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8.1e. Neural Synchrony and Binding (Neural Synchrony and Binding on PhilPapers)

See also:
Arecchi, F. Tito (2003). Chaotic neuron dynamics, synchronization, and feature binding: Quantum aspects. Mind and Matter 1 (1):15-43.   (Cited by 8 | Google | More links)
Abstract: A central issue of cognitive neuroscience is to understand how a large collection of coupled neurons combines external signals with internal memories into new coherent patterns of meaning. An external stimulus localized at some input spreads over a large assembly of coupled neurons, building up a collective state univocally corresponding to the stimulus. Thus, the synchronization of spike trains of many individual neurons is the basis of a coherent perception. Based on recent investigations of homoclinic chaotic systems and their synchronization, a novel conjecture for the dynamics of single neurons and, consequently, for neuron assemblies is formulated. Homoclinic chaos is proposed as a suitable way to code information in time by trains of equal spikes occurring at apparently erratic times. In order to classify the set of different perceptions, the percept space can be given a metric structure by introducing a distance measure between distinct percepts. The distance in percept space is conjugate to the duration of the perception in the sense that an uncertainty relation in percept space is associated with time-limited perceptions. This coding of different percepts by synchronized spike trains entails fundamental quantum features which are not restricted to microscopic phenomena. It is conjectured that they are related to the details of the perceptual chain rather than depending on Planck's action
Cotterill, Rodney M. J. & Nielsen, C. (1991). A model for cortical 40-Hertz oscillations invokes inter-area interactions. Neuroreport 2:289-92.   (Google)
Crick, Francis & Koch, Christof (1990). Toward a neurobiological theory of consciousness. Seminars in the Neurosciences 2:263-275.   (Google)
Damasio, Antonio R. (1990). Synchronous activation in multiple cortical regions: A mechanism for recall. Seminars in the Neurosciences 2:287-96.   (Cited by 74 | Google)
Damasio, Antonio R. (1989). The brain binds entities and events by multiregional activation from convergence zones. Neural Computation 1:123-32.   (Cited by 213 | Google)
Damasio, Antonio R. (1989). Time-locked multiregional retroactivation: A systems-level proposal for the neural substrates of recognition and recall. Cognition 3:25-62.   (Cited by 580 | Google)
Doesburg, Sam M.; Kitajo, Keiichi & Ward, Lawrence M. (2005). Increased gamma-band synchrony precedes switching of conscious perceptual objects in binocular rivalry. Neuroreport 16 (11):1139-1142.   (Cited by 5 | Google | More links)
Eckhorn, Reinhard; Reitbock, H. J.; Arndt, M. & Dicke, P. (1989). A neural network for feature linking via synchronous activity: Results from cat visual cortex and from simulations. In Rodney M. J. Cotterill (ed.), Models of Brain Function. Cambridge University Press.   (Cited by 43 | Google)
Eckhorn, Reinhard; Bauer, R.; Jordan, W.; Brosch, M. & Reitbock, H. J. (1988). Coherent oscillations: A mechanism for feature linking in the visual cortex. Biological Cybernetics 60:121-30.   (Cited by 616 | Google)
Engel, Andreas K.; Konig, P. Kreiter & Singer, Wolf (1991). Direct physiologic evidence for scene segmentation by temporal coding. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 88:1936-40.   (Google)
Engel, Andreas K.; Fries, P.; Konig, P. Kreiter; Brecht, M. & Singer, Wolf (1999). Does time help to understand consciousness? Consciousness and Cognition 8 (2):260-68.   (Cited by 4 | Google | More links)
Engel, Andreas K. (2003). Time and conscious visual processing. In Hede Helfrich (ed.), Time and Mind II: Information Processing Perspectives. Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.   (Cited by 2 | Google)
Engel, Andreas K. (2003). Temporal binding and the neural correlates of consciousness. In Axel Cleeremans (ed.), The Unity of Consciousness. Oxford University Press.   (Cited by 3 | Google)
Engel, Andreas K. & Singer, Wolf (2001). Temporal binding and the neural correlates of sensory awareness. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (1):16-25.   (Cited by 300 | Google | More links)
Engel, Andreas K.; Fries, P.; Konig, P. Kreiter; Brecht, M. & Singer, Wolf (1999). Temporal binding, binocular rivalry, and consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 8 (2):128-51.   (Cited by 130 | Google | More links)
