical legacy: socialist versus non-socialist past, and type of socialist regime. Utilizing individual-level data from an institutional survey, which focuses on future political elites, our empirical analysis finds strong support in favour of our theory
Dimock, S. (1997). Retributivism and trust. Law and Philosophy 16 (1):37-62.   (Google | More links)
Dostal, Robert J. (1987). The world never lost: The hermeneutics of trust. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 47 (3):413-434.   (Google | More links)
Doyal, Len & Colvin, Brian (2002). The clinical ethics committee at barts and the London NHS trust: Rationale, achievements, and difficulties. HEC Forum 14 (1).   (Google)
Elgin, Catherine Z. (2004). Richard Foley's intellectual trust in oneself and others. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 68 (3):724–734.   (Google | More links)
Elia, John (2009). Transparency rights, technology, and trust. Ethics and Information Technology 11 (2).   (Google)
Abstract: Information theorists often construe new Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) as leveling mechanisms, regulating power relations at a distance by arming stakeholders with information and enhanced agency. Management theorists have claimed that transparency cultivates stakeholder trust, distinguishes a business from its competition, and attracts new clients, investors, and employees, making it key to future growth and prosperity. Synthesizing these claims, we encounter an increasingly common view: If corporations voluntarily adopted new ICTs in order to foster transparency, trust, and growth, while embracing the redistributions of power they bring about, both corporations and stakeholders would benefit. The common view is short-sighted, however. In order to realize mutual benefit, transparency can not be conceived merely as efficient or economical. The implementation and use of new ICTs will be morally unsatisfactory unless they stably protect stakeholders. Moreover, without such protections, transparency is unlikely to produce lasting trust and growth. More specifically, corporate disclosures ought to be guided by a theory of stakeholder rights to know about threats or risks to stakeholders’ basic interests. Such rights are necessary moral protections for stakeholders in any business environment. Respect for transparency rights is not simply value added to a corporation’s line of goods and services, but a condition of a corporation’s justifiable claim to create value rather than harm, wrong, or injustice in its dealings
Ely, Richard T. (1900). The nature and significance of monopolies and trust. International Journal of Ethics 10 (3):273-288.   (Google | More links)
Englund, Tomas (forthcoming). The potential of education for creating mutual trust: Schools as sites for deliberation. Educational Philosophy and Theory.   (Google)
Abstract: Is it possible to look at schools as spaces for encounters? Could schools contribute to a deliberative mode of communication in a manner better suited to our own time and to areas where different cultures meet? Inspired primarily by classical (Dewey) and modern (Habermas) pragmatists, I turn to Seyla Benhabib, posing the question whether she supports the proposition that schools can be sites for deliberative communication. I argue that a school that engages in deliberative communication, with its stress on mutual communication between different moral perspectives, gives universalism a procedurally oriented meaning, serving as an arena for encounters that represents a weak public sphere. An interactive universalism of this kind attaches importance to developing an ability and willingness to reason on the basis of the views of others and to change perspectives. In that respect, the institutional arrangements of schools are potential parts of the political dimension of cosmopolitanism, as well as its moral dimension, in terms of the obligations and responsibilities we develop through our institutions and in our actions as human beings towards one another
Entrikin, J. Nicholas (2003). Placing trust. Ethics, Place and Environment 6 (3):259 – 271.   (Google | More links)
Fleck, Leonard M. (2007). Can we trust "democratic deliberation"? Hastings Center Report 37 (4).   (Google)
Fleckenstein, Marilynn P. & Bowes, John C. (2000). When trust is betrayed: Religious institutions and white collar crime. Journal of Business Ethics 23 (1).   (Google)
Abstract: In 1990, the comptroller of the Catholic Diocese of Buffalo was charged with the embezzlement of eight million dollars of money belonging to the Diocese, He was subsequently convicted and served several years in state prison. Using this case as a starting point, this paper looks at several examples of white-collar crime and religious institutions. Should justice or mercy be the operative virtue in dealing with such criminals?
Flynn, Jennifer (2004). Self-trust and reproductive autonomy. Dialogue 43 (3):619-621.   (Google)
Follesdal, Andreas (2002). Constructing a european civic society – vaccination for trust in a fair, multi-level europe. Studies in East European Thought 54 (4).   (Google)
Foley, Richard (2001). Intellectual Trust in Oneself and Others. Cambridge University Press.   (Google)
Abstract: To what degree should we rely on our own resources and methods to form opinions about important matters? To what degree should we depend on various authorities, such as a recognized expert or a social tradition? In this provocative account of intellectual trust and authority, Richard Foley argues that it can be reasonable to have intellectual trust in oneself even though it is not possible to provide a defense of the reliability of one's faculties, methods, and opinions that does not beg the question. Moreover, he shows how this account of intellectual self-trust can be used to understand the degree to which it is reasonable to rely on alternative authorities. This book will be of interest to advanced students and professionals working in the fields of philosophy and the social sciences as well as anyone looking for a unified account of the issues at the center of intellectual trust
Foley, Richard, Universal intellectual trust.   (Google)
Abstract: All of us get opinions from other people. And not just a few. We acquire opinions from others extensively and do so from early childhood through virtually every day of the rest our lives. Sometimes we rely on others for relatively inconsequential information. Is it raining outside? Did the Yankees win today? But we also depend on others for important or even life preserving information. Where is the nearest hospital? Do people drive on the left or the right here? We acquire opinions from family and close acquaintances but also from strangers. We get directions from and heed the warnings of individuals we’ve never met, and likewise read books and articles and listen to television and radio reports authored by individuals we don’t know personally. Moreover, we undertake inquiries in groups in which the group relies on the conclusions of the individuals making up the group. In some of these collective efforts everyone knows one another, for example, a set of neighbors taking a census of birds in the neighborhood. But others, such as the effort to understand gravity, are not so nearly self-contained. Indeed, many of the most impressive human intellectual accomplishments are the collective products of individuals far removed from another in location (and sometimes even over time) who rely on each other’s conclusions without feeling the need to re-confirm them
Fox, Mark D. (2003). Stewards of a public trust: Responsible transplantation. American Journal of Bioethics 3 (1):5 – 7.   (Google)
Fox, Mark D. & Allee, Margaret R. (2005). Values, policies, and the public trust. American Journal of Bioethics 5 (4):1 – 3.   (Google)
Friend, Celeste M. (2001). Trust and the presumption of translucency. Social Theory and Practice 27 (1):1-18.   (Google)
Friedman, Paul J. (2002). The impact of conflict of interest on trust in science. Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (3).   (Google)
Abstract:  Conflicts of interest have an erosive effect on trust in science, damaging first the attitude of the public toward scientists and their research, but also weakening the trusting interdependence of scientists. Disclosure is recognized as the key tool for management of conflicts, but rules with sanctions must be improved, new techniques for avoidance of financial conflicts by alternative funding of evaluative research must be sought, and there must be new thinking about institutional conflicts of interest. Our profession is education, and both the public and research professionals of all ages would benefit from greater understanding of how science should and does work
Galston, William A. (1999). Social capital in America : Civil society and civic trust. In Josef Janning, Charles Kupchan & Dirk Rumberg (eds.), Civic Engagement in the Atlantic Community. Bertelsmann Foundation Publishers.   (Google)
García-Marzá, Domingo (2005). Trust and dialogue: Theoretical approaches to ethics auditing. Journal of Business Ethics 57 (3).   (Google)
Abstract: . The aim of this paper is to put forward an ethical framework for the conceptualization and development of ethics audits, here understood as a catalyst for company dialogue and in general, for management of ethics in the company. Ethics auditing is understood as the opportunity and agreement to devise a system to inform on ethical corporate behavior. This system essentially aims to increase the transparency and credibility of the companys commitment to ethics. At the same time, the process of elaborating this system allows us to introduce the moral dimension into company actions and decisions, thereby completing a key dimension of the production, maintenance and development of trust capital. To this end, the following four steps are taken. First, we analyze the relation between ethics auditing and trust as a basic moral resource in the dialogue between the company and its various stakeholders. Second, we examine the social balance sheet as a precursor to ethics auditing and focus on what prevents it from going further. Third, we attempt to reconstruct the basic moral assumptions underlying the companys social responsibility from the discourse ethics approach. Finally, we present a methodological framework from which to carry out our proposal, which embraces two basic theoretical perspectives stakeholder theory and the values derived from discourse ethics as a normative framework
Gelfert, Axel (2005). Richard Foley: Intellectual trust in oneself and others. Logical Analysis and History of Philosophy 8:220-227.   (Google)
Abstract: In his previous books, The Theory of Epistemic Rationality (1987) and Working Without a Net (1993), Richard Foley presented a highly influential account of what it means for one’s beliefs and belief-forming practices to be rational. Developing a positive new account of epistemic rationality, however, has never been Foley’s sole concern. His project is metaepistemological in character as much as it is epistemological. Put crudely, questions such as ‘What makes some beliefs knowledge?’ are of equal importance to Foley as such questions as ‘How is scepticism possible?’. Indeed, given the way in which philosophical debates tend to be shaped, it may be the more fruitful way of tackling a philosophical problem to start from questions of the latter type and work one’s way backward to the fundamental questions that gave rise to the debate in the first place. Such an approach need not be strictly historical; rather, it will be meta-epistemological in that it probes deeply into the possibility of an epistemological theory, its prospective subject matter as well as its limitations. Given the difficulty of constructing a coherent epistemological theory and defending it against the various objections that are standardly run against such theories, it should often prove more viable to illustrate the general meta-epistemological ‘lessons’ by way of referring to previous epistemological theories and the long-standing debates that surround them. Hence, a metaepistemological approach naturally gives rise to an historically informed outlook
Gibbs, Paul T. (2004). Trusting in the University: The Contribution of Temporality and Trust to a Praxis of Higher Learning. Kluwer Academic Publishers.   (Google)
Abstract: The world changes and we are encouraged to change with it, but is all change good? This book asks us to stop and consider whether the higher education we are providing, and engaging in, for ourselves and our societies is what we ought to have, or what commercial interests want us to have. In claiming that there is a place for a higher education of learning, such as the university, amongst our array of tertiary options the book attempts to explore what this might be. Drawing from the existential literature and in particular Heidegger, the book investigates the case for such a form of higher education and settles on existential trust as the ground upon which the community of scholars that ought to be the university can flourish. This book is written for those who are concerned about the trends towards performativity and for those who are not yet so concerned! It offers a controversial and, some might say, idealistic view of what might be but makes no apology for that since the book proposes that higher education is becoming evermore unacceptable for those who value democracy, tolerance and learning
Gingras, Jacqui (2005). Evoking trust in the nutrition counselor: Why should we be Trusted? Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 18 (1).   (Google)
Abstract: The virtue of trust is often spoken of as central to the work of dietitians working in nutrition counseling, especially in the context of disordered eating/eating disorders nutrition therapy. Indeed, dietitians are purported to be the most trusted source of information on nutrition and food by professional associations such as Dietitians of Canada. Here trust is explored through educational, relational, and virtue theory in order to elucidate trusts meaning and relevance to dietitians work and interactions with each other, including the general public. If dietitians are to continue to be trusted during times of skepticism in expert knowledge, reflexivity, active contestation, and moral testing in the context of our socio-political milieu need be employed so that we as a profession may respond to clients in respectful, authentic, meaningful ways; practices worthy of our trust
Goering, Sara (2009). Postnatal reproductive autonomy: Promoting relational autonomy and self-trust in new parents. Bioethics 23 (1):9-19.   (Google)
Abstract: New parents suddenly come face to face with myriad issues that demand careful attention but appear in a context unlikely to provide opportunities for extended or clear-headed critical reflection, whether at home with a new baby or in the neonatal intensive care unit. As such, their capacity for autonomy may be compromised. Attending to new parental autonomy as an extension of reproductive autonomy, and as a complicated phenomenon in its own right rather than simply as a matter to be balanced against other autonomy rights, can help us to see how new parents might be aided in their quest for competency and good decision making. In this paper I show how a relational view of autonomy – attentive to the coercive effects of oppressive social norms and to the importance of developing autonomy competency, especially as related to self-trust – can improve our understanding of the situation of new parents and signal ways to cultivate and to better respect their autonomy
Goel, Sanjay; Bell, Geoffrey G. & Pierce, Jon L. (2005). The perils of pollyanna: Development of the over-trust construct. Journal of Business Ethics 58 (1-3).   (Google)
