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6.5a.7. Quantum Computation (Quantum Computation on PhilPapers)

Bub, Jeffrey (2008). Quantum computation and pseudotelepathic games. Philosophy of Science 75 (4).   (Google)
Abstract: A quantum algorithm succeeds not because the superposition principle allows ‘the computation of all values of a function at once’ via ‘quantum parallelism’, but rather because the structure of a quantum state space allows new sorts of correlations associated with entanglement, with new possibilities for information‐processing transformations between correlations, that are not possible in a classical state space. I illustrate this with an elementary example of a problem for which a quantum algorithm is more efficient than any classical algorithm. I also introduce the notion of ‘pseudotelepathic’ games and show how the difference between classical and quantum correlations plays a similar role here for games that can be won by quantum players exploiting entanglement, but not by classical players whose only allowed common resource consists of shared strings of random numbers (common causes of the players’ correlated responses in a game). *Received October 2008. †To contact the author, please write to: Department of Philosophy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742; e‐mail: jbub@umd.edu
Duwell, Armond (2007). The many-worlds interpretation and quantum computation. Philosophy of Science 74 (5).   (Google)
Abstract: David Deutsch and others have suggested that the Many-Worlds Interpretation of quantum mechanics is the only interpretation capable of explaining the special efficiency quantum computers seem to enjoy over classical ones. I argue that this view is not tenable. Using a toy algorithm I show that the Many-Worlds Interpretation must crucially use the ontological status of the universal state vector to explain quantum computational efficiency, as opposed to the particular ontology of the MWI, that is, the computational histories of worlds. As such, any other interpretation that treats the state vector as representing real ontological features of a system can explain quantum speedup too. ‡Thanks to Soazig Le Bihan for her critical comments on this paper. †To contact the author, please write to: Department of Philosophy, Liberal Arts 101, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812; e-mail: armond.duwell@umontana.edu
Duwell, A. (2003). The physics of quantum information: Quantum cryptography, quantum teleportation, quantum computation - D. bouwmeester, A. Ekert and A. Zeilinger (eds.); Germany, 2000, 314pp, US$ 54, ISBN 3-540-66778-. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 34 (2):331-334.   (Google)
Fernández, Eliseo (2008). A triadic theory of elementary particle interactions and quantum computation (review). Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 44 (2):pp. 384-389.   (Google)
Grigg, Rowan (ms). The Universal Lattice.   (Google)
Hameroff, Stuart R. (online). Consciousness, Whitehead and quantum computation in the brain: Panprotopsychism meets the physics of fundamental spacetime geometry.   (Cited by 2 | Google)
Abstract: _dualism_ (consciousness lies outside knowable science), _emergence_ (consciousness arises as a novel property from complex computational dynamics in the brain), and some form of _panpsychism_, _pan-protopsychism, or pan-experientialism_ (essential features or precursors of consciousness are fundamental components of reality which are accessed by brain processes). In addition to 1) the problem of subjective experience, other related enigmatic features of consciousness persist, defying technological and philosophical inroads. These include 2) the “binding problem”—how disparate brain activities give rise to a unified sense of “self” or unified conscious content. Temporal synchrony—brain-wide coherence of neural membrane electrical activities—is often assumed to accomplish binding, but _what_ is being synchronized? What is being coherently bound? Another enigmatic feature is 3) the transition from pre-conscious processes to consciousness itself. Most neuroscientists agree that consciousness is the “tip of an iceberg”, that the vast majority of brain activities is
Hameroff, Stuart R. (2002). Quantum computation in brain microtubules. Physical Review E 65 (6).   (Cited by 11 | Google)
Abstract: Proposals for quantum computation rely on superposed states implementing multiple computations simultaneously, in parallel, according to quantum linear superposition (e.g., Benioff, 1982; Feynman, 1986; Deutsch, 1985, Deutsch and Josza, 1992). In principle, quantum computation is capable of specific applications beyond the reach of classical computing (e.g., Shor, 1994). A number of technological systems aimed at realizing these proposals have been suggested and are being evaluated as possible substrates for quantum computers (e.g. trapped ions, electron spins, quantum dots, nuclear spins, etc., see Table 1; Bennett, 1995; and Barenco, 1995). The main obstacle to realization of quantum computation is the problem of interfacing to the system (input, output) while also protecting the quantum state from environmental decoherence. If this problem can be overcome, then present day classical computers may evolve to quantum computers
J., M. (2001). On bits and quanta - hoi-kwong lo, Sandu Popescu and Tim Spiller (eds), introduction to quantum computation and information (singapore: World scientific, 1998), XI+348 pp., ISBN 981-02-3399-X, £35, US$52. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 32 (1):143-150.   (Google)
Ledda, Antonio; Konig, Martinvaldo; Paoli, Francesco & Giuntini, Roberto (2006). MV-Algebras and quantum computation. Studia Logica 82 (2).   (Google)
Abstract: We introduce a generalization of MV algebras motivated by the investigations into the structure of quantum logical gates. After laying down the foundations of the structure theory for such quasi-MV algebras, we show that every quasi-MV algebra is embeddable into the direct product of an MV algebra and a “flat” quasi-MV algebra, and prove a completeness result w.r.t. a standard quasi-MV algebra over the complex numbers