Abstract: Cognitive functions like perception, memory, language, or consciousness are based on highly parallel and distributed information processing by the brain. One of the major unresolved questions is how information can be integrated and how coherent representational states can be established in the distributed neuronal systems subserving these functions. It has been suggested that this so-called ''binding problem'' may be solved in the temporal domain. The hypothesis is that synchronization of neuronal discharges can serve for the integration of distributed neurons into cell assemblies and that this process may underlie the selection of perceptually and behaviorally relevant information. As we intend to show here, this temporal binding hypothesis has implications for the search of the neural correlate of consciousness. We review experimental results, mainly obtained in the visual system, which support the notion of temporal binding. In particular, we discuss recent experiments on the neural mechanisms of binocular rivalry which suggest that appropriate synchronization among cortical neurons may be one of the necessary conditions for the buildup of perceptual states and awareness of sensory stimuli
Engel, Andreas K.; Konig, P. Kreiter & A. K., Schillen (1992). Temporal coding in the visual cortex: New vistas on integration in the nervous system. Trends in Neurosciences 15:218-26.   (Cited by 338 | Google | More links)
Fingelkurts, Andrew A.; Fingelkurts, Alexander A.; Kallio, Sakari & Revonsuo, Antti (2007). Cortex functional connectivity as a neurophysiological correlate of hypnosis: An EEG case study. Neuropsychologia 45 (7):14521462.   (Cited by 1 | Google | More links)
Abstract: Cortex functional connectivity associated with hypnosis was investigated in a single highly hypnotizable subject in a normal baseline condition

and under neutral hypnosis during two sessions separated by a year. After the hypnotic induction, but without further suggestions as compared to

the baseline condition, all studied parameters of local and remote functional connectivity were significantly changed. The significant differences

between hypnosis and the baseline condition were observable (to different extent) in five studied independent frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha,

beta, and gamma). The results were consistent and stable after 1 year. Based on these findings we conclude that alteration in functional connectivity of the brain may be regarded as a neuronal correlate of hypnosis (at least in very highly hypnotizable subjects) in which separate cognitive modules and subsystems may be temporarily incapable of communicating with each other normally.
Fingelkurts, Andrew A. & Fingelkurts, Alexander A. (2004). Making Complexity Simpler: Multivariability and Metastability in the Brain. The International Journal of Neuroscience 114 (7):843 - 862.   (Google)
Abstract: This article provides a retrospective, current and prospective overview on developments in brain research and neuroscience. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered, with emphasis in the concept of multivariability and metastability in the brain. In this new view on the human brain, the potential multivariability of the neuronal networks appears to be far from continuous in time, but confined by the dynamics of short-term local and global metastable brain states. The article closes by suggesting some of the implications of this view in future multidisciplinary brain research.
Fingelkurts, Andrew A. & Fingerlkurts, Alexander A. (2001). Operational architectonics of the human brain biopotential field: Toward solving the mind-brain problem. Brain and Mind 2 (3):261-296.   (Cited by 38 | Google | More links)
Abstract: The understanding of the interrelationship between brain and mind remains far from clear. It is well established that the brain's capacity to integrate information from numerous sources forms the basis for cognitive abilities. However, the core unresolved question is how information about the "objective" physical entities of the external world can be integrated, and how unifiedand coherent mental states (or Gestalts) can be established in the internal entities of distributed neuronal systems. The present paper offers a unified methodological and conceptual basis for a possible mechanism of how the transient synchronization of brain operations may construct the unified and relatively stable neural states, which underlie mental states. It was shown that the sequence of metastable spatial EEG mosaics does exist and probably reflects the rapid stabilization periods of the interrelation of large neuron systems. At the EEG level this is reflected in the stabilization of quasi-stationary segments on corresponding channels. Within the introduced framework, physical brain processes and psychological processes are considered as two basic aspects of a single whole informational brain state. The relations between operational process of the brain, mental states and consciousness are discussed.