Abstract: . Management scholars and practitioners often believe that individuals and organizations benefit by trusting their work contacts. (Husted, 1998; Sonnenberg, 1994) Trust is generally viewed as “good” and imperative to a modern functioning economy (Blau, 1964; Hosmer, 1995; Zucker, 1986) Consequently, scholars and practitioners have given scant attention to the “downside” of trust, despite the fact that trust involves taking risk under conditions of uncertainty (Rousseau et al., 1998) Recent corporate scandals show that people suffer when they misplace trust in untrustworthy organizations and individuals. This paper develops a model of the causes and consequences of “over-trust,” which we define as a state where a trustor’s trust exceeds that which is warranted given the conditions. The antecedents of overtrust related to characteristics of the trustee, the trustor, and situational characteristics. We examine the role played by self-monitoring and perceived power base of the trustee as two key trustee characteristics. Among trustor characteristics, we examine the role (played by trustor’s core evaluation, core values). based on cultural affiliation), prior experiences with trustees, and use of habitual thinking behavior. Under characteristics of the situation, we examine the role played by uncertainty inherent in the situation, perceived threat from the context, degree of task interdependence, and organizational systems and routines. Next, we examine three consequences of over-trust – leniency in judging the trustee, delay in perceiving exploitation, and increased risk-taking. We conclude our paper by developing a set of guidelines that organizational members may employ to avoid over-trust
Goldman, Alvin I. (2001). Experts: Which ones should you trust? Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 63 (1):85-110.   (Google | More links)
Govier, Trudy & Verwoerd, Wilhelm (2002). Trust and the problem of national reconciliation. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 32 (2).   (Google)
Grabner-Kraeuter, Sonja (2002). The role of consumers' trust in online-shopping. Journal of Business Ethics 39 (1-2).   (Google)
Abstract: Many consumers are sceptical or suspicious about the functional mechanisms of electronic commerce, its intransparent processes and effects, and the quality of many products that are offered online. This paper analyses the role of consumer trust as a foundation for the diffusion and acceptance of electronic commerce. Starting from a functional perspective trust is seen as distinct but potentially coexisting mechanism for reducing the uncertainty and complexity of transactions and relationships in electronic markets. The analysis focuses on conditions of e-commerce transactions that are relevant for the formation of trust problems. Drawing on the theory of information two types of uncertainty are described: system-dependent and transaction-specific uncertainty. Finally different activities and instruments are described and categorized that Internet firms can use to establish and maintain trust
Greenwood, Michelle & Buren, I. I. I. (forthcoming). Trust and stakeholder theory: Trustworthiness in the organisation–stakeholder relationship. Journal of Business Ethics.   (Google)
Abstract: Trust is a fundamental aspect of the moral treatment of stakeholders within the organization–stakeholder relationship. Stakeholders trust the organization to return benefit or protections from harm commensurate with their contributions or stakes. However, in many situations, the firm holds greater power than the stakeholder and therefore cannot necessarily be trusted to return the aforementioned duty to the stakeholder. Stakeholders must therefore rely on the trustworthiness of the organization to fulfill obligations in accordance to Phillips’ principle of fairness ( Business Ethics Quarterly 7 (1), 1997 , 51–66), particularly where low-power stakeholders may not be fully consenting (Van Buren III, Business Ethics Quarterly 11 (3), 2001 , 481–499). The construct of organizational trustworthiness developed herewith is presented as a possible solution to the problem of unfairness in organization–stakeholder relations. While organizational trustworthiness does not create an ethical obligation where none existed before, stakeholders who lack power will likely be treated fairly when organizational trustworthiness is present
Greene, Alexandra; McKiernan, Peter & Greene, Stephen (2008). The nature of reciprocity and the spirit of the gift: Balancing trust and governance in long term illness. In Julie Brownlie, Alexandra Greene & Alexandra Howson (eds.), Researching Trust and Health. Routledge.   (Google)
Greene, Mark (2006). To restore faith and trust: Justice and biological access to cellular therapies. Hastings Center Report 36 (1).   (Google)
Abstract: : Stem cell therapies should be available to people of all ethnicities. However, most cells used in the clinic will probably come from lines of cells stored in stem cell banks, which may end up benefiting the majority group most. The solution is to seek additional funding, earmarked for lines that will benefit minorities and offered as a public expression of apology for past discrimination
Grinnell, Frederick (1999). Ambiguity, trust, and the responsible conduct of research. Science and Engineering Ethics 5 (2).   (Google)
Abstract:  Ambiguity associated with everyday practice of science has made it difficult to reach a consensus on how to define misconduct in science. This essay outlines some of the important ambiguities of practice such as distinguishing data from noise, deciding whether results falsify a hypothesis, and converting research into research publications. The problem of ambiguity is further compounded by the prior intellectual commitments inherent in choosing problems and in dealing with the skepticism of one's colleagues. In preparing a draft code of ethics for the American Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB), an attempt was made to take into account the ambiguities of practice. Also, the draft code adopted trust as its leading principle, specifically the importance of trust as a condition necessary for there to be science. During revision of the code, the focus on trust was changed. The new orientation was on trust as a consequence of carrying out science responsibly. By addressing the obligations necessary to engender trust, the ASBMB ethics code not only sets professional standards, but also makes a clear statement of public accountability
Gustafsson, Clara (2005). Trust as an instance of asymmetrical reciprocity: An ethics perspective on corporate brand management. Business Ethics 14 (2):142–150.   (Google | More links)
Guthrie, Bruce (2008). Trust and asymmetry in general practitioner-patient relationships in the united kingdom. In Julie Brownlie, Alexandra Greene & Alexandra Howson (eds.), Researching Trust and Health. Routledge.   (Google)
Hackley, Chris (2000). Review article: In trusts we trust. Business Ethics 9 (2):119–121.   (Google | More links)
Haddow, Gill & Cunningham-Burley, Sarah (2008). Tokens of trust or token trust? Public consultation and "generation Scotland". In Julie Brownlie, Alexandra Greene & Alexandra Howson (eds.), Researching Trust and Health. Routledge.   (Google)
Hanfling, Oswald (2008). How we trust one another. Philosophy 83 (2):161-177.   (Google)
Hardin, Russell (2002). Trust: A sociological theory, Piotr Sztompka. Economics and Philosophy 18 (1):183-204.   (Google)
Hardin, Russell (1999). Trudy gover, social trust and human communites. Journal of Value Inquiry 33 (3).   (Google)
Hardwig, John (1991). The role of trust in knowledge. Journal of Philosophy 88 (12):693-708.   (Google | More links)
Harris, Paul L. & Richert, Rebekah A. (2008). William James, 'the world of sense' and trust in testimony. Mind and Language 23 (5):536-551.   (Google)
Abstract: Abstract:  William James argued that we ordinarily think of the objects that we can observe—things that belong to 'the world of sense'—as having an unquestioned reality. However, young children also assert the existence of entities that they cannot ordinarily observe. For example, they assert the existence of germs and souls. The belief in the existence of such unobservable entities is likely to be based on children's broader trust in other people's testimony about objects and situations that they cannot directly observe for themselves
Hausman, Daniel (online). Fairness and trust in game theory.   (Google)
Abstract: an unpublished paper written in 1998-1999
Hausman, Daniel M. (2004). Trust and trustworthiness, by Russell Hardin. Russell Sage foundation, 2002, XXI + 234 pages. Economics and Philosophy 20 (1):240-246.   (Google)
Hayes, Barbara (2010). Trust and distrust in cpr decisions. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 7 (1).   (Google)
Abstract: Trust is essential in human relationships including those within healthcare. Recent studies have raised concerns about patients’ declining levels of trust. This article will explore the role of trust in decision-making about cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). In this research thirty-three senior doctors, junior doctors and division 1 nurses were interviewed about how decisions are made about providing CPR. Analysis of these interviews identified lack of trust as one cause for poor understanding of treatment decisions and lack of acceptance of medical judgement. Two key implications emerged from the analysis. First, before embarking on a discussion about CPR it is essential to establish trust between the doctor and the patient/family. Secondly, it is essential that the CPR discussion itself does not undermine trust and cause harm to the patient
Held, Virginia (1968). On the meaning of trust. Ethics 78 (2):156-159.   (Google | More links)
Herder, Matthew & Brian, Jennifer Dyck (2008). Canada's stem cell corporation: Aggregate concerns and the question of public trust. Journal of Business Ethics 77 (1).   (Google)
Hertzberg, Lars (1988). On the attitude of trust. Inquiry 31 (3):307 – 322.   (Google)
Hertsman, Elḥanan Yosef (1978). One, the Essence of the Jewish Home: Reflections on the Respect and Trust That Make a Family. [S.N.].   (Google)
Hieronymi, Pamela (2008). The reasons of trust. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 86 (2):213 – 236.   (Google)
Abstract: I argue to a conclusion I find at once surprising and intuitive: although many considerations show trust useful, valuable, important, or required, these are not the reasons for which one trusts a particular person to do a particular thing. The reasons for which one trusts a particular person on a particular occasion concern, not the value, importance, or necessity of trust itself, but rather the trustworthiness of the person in question in the matter at hand. In fact, I will suggest that the degree to which you trust a particular person to do a particular thing will vary inversely with the degree to which you must rely, for the motivation or justification of your trusting response, on reasons that concern the importance, or value, or necessity of having such a response
Hinchman, Edward (2005). Advising as inviting to trust. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 35 (3):355-386.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: How can you give your interlocutor a reason to act? One way is by manipulating his deliberative context through threats, flattery, or other incentives. Another is by addressing him in the way distinctive of reasoning with him. I aim to account for the possibility of this non-manipulative form of address by showing how it is realized through the performance of a specific illocutionary act, that of advising as inviting to trust. I argue that exercise of a capacity for reasonable trust can give us reasons that are not grounded in our motivational susceptibilities. Here I echo Kant on moral motivation. But this rational faculty assesses not principles but persons. Here I echo Hume on the moral virtues. We can thus agree with Kant about the motivational efficacy of practical reasons dispensed through advice but agree with Hume about the form of intelligence needed to put ourselves in touch with them.
Hinchman, Edward (forthcoming). Assurance and warrant. Philosophers' Imprint.   (Google)
Abstract: It seems undeniable that such second-personal speech acts as promising A to φ and telling A that p serve at least in part to give an assurance to the addressee. Whatever your other aims, part of what you’re doing when you promise or tell A is inviting A, whether sincerely or insincerely, to take you at your word.1 Though you may despair of getting A to accept it, since you may know that A does not regard you as worthy of his trust, the invitation seems to include an assurance that he can rely on you in some respect – or, hypothetically, that he could, if only he’d get over his mistrust.2 Promisings and tellings differ, of course, in the content of the assurance. When you promise A to φ, you give A the assurance that you’ll φ and thereby that he has a reason to perform (or not to avoid performing) acts that depend on your φing. But what is the content of your assurance when you tell A that p? Exactly how do you suppose he might rely on you? And how, if at all, is the reliance epistemic as opposed to merely practical?
Hinchman, Edward (2009). Receptivity and the will. Noûs 43 (3):395-427.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: This paper defends an internalist view of agency. The challenge for an internalist view of agency is to explain how an agent’s all-things-considered judgment has necessary implications for action, a challenge that lies specifically in the possibility of two species of akratic break: between judgment and intention, and between intention and action. I argue that the two breaks are not importantly different: in each case akrasia manifests a single species of irrational self-mistrust. I aim to vindicate internalism by showing how rational agency rests on our capacity for trusting receptivity to the verdict of judgment. To call the relation receptivity is to characterize it as fundamentally passive. To call it trusting receptivity is to ensure that the passivity is not incompatible with agency, since trust retains a crucial degree of control. I argue that the best way to meet the externalist argument from akrasia is to abandon the assumption that the will must be a locus of activity.
Hinchman, Edward (2003). Trust and diachronic agency. Noûs 37 (1):25–51.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: Some philosophers worry that it can never be reasonable to act simply on the basis of trust, yet you act on the basis of self-trust whenever you merely follow through on one of your own intentions. It is no more reasonable to follow through on an intention formed by an untrustworthy earlier self of yours than it is to act on the advice of an untrustworthy interlocutor. But reasonable mistrust equally presupposes untrustworthiness in the mistrusted, or evidence thereof. The concept of an intention, I argue, codifies the fact that practical reason rests on a capacity for reasonable trust.
Hinchman, Edward (2005). Telling as inviting to trust. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 70 (3):562–587.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: How can I give you a reason to believe what I tell you? I can influence the evidence available to you. Or I can simply invite your trust. These two ways of giving reasons work very differently. When a speaker tells her hearer that p, I argue, she intends that he gain access to a prima facie reason to believe that p that derives not from evidence but from his mere understanding of her act. Unlike mere assertions, acts of telling give reasons directly. They give reasons by inviting the hearer’s trust. This yields a novel form of anti-reductionism in the epistemology of testimony. The status of testimony as a sui generis source of epistemic warrant is entailed by the nature of the act of telling. We can discover the nature of this illocution, and its epistemic role, by examining how it functions in the real world of human relations.