Fries, Pascal; Roelfsema, Pieter R.; Engel, Andreas K. & Singer, Wolf (1997). Synchronization of oscillatory responses in visual cortex correlates with perception in interocular rivalry. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 94:12699-12704.   (Cited by 182 | Google | More links)
Garson, James W. (2001). (Dis)solving the binding problem. Philosophical Psychology 14 (4):381 – 392.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: The binding problem is to explain how information processed by different sensory systems is brought together to unify perception. The problem has two sides. First, we want to explain phenomenal binding: the fact that we experience a single world rather than separate perceptual fields for each sensory modality. Second, we must solve a functional problem: to explain how a neural net like the brain links instances to types. I argue that phenomenal binding and functional binding require very different treatments. The puzzle of phenomenal binding rests on a confusion and so can be dissolved. So only functional binding deserves explanation. The general solution to that problem is that information to be bound is arrayed along different dimensions. So sensory coding into separate topographic maps facilitates functional binding and there is no need based on the unity of perception for special mechanisms that bring "back together" information in different maps
Gold, Ian (1999). Does 40-hz oscillation play a role in visual consciousness? Consciousness and Cognition 8 (2):186-95.   (Cited by 5 | Google | More links)
Golledge, H. D. R.; Hilgetag, C. C. & Tovee, M. J. (1996). Information processing: A solution to the binding problem. Current Biology 6:1092-95.   (Cited by 6 | Google)
Gray, Charles M.; Konig, P. Kreiter; Engel, Andreas K. & Singer, Wolf (1992). Oscillatory responses in cat visual cortex exhibit inter-columnar synchronization which reflects global stimulus properties. Nature 338:334-7.   (Google)
Gray, Charles M. (1994). Synchronous oscillations in neuronal systems: Mechanisms and functions. Journal of Computational Neuroscience 1:11-38.   (Cited by 1 | Google | More links)
Hardcastle, Valerie Gray (1997). Consciousness and the neurobiology of perceptual binding. Seminars in Neurology 17:163-70.   (Cited by 8 | Google)
Hardcastle, Valerie Gray (1996). How we get there from here: Dissolution of the binding problem. Journal of Mind and Behavior 17 (3):251-66.   (Cited by 2 | Google)
Hardcastle, Valerie Gray (1994). Psychology's "binding problem" and possible neurobiological solutions. Journal of Consciousness Studies 1:66-90.   (Cited by 32 | Google | More links)
Helekar, S. A. (1999). In defense of experience-coding nonarbitrary temporal neural activity patterns. Consciousness and Cognition 8 (4):455-461.   (Google | More links)
Humphreys, Glyn W. (2003). Conscious visual representations built from multiple binding processes: Evidence from neuropsychology. In Axel Cleeremans (ed.), The Unity of Consciousness. Oxford University Press.   (Cited by 6 | Google)
Konig, P. Kreiter & Engel, Andreas K. (1995). Correlated firing in sensory-motor systems. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 5:511-19.   (Cited by 81 | Google | More links)
Konig, P. Kreiter; Engel, Andreas K.; Roelfsema, P. R. & Singer, Wolf (1995). How precise is neural synchronization? Neural Computation 7:469-85.   (Google)
Konig, P. Kreiter; Engel, Andreas K. & Singer, Wolf (1995). Relation between oscillatory activity and long-range synchronization in cat visual cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 92:290-94.   (Cited by 128 | Google | More links)
Lipton, Peter (1998). Binding the mind. In J. Cornwell (ed.), Consciousness and Human Identity. Oxford University Press.   (Google)
Abstract: Several of the essays in this collection discuss the `binding problem', the problem of explaining in neurophysiological terms how it is that we see the various perceptual qualities of a physical object, such as its shape, colour, location and motion, as features of a single object. The perceived object seems to us a unitary thing, but its sensory properties are diverse and turn out to be processed in different areas of the brain. How then does the brain manage the integration? Readers of the essays in this collection may find themselves suffering from an analogous binding problem about the study of consciousness, though this problem is conceptual rather than perceptual, and here the difficulty is to achieve the integration rather than to understand how an effortless integration is achieved. Consciousness is the ideal topic for inter-disciplinary investigation. It is a central concern of such diverse disciplines as neurophysiology, evolutionary biology, psychology, cognitive science, philosophy and theology, among others, yet none of these disciplines has come close to providing full answers to the central questions that consciousness raises. Inter-disciplinary investigation seems an obvious way forward, but it generates the conceptual binding problem that this collection displays. The standard of the essays is very high, but it is extraordinarily difficult to integrate their content into anything like a single picture. We are all apparently talking about the same phenomenon, the conscious awareness of the world that each of us enjoys first-hand, but it is quite unclear how to see the very different things we say about this phenomenon as part of a single picture, or even as parts of different but compatible pictures. Having raised the binding problem for the inter-disciplinary study of consciousness, I hasten to say that I will not attempt even a partial substantive solution here: that is left as an exercise for the readers of this book.
Llinas, R. & Ribary, U. (1998). Temporal conjunction in thalamocortical transactions. In H. Jasper, L. Descarries, V. Castellucci & S. Rossignol (eds.), Consciousness: At the Frontiers of Neuroscience. Lippincott-Raven.   (Cited by 12 | Google)
Lutz, Antoine; Martinerie, Jacques; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe & Varela, Francisco J. (2002). Guiding the study of brain dynamics by using first- person data: Synchrony patterns correlate with ongoing conscious states during a simple visual task. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 99 (3):1586-1591.   (Google)
Abstract: Laboratoire de Neurosciences Cognitives et Imagerie Ce´re´brale (LENA), Hoˆpital de La Salpeˆtrie`re, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)
McFadden, J. (2002). Synchronous firing and its influence on the brain's electromagnetic field: Evidence for an electromagnetic field theory of consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies 9 (4):23-50.   (Google)
Meador, Kimford J.; Ray, P. G.; Echauz, J. R.; Loring, D. W. & Vachtsevanos, G. J. (2002). Gamma coherence and conscious perception. Neurology 59 (6):847-854.   (Cited by 27 | Google | More links)
Nelson, J. I. (1995). Binding in the visual system. In Michael A. Arbib (ed.), Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks. MIT Press.   (Cited by 11 | Google)
Newman, J. B. & Grace, A. A. (1999). Binding across time: The selective gating of frontal and hippocampal systems modulating working memory and attentional states. Consciousness and Cognition 8 (2):196-212.   (Cited by 41 | Google | More links)
Abstract: Temporal binding via 40-Hz synchronization of neuronal discharges in sensory cortices has been hypothesized to be a necessary condition for the rapid selection of perceptually relevant information for further processing in working memory. Binocular rivalry experiments have shown that late stage visual processing associated with the recognition of a stimulus object is highly correlated with discharge rates in inferotemporal cortex. The hippocampus is the primary recipient of inferotemporal outputs and is known to be the substrate for the consolidation of working memories to long-term, episodic memories. The prefrontal cortex, on the other hand, is widely thought to mediate working memory processes, per se. This article reviews accumulated evidence for the role of a subcortical matrix in linking frontal and hippocampal systems to select and ''stream'' conscious episodes across time (hundreds of milliseconds to several seconds). ''Streaming'' is hypothesized to be mediated by the selective gating of reentrant flows of information between these cortical systems and the subcortical matrix. The physiological mechanism proposed for this temporally extended form of binding is synchronous oscillations in the slower EEG spectrum (< 8 Hz)
O'Reilly, R. C.; Busby, R. & Soto, R. (2003). Three forms of binding and their neural substrates: Alternatives to temporal synchrony. In Axel Cleeremans (ed.), The Unity of Consciousness. Oxford University Press.   (Cited by 16 | Google | More links)
Prinzmetal, W. Amiri (1981). Principles of feature integration in visual perception. Perception and Psychophysics 30:330-40.   (Cited by 68 | Google | More links)
Revonsuo, A. & Newman, J. B. (1999). Binding and consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 8 (2):123-127.   (Cited by 4 | Google | More links)
Revonsuo, Antti (1999). Binding and the phenomenal unity of consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 8 (2):173-85.   (Cited by 15 | Google | More links)
Abstract: The binding problem is frequently discussed in consciousness research. However, it is by no means clear what the problem is supposed to be and how exactly it relates to consciousness. In the present paper the nature of the binding problem is clarified by distinguishing between different formulations of the problem. Some of them make no mention of consciousness, whereas others are directly related to aspects of phenomenal experience. Certain formulations of the binding problem are closely connected to the classical philosophical problem of the unity of consciousness and the currently fashionable search for the neural correlates of consciousness. Nonetheless, only a part of the current empirical research on binding is directly relevant to the study of consciousness. The main message of the present paper is that the science of consciousness needs to establish a clear theoretical view of the relation between binding and consciousness and to encourage further empirical work that builds on such a theoretical foundation
Robertson, Lynn C. (2003). Binding, spatial attention and perceptual awareness. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4 (2):93-102.   (Cited by 43 | Google | More links)