Hoffman, W. Michael (ed.) (1996). The Ethics of Accounting and Finance: Trust, Responsibility, and Control. Quorum Books.   (Google)
Holton, Richard (1994). Deciding to trust, coming to believe. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 72 (1):63 – 76.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: Can we decide to trust? Sometimes, yes. And when we do, we need not believe that our trust will be vindicated. This paper is motivated by the need to incorporate these facts into an account of trust. Trust involves reliance; and in addition it requires the taking of a reactive attitude to that reliance. I explain how the states involved here differ from belief. And I explore the limits of our ability to trust. I then turn to the idea of trusting what others say. I suggest that we sometimes decide to trust people to be sincere and knowledgeable; and that having taken this attitude towards them, we come to believe what they say. I spell out some consequences that this has for an account of testimony, and for van Fraassen's decision theoretic principle of Reflection.
Hornsby, Karen L. (2005). Autonomy and trust in bioethics. Journal of Value Inquiry 39 (2).   (Google)
Horsburgh, H. J. N. (1962). Trust and collective security. Ethics 72 (4):252-265.   (Google | More links)
Horsburgh, H. J. N. (1961). Trust and social objectives. Ethics 72 (1):28-40.   (Google | More links)
Horstman, Klasien (2000). Technology and the management of trust in insurance medicine. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 21 (1).   (Google)
Abstract: This article deals with the question how technologycontributed to the performing of objective assessmentsof health risks and to the public trust in theinsurance institution. Many authors have pointed tothe relevance of medical or statistical technologywith regard to the constitution of objectivity,because these technologies should be capable ofdiminishing the influence of social interactions – the``human element'' – on the process of producingknowledge about health risks. However, in this articleit is shown that the constitution of objective riskassessments and public trust cannot be seen as theproduct of one particular type of technology, but thatit is the product of a socio-technical network, inwhich several heterogeneous elements becomeinterrelated and interdependant. The historicalreconstruction of this network also sheds a new lighton the role of `the human element' in the constitutionof objectivity and trust. It shows that elements inthe network which regulate the social interactionbetween the subjects involved are of no lessimportance to generate trust than technologies whichtend to abstract from this interaction. In otherwords, objective and subjective elements areintertwined much more than is often recognized, andpublic trust is to a fairly large degree depends onconventions in social interaction
Horsburgh, H. J. N. (1960). The ethics of trust. Philosophical Quarterly 10 (41):343-354.   (Google | More links)
Howard, R. Moskowitz; Gillie Gabay, Jacqueline Beckley & Hollis Ashman, , In God we trust: What the God phrase does to relieve anxiety.   (Google)
Abstract: Thus far, measurement barriers inhibited researchers from studying the link between the god concept or image, a special case of spirituality, and anxiety. This study examined the impact of spirituality, mainly of God phrases, as an ameliorator of anxiety. In 15 separate experiments, different groups each rated statistically designed vignettes dealing with various anxiety-provoking situations. Each experiment dealt with one specific anxiety-provoking situation. The ratings for each respondent generated a model showing the basic level of anxiety and the part-worth contribution of each spirituality element to either increasing or reducing that basic anxiety. We used psychophysical methods and statistically designed experiments. This approach allowed the measurement of the God image and promises a powerful, experimentation-oriented way to understand the concept of God, allowing future research to study the link between spirituality and stress reduction at the workplace
Howard, Michael W. (2001). The rationality of ethnic conflict and of positive solidarity: Russell Hardin's one for all: The logic of group conflict and Martin Hollis's trust within reason. Radical Philosophy Review 3 (2):196-206.   (Google)
Huby, Guro (2008). Accountability and trust in integrated teams for care of older people and people with chronic mental health problems. In Julie Brownlie, Alexandra Greene & Alexandra Howson (eds.), Researching Trust and Health. Routledge.   (Google)
Hummels, Harry & Roosendaal, Hans E. (2001). Trust in scientific publishing. Journal of Business Ethics 34 (2).   (Google)
Abstract: Trust is an important phenomenon to reduce organisational complexity and uncertainty. In the literature many types of trust are distinguished. An important framework to understand the variety and development of trust in organisations is provided by Zucker. She distinguishes three types of trust: process-based trust
Illingworth, Patricia (2002). Trust: The scarcest of medical resources. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 27 (1):31 – 46.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: In this paper, I claim that the doctor-patient relationship can be viewed as a vessel of trust. Nonetheless, trust within the doctor-patient relationship has been impaired by managed care. When we conceive of trust as social capital, focusing on the role that it plays in individual and social well-being, trust can be viewed as a public good and a scarce medical resource. Given this, there is a moral obligation to protect the doctor-patient relationship from the cost-containment mechanisms that compromise its ability to produce trust
Ingenhoff, Diana & Sommer, Katharina (forthcoming). Trust in companies and in ceos: A comparative study of the main influences. Journal of Business Ethics.   (Google)
Carusi, Annamaria (2009). Implicit Trust in the Space of Reasons. Journal of Social Epistemology 23 (1):25-43.   (Google)
Abstract: Pila (2009) has criticised the recommendations made by requirements engineers involved in the design of a grid technology for the support of distributed readings of mammograms made by Jirotka et al. (2005). The disagreement between them turns on the notion of “biographical familiarity” and whether it can be a sound basis for trust for the performances of professionals such as radiologists. In the first two sections, this paper gives an interpretation of the position of each side in this disagreement and their recommendation for the design of technology for distributed reading, and in the third the underlying reasons for this is agreement are discussed. It is argued that Pila, in attempting to make room for mistrust as well as trust, brings to the fore the question of having and reflecting upon reasons for trust or mistrust. Pila holds that biographical familiarity is not a sound reason for trust/mistrust, as it seems to obliterate the possibility of mistrust. In response to her proposal, an analysis is proposed of the forms of trust involved in biographical familiarity. In particular, implicit trust is focused upon — as a form of trust in advance of reasons, and as a form of trust contained (in the logical sense) within other reasons. It is proposed that implicit trust has an important role in establishing an intersubjectively shared world in which what counts as a reason for the acceptability of performances such as readings of X-rays is established. Implicit trust, therefore, is necessary for professionals to enter into a “space of reasons”. To insist upon judgements made in the absence of the form of implicit trust at play in biographical familiarity is to demand that radiologists (and other relevantly similar professionals) make judgements regarding whether to trust or mistrust on the basis of reasons capable of being reflected upon, but at the same time leave them without reasons upon which to reflect.
Jack, Anthony I. & Roepstorff, Andreas (2004). Trust or interaction? Editorial introduction. Journal of Consciousness Studies 11 (7-8).   (Google)
Jackson, Jennifer C. (2001). Truth, Trust and Medicine. Routledge.   (Google)
Abstract: Truth, Trust and Medicine investigates the notion of trust and honesty in medicine, and questions whether honesty and openness are of equal importance in maintaining the trust necessary in doctor-patient relationships. Jackson begins with the premise that those in the medical profession have a basic duty to be worthy of the trust their patients place in them. Yet questions of the ethics of withholding information and consent and covert surveillance in care units persist. This book boldly addresses these questions which disturb our very modern notions of a patient's autonomy, self-determination and informed consent
Jack, Anthony I. & Roepstorff, Andreas (2003). Why trust the subject? Journal of Consciousness Studies 10 (9-10).   (Cited by 11 | Google | More links)
Johnson, Peter (1993). Frames of Deceit: A Study of the Loss and Recovery of Public and Private Trust. Cambridge University Press.   (Google)
Abstract: Frames of Deceit is a philosophical investigation of the nature of trust in public and private life. It examines how trust originates, how it is challenged, and how it is recovered when moral and political imperfections collide. In politics, rulers may be called upon to act badly for the sake of a political good, and in private life intimate attachments are formed in which the costs of betrayal are high. This book asks how trust is tested by human goods, moral character, and power relations. It explores whether an individual's experience of betrayal differs totally from that of a community when it loses and then seeks to recover a vital public trust. Although this is a work of political philosophy it is distinctive in examining three literary texts--Sophocles' Philoctetes, Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida, and Zola's The;rèse Raquin--in order to deepen our understanding of the place of trust in morality and politics
Jones, Ward E. (2002). Dissident versus loyalist: Which scientists should we trust? Journal of Value Inquiry 36 (4).   (Google)
Jones, Karen (1999). Second-hand moral knowledge. Journal of Philosophy 96 (2):55-78.   (Google | More links)
Jones, Karen (1996). Trust as an affective attitude. Ethics 107 (1):4-25.   (Google | More links)
Jones, Karen (2004). Trust and Terror. In Peggy DesAutels & Margaret Urban Walker (eds.), Moral Psychology: Feminist Ethics and Social Theory. Rowman & Littlefield.   (Google)
Josh Gullett, Loc Do; Maria Canuto-Carranco, Mark Brister & Shundricka Turner, Cam Caldwell (forthcoming). The buyer–supplier relationship: An integrative model of ethics and trust. Journal of Business Ethics.   (Google)
Abstract: The buyer–supplier relationship is the nexus of the economic partnership of many commercial transactions and is founded upon the reciprocal trust of the two parties that participate in this economic exchange. In this article, we identify how six ethical elements play a key role in framing the buyer–supplier relationship, incorporating a model articulated by Hosmer (The ethics of management, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2008 ). We explain how trust is a behavior, the relinquishing of personal control in the expectant hope that the other party will honor the duties of a psychological contract. Presenting information about six factors of organizational trustworthiness, we offer insights about the relationship between ethics and trust in the buyer–supplier relationship
Justo, Luis (2005). Trust, understanding and utopia in the research setting. American Journal of Bioethics 5 (1):56 – 58.   (Google)
Kaebnick, Gregory E. (2007). The problem with trust and sympathy. Hastings Center Report 37 (2).   (Google)
Kahneman, Daniel (2009). Can we trust our intuitions? In Alex Voorhoeve (ed.), Conversations on Ethics. Oxford University Press.   (Google)
Karri, Ranjan; Caldwell, Cam; Antonacopoulou, Elena P. & Naegle, Daniel C. (2005). Building trust in business schools through ethical governance. Journal of Academic Ethics 3 (2-4).   (Google)
Abstract: This paper presents conceptual arguments to suggest that trust within organizations and trustworthiness of organizations are built through ethical governance mechanisms. We ground our analysis of trust, trustworthiness, and stewardship in the business literature and provide the context of business school governance as the focus of our paper. We present a framework that highlights the importance of knowledge, resources, performance focus, transparency, authentic caring, social capital and citizenship expectations in creating a basis for the ethical governance of organizations
Kerler, William A. & Killough, Larry N. (2009). The effects of satisfaction with a client's management during a prior audit engagement, trust, and moral reasoning on auditors' perceived risk of management fraud. Journal of Business Ethics 85 (2).   (Google)
Abstract: The recent accounting scandals have raised concerns regarding the closeness of auditor–client relationships. Critics argue that as the relationship lengthens a bond develops and auditors’ professional skepticism may be replaced with trust. However, Statement on Auditing Standards No. 99 states that auditors “should conduct the engagement with a mindset that recognizes the possibility that a material misstatement due to fraud could be present, regardless of any past experience with the entity and regardless of the auditor’s belief about management’s honesty and integrity” (AICPA 2002, Statement on Auditing Standards No. 99, paragraph 13, p. 10). The purpose of this study is to investigate whether auditors develop trust in a client’s management and whether this trust affects auditors’ decisions. Specifically, this study examines whether auditors’ satisfaction with a client’s management during a prior audit engagement affects auditors’ self-reported trust in that client’s management and whether that trust affects their fraud risk assessment. The decision to trust a client’s management should be an ethical decision because excessive trust may impair auditors’ skepticism, which auditors are required to maintain by their professional responsibilities. We therefore also investigate whether auditors’ trust is affected by their moral reasoning. An experimental case was completed by 89 professional auditors, all with experience assessing the risk of fraud. The results suggest auditors’ satisfaction with the client affects their trust in the client (higher satisfaction associated with higher trust and lower satisfaction associated with lower trust). Further, after an overall unsatisfying experience, auditors’ trust affects their fraud risk assessments. However, after an overall satisfying experience, their trust does not affect their fraud risk assessments. The results indicate auditors are able to maintain their professional skepticism after satisfying past experiences with the client regardless of their beliefs about the honesty and trustworthiness of the client’s management. Lastly, auditors’ moral reasoning was not related to their trust in the client’s management
Kickul, Jill; Gundry, Lisa K. & Posig, Margaret (2005). Does trust matter? The relationship between equity sensitivity and perceived organizational justice. Journal of Business Ethics 56 (3).   (Google)
Abstract: . The present research study was designed to extend our knowledge about issues of relevance for business ethics by examining the role of equity sensitivity and perceived organizational trust on employees perceptions of procedural and interactional justice. A model was developed and tested, and results revealed that organizational trust and respect mediated the relationship between an employees equity sensitivity and perceptions of procedural, interactional, and social accounts fairness. A discussion of issues related to perceptions of trust and fairness is presented, as well as recommendations for leaders and future scholarship
King, Jonathan (1999). The scientific endeavor is based on vigilance, not trust. Science and Engineering Ethics 5 (2).   (Google)
Knight, Chris (2003). The secret of lateralisation is trust. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (2):231-232.   (Google)
Abstract: Human right-handedness does not originate in vocalisation as such but in selection pressures for structuring complex sequences of digital signals internally, as if in a vacuum. Cautious receivers cannot automatically accept signals in this way. Biological displays are subjected to contextual scrutiny on a signal-by-signal basis – a task requiring coordination of both hemispheres. In order to explain left cerebral dominance in human manual and vocal signalling, we must therefore ask why it became adaptive for receivers to abandon caution, processing zero-cost signals rapidly and on trust
Koehn, Daryl (1998). Rethinking Feminist Ethics: Care, Trust and Empathy. Routledge.   (Google)
Abstract: Rethinking Feminist Ethics bridges the gap between women theorists disenchanted with aspects of traditional theories that insist upon the need for some ethical principles. The book raises the question of whether the female conception of ethics based on care, trust and empathy can provide a realistic alternative to the male ethics based on duty and rule bound conception of ethics developed from Kant, Mill and Rawls. Koehn concludes that it cannot, showing how problems for respect of the individual arise also in female ethics because it privileges the caregiver over the cared for. Drawing on Socrates' Crito , she shows how an ethic of dialogue can instill a critical respect for the view of the other and the ethical principles absent from the female ethic
Kohn, Marek (2008). Trust: Self-Interest and the Common Good. Oxford University Press.   (Google)
Korman, Daniel Z. (2003). The Failure of Trust-Based Retributivism. Law and Philosophy 22 (6):561-575.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: Punishment stands in need of justification because it involves intentionally harming offenders. Trust-based retributivists attempt to justify punishment by appeal to the offender’s violation of the victim’s trust, maintaining that the state is entitled to punish offenders as a means of restoring conditions of trust to their pre-offense levels. I argue that trust-based retributivism fails on two counts. First, it entails the permissibility of punishing the legally innocent and fails to justify the punishment of some offenders. Second, it cannot satisfactorily explain why it is morally permissible for the government to intentionally harm offenders.
Lahno, Bernd (1999). Olli Lagerspetz: Trust. The tacit demand. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 2 (4).   (Google)
Lahno, Bernd (2001). On the emotional character of trust. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 4 (2).   (Google)
Abstract: Trustful interaction serves the interests of those involved. Thus, one could reason that trust itself may be analyzed as part of rational, goaloriented action. In contrast, common sense tells us that trust is an emotion and is, therefore, independent of rational deliberation to some extent. I will argue that we are right in trusting our common sense. My argument is conceptual in nature, referring to the common distinction between trust and pure reliance. An emotional attitude may be understood as some general pattern in the way the world or some part of the world is perceived by an individual. Trust may be characterized by such a pattern. I shall focus on two central features of a trusting attitude. First, trust involves a participant attitude (Strawson) toward the person being trusted. Second, a situation of trust is perceived by a trusting person as one in which shared values or norms motivate both his own actions as well as those of the person being trusted. As an emotional attitude, trust is, to some extent, independent of objective information. It determines what a trusting person will believe and how various outcomes are evaluated. Hence, trust is quite different from rational belief and the problem with trust is not adequately met in minimizing risk by supplying extensive information or some mechanism of sanctioning. Trust is an attitude that enables us to cope with risk in a certain way. If we want to promote trustful interaction, we must form our institutions in ways that allow individuals to experience their interest and values as shared and, thus, to develop a trusting attitude
Latta, Margaret Macintyre & Buck, Gayle (2008). Enfleshing embodiment: 'Falling into trust' with the body's role in teaching and learning. Educational Philosophy and Theory 40 (2):315-329.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: Embodiment as a compelling way to rethink the nature of teaching and learning asks participants to see fundamentally what is at stake within teaching/learning situations, encountering ourselves and our relations to others/otherness. Drawing predominantly on the thinking of John Dewey and Maurice Merleau-Ponty the body's role within teaching and learning is enfleshed through the concrete experiences of one middle-school science teacher attempting to teach for greater student inquiry. Personal, embodied understandings of the lived terms of inquiry enable the science teacher to seek out the lived terms of inquiry in her classroom alongside students. Theories are taken up as working notions for the teacher to examine as philosophical/theoretical/pragmatic processes to be worked with, and concomitantly, working as dynamic practice at the core of the teacher's thinking and experiences. The theory/practice conjuncture of inquiry is thus enfleshed, gaining embodied understandings. Embodiment as the medium enhancing comprehension is evidenced as holding worthy implications for teacher education. Teacher education must fall into trust with the body's role in teaching and learning
Lathangue, Robin (2007). Yielding actuality: Trust and reason in Gillian rose's vision of community. Southern Journal of Philosophy 45 (1):117-127.   (Google)
Abstract: This article explores the conviction that the durability of communities is contingent, at least in part, on the conception of reason in play. It proposes that prospects for building and sustaining community areenhanced to the degree that rationalistic theories of rationality are rejected. The resulting equivocation in the processes of rule-making, moral thinking, analysis, and critique, while problematic, will bepreferable to the alternative and caricatured approaches premised on a strong division between reason and its so-called others. This desirable equivocation involves an analysis of the role of trust in human relations and a revised conception of reason developed by philosopher and social critic Gillian Rose (1947–1995). Through an analysis of Rose’s commentary on the folk legend of Camelot and the phenomenology of friendship, this article tries to show how relations constrained by alterity can be transformed
Lautrup, B. & Zinkernagel, H. (1999). G-2 and the trust in experimental results. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 30 (1):85-110.   (Google)
Law, Alex (2008). The elixir of social trust: Social capital and cultures of challenge in health movements. In Julie Brownlie, Alexandra Greene & Alexandra Howson (eds.), Researching Trust and Health. Routledge.   (Google)
Lehrer, Keith (2005). Book review the european republic: Reflections on the political economy of a future constitution by Stefan collignon. London: The federal trust, 2003, 212 pp. Journal of Ethics 8 (4).   (Google)
Lehrer, Keith (1997). Self-Trust: A Study of Reason, Knowledge, and Autonomy. Oxford University Press.   (Google)
Abstract: The eminent philosopher Keith Lehrer offers an original and distinctively personal view of central aspects of the human condition, such as reason, knowledge, wisdom, autonomy, love, consensus, and consciousness. He argues that what is uniquely human is our capacity for evaluating our own mental states (such as beliefs and desires), and suggests that we have a system for such evaluation which allows the resolution of personal and interpersonal conflict. The keystone in this system is self-trust, on which reason, knowledge, and wisdom are grounded
Leith, Valerie M. Sheach (2008). Restoring trust? Trust and informed consent in the aftermath of the organ retention scandal. In Julie Brownlie, Alexandra Greene & Alexandra Howson (eds.), Researching Trust and Health. Routledge.   (Google)
Lenard, Patti Tamara (2010). Rebuilding trust in an era of widening wealth inequality. Journal of Social Philosophy 41 (1):73-91.   (Google)
Levy, Ron, Judicial selection: Trust and reform.   (Google)
Abstract:      The Ad Hoc Committee to Review a Nominee for the Supreme Court of Canada held unprecedented public hearings in advance of the appointment of Justice Marshall Rothstein to the Court. The author assesses the work of the Committee using the interdisciplinary literature on assorted institutional design models and their effects on public trust and decision-maker trustworthiness. This literature can inform efforts to ensure that judicial selectors select, or aspire to select, new justices impartially. The Committee adopted a comparatively ineffective and risky model of democratization that relies on accountability tools such as political party dýtente. Past examples suggest that an alternative approach is preferable: Reforms should focus not on increasing accountability for selections but on building trust and trustworthiness in selections. The author offers specific recommendations to enhance trust and trustworthiness in the selection process using a permanent Supreme Court of Canada appointments body. The body proposed can enable robust rather than token levels of public involvement while preserving or broadening judicial independence
Levick, David; Woog, Robert & Knox, Kel (2007). Trust and goodwill as attractors: Reflecting on a complexity-informed inquiry. World Futures 63 (3 & 4):250 – 264.   (Google)
Abstract: This article discusses a complexity-informed review and evaluation project. Complexity-informed methods and techniques are used to fashion understanding of the relationships and processes implicated between the service agencies constituting the Youth Accommodation Interagency - Nepean (YAIN) and their Resource Worker, the influence of these relationships and processes on the achievement of desired and required goals, and the potential for replication of these relationships and processes elsewhere. The article concludes with critical reflection regarding what was learnt from utilizing complexity in this qualitative inquiry
Lin, Chieh-Peng (2010). Modeling corporate citizenship, organizational trust, and work engagement based on attachment theory. Journal of Business Ethics 94 (4).   (Google)
Abstract: This study proposes a research model based on attachment theory, which examines the role of corporate citizenship in the formation of organizational trust and work engagement. In the model, work engagement is directly influenced by four dimensions of perceived corporate citizenship, including economic, legal, ethical, and discretionary citizenship, while work engagement is also indirectly affected by perceived corporate citizenship through the mediation of organizational trust. Empirical testing using a survey of personnel from 12 large firms confirms most of our hypothesized effects. Finally, theoretical and managerial implications of our findings are discussed
Liu, Hung-En & Tai, Terence Hua (2009). Public trust, commercialisation, and benefit sharing : Towards a trustworthy biobank in taiwan. In Margaret Sleeboom-Faulkner (ed.), Human Genetic Biobanks in Asia: Politics of Trust and Scientific Advancement. Routledge.   (Google)
Lämsä, Anna-Maija & Pučėtaitė, Raminta (2006). Development of organizational trust among employees from a contextual perspective. Business Ethics 15 (2):130–141.   (Google | More links)
Loewen, Nancy (2003). How Could You?: Kids Talk About Trust. Reibeling Picture Window Books.   (Google)
Loeben, Greg (2006). Understanding futility: Why trust and disparate impact matter as much as what works. American Journal of Bioethics 6 (5):38 – 39.   (Google)
Lubell, Mark (ms). Familiarity breeds trust: Collective action in a policy domain.   (Google)
Abstract:      Researchers are currently refining the concept and theory of trust to focus on identifying the bases of trust within specific domains. This paper examines the development of trust within the domain of agricultural water policy, where trust is a critical resource for solving collective action problems. The analysis uses data from a mail survey of farmers in agricultural water policy to integrate three theoretical frameworks: the conventional generalized trust perspective, Levi's transaction cost theory of trust, and Sabatier and Jenkins-Smith's Advocacy Coalition Framework. The results demonstrate that while there is a close relationship between the attitude of trust and beliefs about the behavior of policy actors, the dynamics of trust within policy domains should be understood within the context of institutional structures and competing political values
Luxon, Nancy (2004). Truthfulness, risk, and trust in the late lectures of Michel Foucault. Inquiry 47 (5):464 – 489.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: This paper argues that Foucault's late, unpublished lectures present a model for evaluating those ethical authorities who claim to speak truthfully. In response to those who argue that claims to truth are but claims to power, I argue that Foucault finds in ancient practices of parrhesia (fearless speech) a resource by which to assess modern authorities' claims in the absence of certain truth. My preliminary analytic framework for this model draws exclusively on my research of his unpublished lectures given at the Collège de France between 1982-84. I argue that this model proceeds in three stages: the truth-teller is first established as independently authoritative, he is subsequently tested under conditions of risk, and the encounter concludes by generating trust and a relation of 'care' with the audience. Foucault's model results in an 'aesthetics of existence' organized around a set of ethical practices, and thus offers an alternative to other forms of ethical subjectivity. In so doing, this model also critiques the place for risk in liberal political institutions
Macrae, Donald Gunn (1973). Ages and Stages: Auguste Comte Memorial Trust Lectures, Delivered on 18 November 1971 at the London School of Economics and Political Science. London,Athlone Press.   (Google)
Magill, Gerard (2007). A church that can and cannot change: The development of catholic moral teaching. By John T. Noonan jr, social traps and the problem of trust. By bo Rothstein, living together & Christian ethics. By Adrian Thatcher and more lasting unions: Christianity, the family, and society. By Stephen G. post. Heythrop Journal 48 (4):647–649.   (Google | More links)
Maitland, F. W. (1995). Trust and corporation (extracts). In Julia Stapleton (ed.), Group Rights: Perspectives Since 1900. Thoemmes Press.   (Google)
Marty, Martin E. (2010). Building Cultures of Trust. W.B. Eerdmans Pub. Co..   (Google)
Abstract: To build cultures of trust -- Seven levels where risk and trust meet -- Scripted resources -- Humanistic reflections -- Correcting "category mistakes" -- Conversation and "what it means to be human" -- Where science and religion meet : public life -- How to build cultures of trust : relating science, religion, and public life.