Roskies, Adina L. (1999). The binding problem. Neuron 24.   (Cited by 69 | Google | More links)
Abstract: (von der Malsburg, 1981), “the binding problem” has with the visual percept of it, so that both are effortlessly captured the attention of researchers across many disci- perceived as being aspects of a single event. I like to plines, including psychology, neuroscience, computa- refer to these sorts of problems as perceptual binding tional modeling, and even philosophy. Despite the is- problems, since they involve unifying aspects of per- sue’s prominence in these fields, what “binding” means cepts. In addition, there are cognitive binding problems: is rarely made explicit. In this paper, I will briefly survey they include relating a concept to a percept, such as the many notions of binding and will introduce some linking the visual representation of an apple to all the issues that will be explored more fully in the reviews semantic knowledge stored about it (it is edible, how it that follow
Sauve, K. (1999). Gamma-band synchronous oscillations: Recent evidence regarding their functional significance. Consciousness and Cognition 8 (2):213-24.   (Cited by 28 | Google | More links)
Abstract: How do our brains represent distinct objects in consciousness? In order to consciously distinguish between objects, our brains somehow selectively bind together activity patterns of spatially intermingled neurons that simultaneously represent similar and dissimilar features of distinct objects. Gamma-band synchronous oscillations (GSO) of neuroelectrical activity have been hypothesized to be a mechanism used by our brains to generate and bind conscious sensations to represent distinct objects. Most experiments relating GSO to specific features of consciousness have been published only in the last several years. This brief review focuses on a wide variety experiments in which animals, including humans, discriminate between sensory stimuli and make these discriminations evident in their behavior. Performance of these tasks, in humans, is invariably accompanied by conscious awareness of both stimuli and behavior. Results of these experiments indicate that specific patterns of GSO correlate closely with specific aspects of conscious sensorimotor processing. That is, GSO appear to be closely correlated with neural generation of our most paradigmatic cognitive state: consciousness
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Abstract: Recent experiments have shown that the amplitudes of cortical gamma band oscillatory activities that occur during anesthesia are often greater than amplitudes of similar activities that occur without anesthesia. This result is apparently at odds with the hypothesis that synchronized oscillatory activities constitute the neural correlate of consciousness. We argue that while synchronization and oscillatory patterning are necessary conditions for consciousness, they are not sufficient. Based on the results of a binocular rivalry study of Fries et al. (1997), we propose that the degrees of oscillatory strength and synchronization of neuronal activities determine the degree of awareness those activities produce. On the other hand, the overal firing rates of neurons in cortical sensory areas are not correlated with the degree of awareness the activities of those neurons produce. The results of the experiment of Fries et al. (1997) appear to conflict with the results of another binocular rivalry experiment, in which monkeys were trained to pull a lever in order to report which stimulus object was being perceived (Leopold & Logothetis, 1996). In the latter experiment, it was demonstrated that the firing rates of neurons in striate cortex did not change during perceptual alterations, while 90% of neurons in inferior and superior temporal cortices changed their firing rate when the perceived image changed. This result led to the conclusion that activities in temporal cortex are correlated with visual awareness, but those in striate cortex are not. We argue that activities in temporal cortex contribute little, if anything, to perceptual awareness, and that their primary function is computational. Thus the correlation between the firing rates of neurons in these areas and the responses of the monkeys is due to the recognition of a particular stimulus object, which in turn is due to the computations made there
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Abstract: The development of the issue of binding as fundamental to neural dynamics has made possible recent advances in the modeling of difficult problems of perception and brain function. Among them is perceptual segmentation, invariant pattern recognition and one-shot learning. Also, longer-term conceptual developments that have led to this success are reviewed
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