Marcel, Anthony J. (2003). Introspective report - trust, self-knowledge and science. Journal of Consciousness Studies 10 (9-10):167-186.   (Google)
Mastroianni, Anna C. (2008). Sustaining public trust: Falling short in the protection of human research participants. Hastings Center Report 38 (3):pp. 8-9.   (Google)
Masui, Tohru (2009). Trust and the creation of biobanks : Biobanking in japan and the uk. In Margaret Sleeboom-Faulkner (ed.), Human Genetic Biobanks in Asia: Politics of Trust and Scientific Advancement. Routledge.   (Google)
McCullough, Laurence B. (1999). Moral authority, power, and trust in clinical ethics. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 24 (1):1 – 3.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: Moral concerns about the authority, power, and trustworthiness of physicians have become important topics in clinical ethics during the past three decades. These concerns have come to greater prominence with the increasing involvement of large-scale private institutions in the organization and delivery of medical services, especially managed care organizations, and with the increasing involvement of government in the payment for and organization and delivery of medical services. When physicians act as the agents of large institutions or governments, the power of physicians over their patients increases. The purposes of this article are (1) to reflect briefly on the historical origins of the moral problem of physicians' power in medicine, and (2) to introduce the articles in the 1999 annual number of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy on topics in clinical ethics
McCullough, Laurence B. (2002). Power, integrity, and trust in the managed practice of medicine: Lessons from the history of medical ethics. Social Philosophy and Policy 19 (2):180-211.   (Google)
Mccullough, Laurence B. (2002). Trust, moral responsibility, the self, and well-ordered societies: The importance of basic philosophical concepts for clinical ethics. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 27 (1):3 – 9.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: Although the work of clinical ethics is intensely practical, it employs and presumes philosophical concepts from the central branches of philosophy, including metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, and political philosophy. This essay introduces this issue in the Journal on clinical ethics by considering how the papers and book reviews included in it illuminate four such concepts: trust, moral responsibility, the self and well-ordered societies
McDowell, Ashley (2002). Trust and information: The role of trust in the social epistemology of information science. Social Epistemology 16 (1):51 – 63.   (Google)
Mcgeer, Victoria (2002). Developing trust. Philosophical Explorations 5 (1):21 – 38.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: This paper examines developing trust in two related senses: (1) rationally overcoming distrust, and (2) developing a mature capacity for trusting/distrusting. In focussing exclusively on the first problem, traditional philosophical discussions fail to address how an evidence- based paradigm of rationality is easily co-opted by (immature) agents in support of irrational distrust (or trust) - a manifestation of the second problem. Well-regulated trust requires developing a capacity to tolerate the uncertainties that chracterise relationships among fully autonomous self-directed agents. Early relationships lack this uncertainty since care-givers take primary responsibility for determining a child's interests, reducing the scope (if not the intensity) of potential conflict between self and other. Once agents recognize that adulthood demands foregoing the security embedded in such relationships of dependency, they are free to embrace a more appropriate paradigm of rationality for guiding their thought and action in interactions with others
McGeer, Victoria (2008). Trust, hope and empowerment. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 86 (2):237 – 254.   (Google)
Abstract: Philosophers and social scientists have focussed a great deal of attention on our human capacity to trust, but relatively little on the capacity to hope. This is a significant oversight, as hope and trust are importantly interconnected. This paper argues that, even though trust can and does feed our hopes, it is our empowering capacity to hope that significantly underwrites—and makes rational—our capacity to trust
McLeod, Carolyn (online). Trust. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.   (Google)
McNamee, Mike (1998). Celebrating trust : Virtues and rules in the ethical conduct of sports coaches. In M. J. McNamee & S. J. Parry (eds.), Ethics and Sport. E & Fn Spon.   (Google)
Meijboom, Franck L. B.; Visak, Tatjana & Brom, Frans W. A. (2006). From trust to trustworthiness: Why information is not enough in the food sector. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 19 (5).   (Google)
Abstract: The many well-publicized food scandals in recent years have resulted in a general state of vulnerable trust. As a result, building consumer trust has become an important goal in agri-food policy. In their efforts to protect trust in the agricultural and food sector, governments and industries have tended to consider the problem of trust as merely a matter of informing consumers on risks. In this article, we argue that the food sector better addresses the problem of trust from the perspective of the trustworthiness of the food sector itself. This broad idea for changing the focus of trust is the assumption that if you want to be trusted, you should be trustworthy. To provide a clear understanding of what being trustworthy means within the food sector, we elaborate on both the concept of trust and of responsibility. In this way we show that policy focused on enhancing transparency and providing information to consumers is crucial, but not sufficient for dealing with the problem of consumer trust in the current agri-food context
Meijboom, Franck L. B. (2007). Trust, food, and health. Questions of trust at the interface between food and health. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 20 (3).   (Google)
Abstract: The food sector and health sector become more and more intertwined. This raises many possibilities, but also questions. One of them is the question of what the implication is for public trust in food and health issues. In this article, I argue that the products on the interface between food and health entails some serious questions of trust. Trust in food products and medical products is often based upon a long history of rather clear patterns of mutual expectations, yet these expectations are not similar in both sectors. As long as the food sector and health sector remain distinct, these differences will not lead to problems of trust, yet when new products are introduced, like functional foods or personalized dietary advices, trust can be threatened. To prevent this, we need clarity with regard to what we can expect of these new products and of whom to expect what in this situation. This requires not␣only adequate information on operating procedures, but also a profound debate␣on responsibilities and the explication and interpretation of moral values and norms
Mellema, Gregory (1999). Adam B. seligam, the problem of trust. Journal of Value Inquiry 33 (2).   (Google)
Michalos, Alex C. (1990). The impact of trust on business, international security and the quality of life. Journal of Business Ethics 9 (8).   (Google)
Abstract: The theses supported in this essay are that the world is to some extent constructed by each of us, that it can and ought to be constructed in a more benign way, that such construction will require more trust than most people are currently willing to grant, and that most of us will be better off if most of us can manage to be more trusting in spite of our doubts
Miller, Paul B. & Weijer, Charles (2008). Beyond consent : The trust-based obligations of physicians to patients in clinical research. In Oonagh Corrigan (ed.), The Limits of Consent: A Socio-Ethical Approach to Human Subject Research in Medicine. Oxford University Press.   (Google)
Miller, Jessica (2007). The other side of trust in health care: Prescribing drugs with the potential for abuse. Bioethics 21 (1):51–60.   (Google | More links)
Misztal, Barbara A. (2001). Normality and trust in Goffman's theory of interaction order. Sociological Theory 19 (3):312-324.   (Google | More links)
Möllering, Guido (2006). Trust: Reason, Routine, Reflexivity. Elsevier.   (Google)
Abstract: What makes trust such a powerful concept? Is it merely that in trust the whole range of social forces that we know play together? Or is it that trust involves a peculiar element beyond those we can account for? While trust is an attractive and evocative concept that has gained increasing popularity across the social sciences, it remains elusive, its many facets and applications obscuring a clear overall vision of its essence. In this book, Guido Möllering reviews a broad range of trust research and extracts three main perspectives adopted in the literature for understanding trust. Accordingly, trust is presented as a matter of reason, routine or reflexivity. While all these perspectives contribute something to our understanding of trust, Möllering shows that they imply, but cannot explain, ‘suspension’ – the leap of faith that is typical of trust. He therefore proposes a new direction in trust research that builds on existing perspectives but places the suspension of uncertainty and vulnerability at the heart of the concept of trust. Beyond a purely theoretical line of argument, the author discusses implications for empirical studies of trust and presents original case material that captures the experience of trust in terms of reason, routine, reflexivity and suspension. Möllering concludes by suggesting how the new approach can enhance the relevance of trust research and its contributions to broader research agendas concerning the constitution of positive expectations in the face of prevalent uncertainty and change at various levels in our economies and societies. The book is essential reading for anyone who wants to gain a thorough understanding of trust. It can serve as a general introduction for advanced students and scholars in the social sciences, especially in economics, sociology, psychology and management. For more experienced researchers, it is a challenging and provocative critique of the field and a new approach to understanding trust
Morrow, Jason D. (2003). O'Neill, Onora. Autonomy and trust in bioethics. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (3).   (Google)
Mullin, Amy (2005). Trust, social norms, and motherhood. Journal of Social Philosophy 36 (3):316–330.   (Google | More links)
Munnichs, Geert (2004). Whom to trust? Public concerns, late modern risks, and expert trustworthiness. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 17 (2).   (Google)
Abstract: This article discusses the conditions under which the use of expert knowledge may provide an adequate response to public concerns about high-tech, late modern risks. Scientific risk estimation has more than once led to expert controversies. When these controversies occur, the public at large – as a media audience – faces a paradoxical situation: on the one hand it must rely on the expertise of scientists as represented in the mass media, but on the other it is confused by competing expert claims in the absence of any clear-cut standard to judge these claims. The question then arises, what expertise can the public trust? I argue that expert controversies cannot be settled by appealing to neutral, impartial expertise, because each use of expert knowledge in applied contexts is inextricably bound up with normative and evaluative assumptions. This value-laden nature of expert contributions, however, does not necessarily force us to adopt a relativist conception of expert knowledge. Nor does it imply active involvement of ordinary citizens in scientific risk estimation – as some authors seem to suggest. The value-laden, or partisan, nature of expert statements rather requires an unbiased process of expert dispute in which experts and counter-experts can participate. Moreover, instead of being a reason for discrediting expert contributions, experts'' commitment may enhance public trustworthiness because it enlarges the scope of perspectives taken into account, to include public concerns. Experts who share the same worries as (some of) the public could be expected to voice these worries at the level of expert dispute. Thus, a broadly shaped expert dispute, that is accessible to both proponents and opponents, is a prerequisite for public trust
Murray, Thomas H. & Johnston, Josephine (eds.) (2010). Trust and Integrity in Biomedical Research: The Case of Financial Conflicts of Interest. Johns Hopkins University Press.   (Google)
Myskja, Bjørn K. (2008). The categorical imperative and the ethics of trust. Ethics and Information Technology 10 (4).   (Google)
Abstract: Trust can be understood as a precondition for a well-functioning society or as a way to handle complexities of living in a risk society, but also as a fundamental aspect of human morality. Interactions on the Internet pose some new challenges to issues of trust, especially connected to disembodiedness. Mistrust may be an important obstacle to Internet use, which is problematic as the Internet becomes a significant arena for political, social and commercial activities necessary for full participation in a liberal democracy. The Categorical Imperative lifts up trust as a fundamental component of human ethical virtues – first of all, because deception and coercion, the antitheses of trust, cannot be universalized. Mistrust is, according to Kant, a natural component of human nature, as we are social beings dependent on recognition by others but also prone to deceiving others. Only in true friendships can this tendency be overcome and give room for unconditional trust. Still we can argue that Kant must hold that trustworthy behaviour as well as trust in others is obligatory, as expressions of respect for humanity. The Kantian approach integrates political and ethical aspects of trust, showing that protecting the external activities of citizens is required in order to act morally. This means that security measures, combined with specific regulations are important preconditions for building online trust, providing an environment enabling people to act morally and for trust-based relationships
Nagasawa, Yujin (ms). I trust you, you're a doctor.   (Google)
Abstract: In his very interesting article Steve Clarke (1999) examines various views about a patient’s trust of a doctor, including Edwin R. DuBose’s view (1995), according to which trust in medicine is closely related to religious faith. Clarke finds them unconvincing and provides his own, more elaborate view of trust. In this short reply to Clarke’s paper I argue that his view is not compelling because it faces a difficulty that is similar to the one he believes DuBose’s view inherits
Nelson, James Lindemann (2005). Trust and transplants. American Journal of Bioethics 5 (4):26 – 28.   (Google)
Nickel, Philip J. (2007). Trust and obligation-ascription. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 10 (3).   (Google)
Abstract:   This paper defends the view that trust is a moral attitude, by putting forward the Obligation-Ascription Thesis: If E trusts F to do X, this implies that E ascribes an obligation to F to do X. I explicate the idea of obligation-ascription in terms of requirement and the appropriateness of blame. Then, drawing a distinction between attitude and ground, I argue that this account of the attitude of trust is compatible with the possibility of amoral trust, that is, trust held among amoral persons on the basis of amoral grounds. It is also compatible with trust adopted on purely predictive grounds. Then, defending the thesis against a challenge of motivational inefficacy, I argue that obligation-ascription can motivate people to act even in the absence of definite, mutually-known agreements. I end by explaining, briefly, the advantages of this sort of moral account of trust over a view based on reactive attitudes such as resentment
Nickel, Philip J., Trust, staking, and expectations.   (Google)
Abstract: Trust is a kind of risky reliance on another person. Social scientists have offered two basic accounts of trust: predictive expectation accounts and staking (betting) accounts. Predictive expectation accounts identify trust with a judgment that performance is likely. Staking accounts identify trust with a judgment that reliance on the person’s performance is worthwhile. I argue (1) that these two views of trust are different, (2) that the staking account is preferable to the predictive expectation account on grounds of intuitive adequacy and coherence with plausible explanations of action; and (3) that there are counterexamples to both accounts. I then set forward an additional necessary condition on trust, according to which trust implies a moral expectation. The content of the moral expectation is this: W hen A trusts B to do x, A ascribes an obligation to B to do x, and holds B to this obligation. This moral expectation account throws new light on some of the consequences of misplaced trust. I use the example of physicians’ defensive behavior to illustrate this final point
Nygaard, Stian & Russo, Angeloantonio (2008). Trust, coordination and knowledge flows in r&d projects: The case of fuel cell technologies. Business Ethics 17 (1):23–34.   (Google | More links)
Oakes, G. (1990). The sales process and the paradoxes of trust. Journal of Business Ethics 9 (8).   (Google)
Abstract: This essay explores a major ethical variable in personal sales: trust. By analyzing data drawn from life insurance sales, the essay supports the thesis that the role of the agent and the exigencies of personal sales create certain antinomies of trust that compromise the sales process. As a result, trust occupies a problematic and apparently paradoxical position in the sales process. On the one hand, success in personal sales is held to depend upon trust. On the other hand, because the techniques required to form trust in personal sales nullify the conditions under which trust is possible, these instruments of trust formation are self-defeating
Offe, Claus (2001). Political liberalism, group rights, and the politics of fear and trust. Studies in East European Thought 53 (3).   (Google)
Olekalns, Mara & Smith, Philip L. (2009). Mutually dependent: Power, trust, affect and the use of deception in negotiation. Journal of Business Ethics 85 (3).   (Google)
Abstract: Using a simulated two-party negotiation, we examined how trustworthiness and power balance affected deception. In order to trigger deception, we used an issue that had no value for one of the two parties. We found that high cognitive trust increased deception whereas high affective trust decreased deception. Negotiators who expressed anxiety also used more deception whereas those who expressed optimism also used less deception. The nature of the negotiating relationship (mutuality and level of dependence) interacted with trust and negotiators’ affect to influence levels of deception. Deception was most likely to occur when negotiators reported low trust or expressed negative emotions in the context of nonmutual or low dependence relationships. In these relationships, emotions that signaled certainty were associated with misrepresentation whereas emotions that signaled uncertainty were associated with concealment of information. Negotiators who expressed positive emotions in the context of a nonmutual or high dependence relationship also used less deception. Our results are consistent with a fair trade model in which negotiator increases deception when contextual and interpersonal cues heighten concerns about exploitation and decrease deception when these cues attenuate concerns about exploitation
O'Neill, Onora (2002). Autonomy and Trust in Bioethics. Cambridge University Press.   (Google)
Abstract: Why has autonomy been a leading idea in philosophical writing on bioethics, and why has trust been marginal? In this important book, Onora O'Neill suggests that the conceptions of individual autonomy so widely relied on in bioethics are philosophically and ethically inadequate, and that they undermine rather than support relations of trust. She shows how Kant's non-individualistic view of autonomy provides a stronger basis for an approach to medicine, science and biotechnology, and does not marginalize untrustworthiness, while also explaining why trustworthy individuals and institutions are often undeservingly mistrusted. Her arguments are illustrated with issues raised by practices such as the use of genetic information by the police or insurers, research using human tissues, uses of new reproductive technologies, and media practices for reporting on medicine, science and technology. Autonomy and Trust in Bioethics will appeal to a wide range of readers in ethics, bioethics and related disciplines
Orozco, Joshue (2010). I can trust you now … but not later: An explanation of testimonial knowledge in children. Acta Analytica 25 (2).   (Google)
Abstract: Children learn and come to know things about the world at a very young age through the testimony of their caregivers. The challenge comes in explaining how children acquire such knowledge. Since children indiscriminately receive testimony, their testimony-based beliefs seem unreliable, and, consequently, should fail to qualify as knowledge. In this paper I discuss some attempted explanations by Sandy Goldberg and John Greco and argue that they fail. I go on to suggest that what generates the problem is a hidden assumption that the standards for testimonial knowledge are invariant between children and cognitively mature adults. I propose that in order to adequately explain how children acquire testimonial knowledge we should reject this hidden assumption. I then argue that understanding knowledge in terms of intellectual skills gives us a plausible framework to do so
Owens, David (2003). Review: Intellectual trust in one's self and others. Mind 112 (447).   (Google)
Parales-quenza, Carlos José (2006). Astuteness, trust, and social intelligence. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 36 (1):39–56.   (Google | More links)
Parr, Hester & Davidson, Joyce (2008). Virtual trust": Online emotional intimacies in mental health support. In Julie Brownlie, Alexandra Greene & Alexandra Howson (eds.), Researching Trust and Health. Routledge.   (Google)
Paul, Herman J. (2008). A collapse of trust: Reconceptualizing the crisis of historicism. Journal of the Philosophy of History 2 (1):63-82.   (Google)
Abstract: This essay redefines the crisis of historicism as a collapse of trust. Following Friedrich Jaeger, it suggests that this crisis should be understood, not as a crisis caused by historicist methods, but as a crisis faced by the classical historicist tradition of Ranke. The "nihilism" and "moral relativism" feared by Troeltsch's generation did not primarily refer to the view that moral universals did not exist; rather, they expressed that the historical justification of bildungsbürgerliche values offered by classical historicism did no longer work. In Niklas Luhmann's vocabulary, this is to say that moral values could no longer be trusted on historical grounds. But when the "reduction of complexity" offered by classical historicism collapsed, Troeltsch's generation faced a justification problem: what other modes of justification, if any at all, were available in a time of increasing secularization and growing feelings of discontinuity with the past? In identifying the crisis of historicism with this moral justification problem, this essay helps explain why such debts of despair could be reached in the early-twentieth-century disputes over historicism
Pearson, Yvette E. (2008). Onora O'Neill, autonomy and trust in bioethics (cambridge: Cambridge university press, 2002), pp. XI + 213. Utilitas 20 (2):248-250.   (Google)
Peck, Lee Anne (2007). Flack and hacks: Transparency and trust in the UK. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 22 (2 & 3):231 – 235.   (Google)
Penney, Darby & McGee, Glenn (2005). Chemical trust: Oxytocin oxymoron? American Journal of Bioethics 5 (3):1 – 2.   (Google)
Pendlebury, Shirley & Enslin, Penny (2001). Representation, identification and trust: Towards an ethics of educational research. Journal of Philosophy of Education 35 (3):361–370.   (Google | More links)
Perrini, Francesco & Castaldo, Sandro (2008). Editorial introduction: Corporate social responsibility and trust. Business Ethics 17 (1):1–2.   (Google | More links)
Pettit, Philip (1995). The Cunning of trust. Philosophy and Public Affairs 24 (3):202–225.   (Google | More links)
Pevnick, Ryan (2009). Social trust and the ethics of immigration policy. Journal of Political Philosophy 17 (2):146-167.   (Google | More links)
Phillips, D. Z. (2002). On trusting intellectuals on trust. Philosophical Investigations 25 (1):33–53.   (Google | More links)
Pivato, Sergio; Misani, Nicola & Tencati, Antonio (2008). The impact of corporate social responsibility on consumer trust: The case of organic food. Business Ethics 17 (1):3–12.   (Google | More links)
Pollitt, Michael (2002). The economics of trust, norms and networks. Business Ethics 11 (2):119–128.   (Google | More links)
Potter, Nancy (1996). Discretionary power, lies, and broken trust: Justification and discomfort. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 17 (4).   (Google)
Abstract: This paper explores the relationship between the bonds of practitioner/patient trust and the notion of a justified lie. The intersection of moral theories on lying which prioritize right action with institutional discretionary power allows practitioners to dismiss, or at least not take seriously enough, the harm done when a patient's trust is betrayed. Even when a lie can be shown to be justified, the trustworthiness of the practitioner may be called into question in ways that neither theories of right action nor contemporary discourse in health care attends to adequately. I set out features of full trustworthiness along Aristotelian lines
Prijic-Samarzija, Snjezana (2007). Trust and contextualism. Acta Analytica 22 (2).   (Google)
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to apply the general idea of contextualism, as a theory of knowledge attribution, to the very specific case of testimony and trust characterized as being the procedure of the attribution of knowledge (and sincerity) to the informant. In the first part, I argue in favor of evidentialism, a viewpoint that takes epistemically responsible trust as a matter of evidence. In the second part, I consider the question of how strong an evidential basis has to be for epistemically responsible trust. I have briefly registered two main tendencies in contemporary debates regarding trust and testimony: (i) the non-unitary character of our trust; (ii) and the requirement for a refinement of evidential standards. In short, I argue in favor of the stance that any ‘undiscriminatory generalization’ (both Redian or anti-reductivist and Humean or reductivist) concerning epistemically responsible trust is a kind of inappropriate theoretical idealization, and that a certain theoretical reconciliation has to be offered. Finally, in the third part, I propose trust-contextualism as the viewpoint that optimally harmonizes both our intuitive and theoretical requirements about epistemically responsible trust
Pučėtaitė, Raminta & Lämsä, Anna-Maija (2008). Developing organizational trust through advancement of employees' work ethic in a post-socialist context. Journal of Business Ethics 82 (2).   (Google)
Abstract: The paper highlights the dependence of the level of organizational trust on work ethic and aims to show that development of trust in organizations can be␣stimulated by raising the level of work ethic with organizational practices. Based on the framework by Kanungo, R. N. and A. M. Jaeger (1990, ‘Introduction: The Need for Indigenous Management In Developing Countries’, in A. M. Jaeger and R. N. Kanungo (eds.), Management in Developing Countries (Routledge, London), pp. 1–23), historical–cultural analysis of the Lithuanian context is carried out. The country is chosen as an example of a post-socialist context where work ethic and trust in the society tended to be rather low. The authors discuss organizational practices, particularly the ones related to people management, which can facilitate development of work ethic, and thus, trust in organizations operating in a post-socialist context. The importance of a processual approach to the development of organizational trust and the ethical content of organizational practices, which are aimed at developing organizational trust is highlighted. Directions for further research are indicated
Rankin, Peg (1980). Yet Will I Trust Him. Regal Books.   (Google)
Rawls, Anne Warfield & David, Gary (2005). Accountably other: Trust, reciprocity and exclusion in a context of situated practice. Human Studies 28 (4).   (Google)
Abstract: The first part of this paper makes five points: First, the problem of Otherness is different and differently constructed in modern differentiated societies. Therefore, approaches to Otherness based on traditional notions of difference and boundary between societies and systems of shared belief will not suffice; Second, because solidarity can no longer be maintained through boundaries between ingroup and outgroup, social cohesion has to take a different form; Third, to the extent that Otherness is not a condition of demographic, or belief based, exclusion in modern societies, but rather something that happens to people otherwise available to one another in interaction, othering is a processthat occurs over the course of interaction, turn by turn, not a set of beliefs or a state of mind; Fourth, othering may be supported by accounts and narratives, and these may exist before the fact – or be articulated after the fact. But, over the course of an ongoing interaction, beliefs and narratives do not explain what goes wrong with practices; Fifth, practices require reciprocity and trust. Therefore, practices require a morestringent form of morality – not a less stringent form – and moresocial cohesion – not less – than traditional society.The second part of the paper illustrates these five points with an extended analysis of a cross-race interaction in which accounts are invoked, reciprocity breaks down, and participants are rendered as Accountable Others
Reinman, Yaakov Yosef (2002). With Hearts Full of Faith: Insights Into Trust and Emunah: A Selection of Addresses. Mesorah.   (Google)
Resnik, Michael D. (1987). You can't trust an ideal theory to tell the truth. Philosophical Studies 52 (2).   (Google)
Rgn, B.a. (2002). Trust and trustworthiness in nurse–patient relationships. Nursing Philosophy 3 (2):152–162.   (Google | More links)
Rodgers, Waymond (2010). Three primary trust pathways underlying ethical considerations. Journal of Business Ethics 91 (1).   (Google)
Abstract: The role of trust pathways in achieving a competitive advantage is becoming increasingly important for effective ethical consideration policies in all business and non-business sectors. This paper argues that there are three primary trust pathways of rational choice, rule-based trust, and category-based trust that underscore the basis of trust relationships. The implementation of these primary trust pathways is strongly influenced by expertise level, incomplete information, rapidly shifting environments, and/or time-pressure. The refinement of the interaction of information exchange and framing of problems can produce three secondary higher-level trust pathways of third party-based trust, role-based trust, and knowledge-based trust. These six different trust pathways that guide ethical consideration issues are discussed with a Throughput Modeling theoretical approach
Roepstorff, Andreas (2003). Why trust the subject? Journal of Consciousness Studies 10.   (Google)
Rolin, Kristina (2002). Gender and trust in science. Hypatia 17 (4).   (Google)
Abstract: : It is now recognized that relations of trust play an epistemic role in science. The contested issue is under what conditions trust in scientific testimony is warranted. I argue that John Hardwig's view of trustworthy scientific testimony is inadequate because it does not take into account the possibility that credibility does not reliably reflect trustworthiness, and because it does not appreciate the role communities have in guaranteeing the trustworthiness of scientific testimony
Rosanas, Josep M. & Velilla, Manuel (2003). Loyalty and trust as the ethical bases of organizations. Journal of Business Ethics 44 (1).   (Google)
Abstract: The last years of the 20th Century have been somewhat contradictory with respect to values like loyalty, trust or truthfulness. On the one hand, (often implicitly, but sometimes very explicitly), self-interest narrowly defined seems to be the dominant force in the business world, both in theory and in practice. On the other hand, alliances, networks and other forms of cooperation have shown that self-interest has to be at least "enlightened".The academic literature has reflected both points of view, but frequently in an ambiguous way, since the concepts of loyalty and trust are somewhat elusive and equivocal. This paper attempts to analyze the concept of loyalty in depth, examining the different conceptions about the word that can be found in the literature. We begin by going to the management classics (specifically, Follett, Barnard and Simon), and we then turn to the anthropological approach of Pérez López (1993), with its built-in ethical analysis, and show how trust and loyalty are crucial to the development of organizations. We end by suggesting in what ways loyalty and trust can be created and fostered in organizations
Rose, Anna M. & Rose, Jacob M. (2008). Management attempts to avoid accounting disclosure oversight: The effects of trust and knowledge on corporate directors' governance ability. Journal of Business Ethics 83 (2).   (Google)
Rothman, David J. (2006). Trust is Not Enough: Bringing Human Rights to Medicine. New York Review Books.   (Google)
Abstract: Addresses the issues at the heart of international medicine and social responsibility. A number of international declarations have proclaimed that health care is a fundamental human right. But if we accept this broad commitment, how should we concretely define the state’s responsibility for the health of its citizens? Although there is growing debate over this issue, there are few books for general readers that provide engaging accounts of critical incidents, practices, and ideas in the field of human rights, health care, and medicine. Included in the book are case studies of such issues as AIDS among orphans in Romania, organ trafficking, prison conditions, health care rationing, medical research in the third world, and South Africa’s constitutionally guaranteed right of access to health care. It uses these topics to address themes of protection of vulnerable populations, equity and fairness in delivering competent medical care, informed consent and the free flow of information, and state responsibility for ensuring physical, mental, and social well-being
Roy, Bernard (2003). Cogitations [1986]: In language we trust: J. J. Katz's anatomy of the cartesian cogito. Philosophical Forum 34 (3-4):439–450.   (Google | More links)
Rule, Colin & Friedberg, Larry (2005). The appropriate role of dispute resolution in building trust online. Artificial Intelligence and Law 13 (2).   (Google)
Abstract: This article examines the relationship between online dispute resolution (ODR) and trust. We discuss what trust is, why trust is important, and how trust develops. Our claim is that efforts to implement online dispute resolution on a site or service in a manner that promotes trust need to consider ODR as just one tool in a broader toolbox of trust-building tools and techniques. These techniques are amongst others marketing, education, trust seals, and transparency. By evaluating ODR in its proper context as one component of a larger trust strategy, we can more accurately set expectations for its results and position our projects for success
Ruppel, Cynthia P. & Harrington, Susan J. (2000). The relationship of communication, ethical work climate, and trust to commitment and innovation. Journal of Business Ethics 25 (4).   (Google)
Abstract: Recently, Hosmer (1994a) proposed a model linking right, just, and fair treatment of extended stakeholders with trust and innovation in organizations. The current study tests this model by using Victor and Cullen''s (1988) ethical work climate instrument to measure the perceptions of the right, just, and fair treatment of employee stakeholders.In addition, this study extends Hosmer''s model to include the effect of right, just, and fair treatment on employee communication, also believed to be an underlying dynamic of trust.More specifically, the current study used a survey of 111 managers to test (1) whether right, just, and fair treatment influences trust, both directly as well as indirectly via communication, and (2) whether trust influences perceptions of commitment and innovation. Strong support for the study''s hypotheses and Hosmer''s (1994a) model was found. Such findings support those who argue that moral management may be good management
Sarot, Marcel (1996). Why trusting God differs from all other forms of trust. Sophia 35 (1).   (Google)
Saunders, Mark (ed.) (2010). Organizational Trust: A Cultural Perspective. Cambridge University Press.   (Google)
Abstract: Machine generated contents note: List of figures; List of tables; Editors; Contributors; Editors' acknowledgements; Part I. The Conceptual Challenge of Researching Trust Across Different 'Cultural Spheres': 1. Introduction: unraveling the complexities of trust and culture Graham Dietz, Nicole Gillespie and Georgia Chao; 2. Trust differences across national-societal cultures: much to do or much ado about nothing? Donald L. Ferrin and Nicole Gillespie; 3. Towards a context-sensitive approach to researching trust in inter-organizational relationships Reinhard Bachmann; 4. Making sense of trust across cultural contexts Alex Wright and Ina Ehnert; Part II. Trust Across Different 'Cultural Spheres': Inter-Organizational Studies: 5. Examining the relationship between trust and culture in the consultant-client relationship Stephanos Avakian, Timothy Clark and Joanne Roberts; 6. Checking, not trusting: trust, distrust and cultural experience in the auditing profession Mark R. Dibben and Jacob M. Rose; 7. Trust barriers in cross-cultural negotiations: a social psychological analysis Roderick M. Kramer; 8. Trust development in German-Ukrainian business relationships: dealing with cultural differences in an uncertain institutional context Guido Möllering and Florian Stache; 9. Culture and trust in contractual relationships: a French-Lebanese cooperation Hèla Yousfi; 10. Evolving institutions of trust: personalized and institutional bases of trust in Nigerian and Ghanaian food trading Fergus Lyon and Gina Porter; Part III. Trust Across Different 'Cultural Spheres': Intra-Organizational Studies: 11. The role of trust in international cooperation in crisis areas: a comparison of German and US-American NGO partnership strategies L. Ripley Smith and Ulrike Schwegler; 12. Antecedents of supervisor trust in collectivist cultures: evidence from Turkey and China S. Arzu Wasti and Hwee Hoon Tan; 13. Trust in turbulent times: organizational change and the consequences for intra-organizational trust Veronica Hope-Hailey, Elaine Farndale and Clare Kelliher; 14. The implications of language boundaries on the development of trust in international management teams Jane Kassis Henderson; 15. The dynamics of trust across cultures in family firms Isabelle Mari; Part IV. Conclusions and Ways Forward: 16. Conclusions and ways forward Mark N. K. Saunders, Denise Skinner and Roy J. Lewicki; Index.
Schonfeld, Toby L. (2003). McLeod, Carolyn, self-trust and reproductive autonomy. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (3).   (Google)
Shionoya, Yūichi & Yagi, Kiichirō (eds.) (2001). Competition, Trust, and Cooperation: A Comparative Study. Springer.   (Google)
Abstract: This book is the result of the first SEEP (Studies in Economic Ethics and Philosophy) conference that was held in Asia. First, the Western tradition is reinterpreted and restated by the two editors with their diversified perspective of virtue ethics and communicative ethics. Then, new approaches such as "critical realism", "reciprocal delivery", "evolutionary thought" and "cultural studies" are applied to understand ethical problems in economics. Further, in contrast to the reassessment of Scottish moral philosophy and German Romanticism, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean ethical thinking is examined under the modern perspective. This book does not miss the reflections on current problems around the penetration of corruption and the primacy of shareholders' value in the field of business
Shogenji, T. (2004). Can we trust our memories? C. I. Lewis's coherence argument. Synthese 142 (1).   (Google)
Abstract:   In this paper we examine C. I. Lewis''s view on the roleof coherence – what he calls ''''congruence'''' – in thejustification of beliefs based on memory ortestimony. Lewis has two main theses on the subject. His negativethesis states that coherence of independent items ofevidence has no impact on the probability of a conclusionunless each item has some credibility of its own. Thepositive thesis says, roughly speaking, that coherenceof independently obtained items of evidence – such asconverging memories or testimonies – raises the probabilityof a conclusion to the extent sufficient for epistemicjustification, or, to use Lewis''s expression, ''''rationaland practical reliance''''.It turns out that, while thenegative thesis is essentially correct (apart from aslight flaw in Lewis''s account of independence), astrong positive connection between congruence andprobability – a connection of the kind Lewis ultimatelyneeds in his validation of memory – is contingent on thePrinciple of Indifference. In the final section we assess therepercussions of the latter fact for Lewis''s theory in particularand for coherence justification in general
Siegel, Harvey (2005). Truth, thinking, testimony and trust: Alvin Goldman on epistemology and education. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 71 (2):345–366.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: In his recent work in social epistemology, Alvin Goldman argues that truth is the fundamental epistemic end of education, and that critical thinking is of merely instrumental value with respect to that fundamental end. He also argues that there is a central place for testimony and trust in the classroom, and an educational danger in over-emphasizing the fostering of students’ critical thinking. In this paper I take issue with these claims, and argue that (1) critical thinking is a fundamental end of education, independently of its instrumental tie to truth, and (2) it is critical thinking, rather than testimony and trust,that is educationally basic
Silvers, Anita & Francis, Leslie Pickering (2005). Justice through trust: Disability and the “outlier problem” in social contract theory. Ethics 116 (1).   (Google)
Sójka, Jacek (1999). The impact of trust on employee participation in Poland. Journal of Business Ethics 21 (2-3).   (Google)
Abstract: This paper comments on five problems concerning the transformation of the Polish economy with special emphasis on employee participation and trust. 1) There can be no ethical evaluation or justification of employee participation independent of the goals of the transformation. 2) In Poland this participation is affected by deep distrust towards the whole process of transformation. 3) Privatisation is the topic most often mentioned in this connection. 4) The definition of trust becomes even more crucial when the phenomenon of distrust has to be explained. 5) Institutions can become the substitute of trust
Skyrms, Brian (2008). Trust, risk, and the social contract. Synthese 160 (1).   (Google)
Abstract: The problem of trust is discussed in terms of David Hume’s meadow-draining example. This is analyzed in terms of rational choice, evolutionary game theory and a dynamic model of social network formation. The kind of explanation that postulates an innate predisposition to trust is seen to be unnecessary when social network dynamics is taken into account
Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret (ed.) (2009). Human Genetic Biobanks in Asia: Politics of Trust and Scientific Advancement. Routledge.   (Google)
Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret (2009). Human genetic biobanking in asia : Issues of trust, wealth, and ambition. In Margaret Sleeboom-Faulkner (ed.), Human Genetic Biobanks in Asia: Politics of Trust and Scientific Advancement. Routledge.   (Google)
Smith, Matthew (online). Is trust necessary for cooperation?   (Google)
Smith, Matthew (online). Trust and planning.   (Google)
Smith, Matthew Noah (2008). Terrorism, shared rules and trust. Journal of Political Philosophy 16 (2):201–219.   (Google | More links)
Smith, Carole (2005). Understanding trust and confidence: Two paradigms and their significance for health and social care. Journal of Applied Philosophy 22 (3):299–316.   (Google | More links)
Soderberg, Nancy E. (2006). The crisis of global trust and the failure of the 2005 world summit. Ethics and International Affairs 20 (2):235–240.   (Google | More links)
Solbjør, Marit (2008). You have to have trust in those pictures": A perspective on women's experiences of mammography screening. In Julie Brownlie, Alexandra Greene & Alexandra Howson (eds.), Researching Trust and Health. Routledge.   (Google)
Speckman, Karon Reinboth (1994). Using data bases to serve justice and maintain the public's trust. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 9 (4):235 – 242.   (Google)
Abstract: Reporters' use of government data bases can create problems with serving justice and maintaining privacy. Although there are many advantages to the new reporting tool, problems can arise when the information is inaccurate or is misused for purposes other than originally intended. The ethical question of maintaining privacy while ful-filling the political function of the media is discussed. Suggested guidelines are given
Spier, Raymond E. (1999). On a question of trust. Science and Engineering Ethics 5 (4).   (Google)
Stebbing, Margaret (2009). Avoiding the trust deficit: Public engagement, values, the precautionary principle and the future of nanotechnology. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 6 (1).   (Google)
Abstract: Debates about the regulatory requirements surrounding the introduction of nanotechnology products have, at least in Australia, remained largely within disciplinary boundaries and industry and academic circles. This paper argues for a more interdisciplinary and inclusive upstream debate about the introduction of ethical, regulatory and legal frameworks that may avoid the loss of public trust that has characterised the introduction of many new technologies in the past. Insights from risk-perception theory and research are used to introduce the notion of risk as narrative as a framework for action. This paper suggests three main strategies for moving forward; drawing insights from the “trust gap” experiences of other new technologies; the application of the active form of the precautionary principle; and, the creation of nano-futures that meet both community and industry values through effective public engagement
Strudler, Alan (2009). Deception and trust. In Clancy W. Martin (ed.), The Philosophy of Deception. Oxford University Press.   (Google)
Swift, Tracey (2001). Trust, reputation and corporate accountability to stakeholders. Business Ethics 10 (1):16–26.   (Google | More links)
Taddeo, Mariarosaria (2009). Defining Trust and E-trust: Old Theories and New Problems. International Journal of Technology and Human Interaction (IJTHI) Official Publication of the Information Resources Management Association 5 (2):23-35.   (Google)
Abstract: The paper provides a selective analysis of the main theories of trust and e-trust (that is, trust in digital environments) provided in the last twenty years, with the goal of preparing the ground for a new philosophical approach to solve the problems facing them. It is divided into two parts. The first part is functional toward the analysis of e-trust: it focuses on trust and its definition and foundation and describes the general background on which the analysis of e-trust rests. The second part focuses on e-trust, its foundation and ethical implications. The paper ends by synthesising the analysis of the two parts.
Taddeo, Mariarosaria (2010). Modelling trust in artificial agents, a first step toward the analysis of e-trust. Minds and Machines 20 (2).   (Google)
Abstract: This paper provides a new analysis of e - trust , trust occurring in digital contexts, among the artificial agents of a distributed artificial system. The analysis endorses a non-psychological approach and rests on a Kantian regulative ideal of a rational agent, able to choose the best option for itself, given a specific scenario and a goal to achieve. The paper first introduces e-trust describing its relevance for the contemporary society and then presents a new theoretical analysis of this phenomenon. The analysis first focuses on an agent’s trustworthiness , this one is presented as the necessary requirement for e-trust to occur. Then, a new definition of e-trust as a second-order-property of first-order relations is presented. It is shown that the second-order-property of e-trust has the effect of minimising an agent’s effort and commitment in the achievement of a given goal. On this basis, a method is provided for the objective assessment of the levels of e-trust occurring among the artificial agents of a distributed artificial system
Thomas, Alan (2003). Review of Onora O'Neill, Autonomy and Trust in Bioethics. Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2003 (10).   (Google)
Tilling, Chris (2008). Engaging science in the mode of trust: Hans küng's the beginning of all things. Zygon 43 (1):201-216.   (Google)
Tompkins, Paula S. (2003). Truth, trust, and telepresence. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 18 (3 & 4):194 – 212.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: Computer-mediated communication (CMC) raises anew traditional questions of truth and trust. Challenges to communicating with truth and trust are exacerbated by qualities of CMC which encourage users to communicate mindlessly, particularly its capacity to evoke a sense of being present to an Other, despite different locations in time or space. Rhetorical presence and dialogic presentness are used to explore the communication dynamics of CMC and delineate some of the challenges of truthful and trustworthy CMC
Tullock, Gordon (1967). The prisoner's dilemma and mutual trust. Ethics 77 (3):229-230.   (Google | More links)
Tuomela, Raimo (ms). Cooperation and trust in group context.   (Google)
Abstract: This paper is mainly about cooperation as a collective action in a group context (acting in a position or participating in the performance of a group task, etc.), although the assumption of the presence of a group context is not made in all parts of the paper. The paper clarifies what acting as a group member involves, and it analytically characterizes the ‘‘we-mode’’ (thinking and acting as a group member) and the ‘‘I-mode’’ (thinking and acting as a private person)
Tuomela, Maj & Hofmann, Solveig (2003). Simulating rational social normative trust, predictive trust, and predictive reliance between agents. Ethics and Information Technology 5 (3).   (Google)
Abstract: A program for the simulation of rational social normative trust, predictive `trust,' and predictive reliance between agents will be introduced. It offers a tool for social scientists or a trust component for multi-agent simulations/multi-agent systems, which need to include trust between agents to guide the decisions about the course of action. It is based on an analysis of rational social normative trust (RSNTR) (revised version of M. Tuomela 2002), which is presented and briefly argued. For collective agents, belief conditions for collective agency should be added. For the various forms of trust agents must have (at least) subjectively rational reasons to believe that the conditions of the trust account are fulfilled. A list of such reasons (of varied weights), e.g., given by empirical research, can manually be built into a parameter file or be generated by a calling program in a fixed format. From this list of reasons the program randomly generates a belief base for the agents of the artificial society. Reasons can be chained together so that one set of reasons satisfies several belief conditions. The program checks if the conditions are fulfilled for the artificial agents' social normative trust/predictive `trust'/`predictive reliance' in another agent that he will perform an action X. Each outcome is logged to a result file. In conclusion we discuss various aspects of the application of a trust component of the suggested kind in empirical research, social simulation, and multi-agent systems
Sparrow, Robert (2006). 'Trust us... we're doctors': Science, media, and ethics in the Hwang stem cell controversy. Journal of Communication Research 43 (1):5-24.   (Google)
Ullmann-Margalit, Edna (2002). Trust out of distrust. Journal of Philosophy 99 (10):532-548.   (Google | More links)
Van House, Nancy A. (2002). Digital libraries and practices of trust: Networked biodiversity information. Social Epistemology 16 (1):99 – 114.   (Google)
Vanacker, Bastiaan & Belmas, Genelle (2009). Trust and the economics of news. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 24 (2 & 3):110 – 126.   (Google)
Abstract: As trust in the news media continues to decline, news organizations must find ways to bolster that trust, often in the face of diminishing budgets and dwindling bottom lines. Can trust support and even bolster economic success in news organizations? We offer a multidimensional model of trust that takes into account, among other elements, considerations of risk and scope, and suggest that journalistic excellence and economic success can support each other and result in increased public trust in news media
Volery, Thierry & Mansik, Stan (1998). The role of trust in creating effective alliances: A managerial perspective. Journal of Business Ethics 17 (9-10).   (Google)
Abstract: The popularity of alliances in business has exploded over the past few years along with an increasing interest in the role of trust in economic transactions. This paper details the nature of alliances and the crucial role played by trust in creating and managing alliances. Evidence of the emergence of trust are further given within the context of alliances established by small and medium-sized Swiss enterprises where both planning and mutual trust constitute essential ingredients
Vorobej, Mark (2006). Defeasibility, trust, and the priority thesis. Dialogue 45 (4):755-761.   (Google)
Walton, Douglas & Godden, David M. (online). Alternatives to suspicion and trust as conditions for challenge in argumentative dialogues.   (Google)
Walton, Merrilyn (1998). The Trouble with Medicine: Preserving the Trust Between Patients and Doctors. Allen & Unwin.   (Google)
Watson, Sean & Moran, Anthony (eds.) (2005). Trust, Risk, and Uncertainty. Palgrave Macmillan.   (Google)
Abstract: This edited collection focuses on recently emerging debates around the themes of "risk", "trust", "uncertainty", and "ambivalence." Where much of the work on these themes in the social sciences has been theory based and driven, this book combines theoretical sophistication with close to the ground analysis and research in the fields of philosophy, education, social policy, government, health and social care, politics and cultural studies
Weinstock, D. (1999). Building trust in divided societies. Journal of Political Philosophy 7 (3):287–307.   (Google | More links)
Werhane, Patricia H. (1999). Justice and trust. Journal of Business Ethics 21 (2-3).   (Google)
Abstract: With the demise of Marxism and socialism, the United States is becoming a model not merely for free enterprise, but also for employment practices worldwide. I believe that free enterprise is the least worst economic system, given the alternatives, a position I shall assume, but not defend, here. However, I shall argue, a successful free enterprise political economy does not entail mimicking US employment practices. I find even today in 1998, as I shall outline in more detail, these practices, when consistently carried out, by and large erode trust in the workplace, they are, on balance unfair to workers and managers, and, if Jeffrey Pfeffer is correct, they do not maximize long-term corporate earnings or growth. Getting clear on US employment practices and their weaknesses may help to shape other models for employment that neither contravene free enterprise nor are degrading to workers
Wilson, Mark (1994). Can we trust logical form? Journal of Philosophy 91 (10):519-544.   (Google | More links)
Wood, Graham; McDermott, Peter & Swan, Will (2002). The ethical benefits of trust-based partnering: The example of the construction industry. Business Ethics 11 (1):4–13.   (Google | More links)
Wright, Stephen (forthcoming). Trust and trustworthiness. Philosophia.   (Google)
Abstract: What is it to trust someone? What is it for someone to be trustworthy? These are the two main questions that this paper addresses. There are various situations that can be described as ones of trust, but this paper considers the issue of trust between individuals. In it, I suggest that trust is distinct from reliance or cases where someone asks for something on the expectation that it will be done due to the different attitude taken by the trustor. I argue that the trustor takes Holton’s ‘participant stance’ and this distinguishes trust from reliance. I argue that trustworthiness is different from reliability and that an account of trustworthiness cannot be successful whilst ignoring the point that aligning trustworthiness with reliability removes the virtue from being trustworthy. On the question of what it is distinguishes trustworthiness from reliability, I argue that the distinction is in the opportunity for the trustee to act against the wishes of the trustor and the trustee’s consideration of the value of the trust that has been placed in them by the trustor
Wynia, Matthew K. (2007). Public health, public trust and lobbying. American Journal of Bioethics 7 (6):4 – 7.   (Google)
Abstract: Each year, infection with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) leads to millions of abnormal Pap smears and thousands of cases of cervical cancer in the US. Throughout the developing world, where Pap smears are less common, HPV is a leading cause of cancer death among women. So when the international pharmaceutical giant Merck developed a vaccine that could prevent infection with several key strains of HPV, the public health community was anxious to celebrate a major advance. But then marketing and lobbying got in the way. Merck chose to pursue an aggressive lobbying campaign, trying to make its new vaccine mandatory for young girls. The campaign stoked public mistrust about how vaccines come to be mandated, and now it's not just Merck's public image that has taken a hit. The public health community has also been affected. What is the lesson to be learned from this story? Public health communication relies on public trust
Wynia, Matthew K. & Association, American Medical (2006). Risk and trust in public health: A cautionary tale. American Journal of Bioethics 6 (2):3 – 6.   (Google)
Yamamoto, Yutaka (1990). A morality based on trust: Some reflections on japanese morality. Philosophy East and West 40 (4):451-469.   (Google | More links)
Zagzebski, Linda (2008). Self-trust and the diversity of religions. In Philip L. Quinn & Paul J. Weithman (eds.), Liberal Faith: Essays in Honor of Philip Quinn. University of Notre Dame Press.   (Google)
Zak, Paul J. (2005). Trust: A temporary human attachment facilitated by oxytocin. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (3):368-369.   (Google)
Abstract: Trust is a temporary attachment between humans that pervades our daily lives. Recent research has shown that the affiliative hormone oxytocin rises with a social signal of interpersonal trust and is associated with trustworthy behavior (the reciprocation of trust). This commentary reports these results and relates them to the target article's findings for variations in affiliative-related behaviors