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8.3. Consciousness and Physics (Consciousness and Physics on PhilPapers)

Amoroso, Richard L. (1997). The theoretical foundations for engineering a conscious quantum computer. In M. Gams, M. Paprzycki & X. Wu (eds.), Mind Versus Computer: Were Dreyfus and Winograd Right? Amsterdam: IOS Press.   (Cited by 5 | Google | More links)
Barrett, Jeffrey A. (1995). The single-mind and many-minds versions of quantum mechanics. Erkenntnis 42 (1).   (Google)
Abstract:   There is a long tradition of trying to find a satisfactory interpretation of Everett's relative-state formulation of quantum mechanics. Albert and Loewer recently described two new ways of reading Everett: one we will call the single-mind theory and the other the many-minds theory. I will briefly describe these theories and present some of their merits and problems. Since both are no-collapse theories, a significant merit is that they can take advantage of certain properties of the linear dynamics, which Everett apparently considered to be important, to constrain their statistical laws
Bierman, Dick (2001). On the nature of anamalous phenomena: Another reality between the world of subjective consciousness and the objective world of physics? In P. Van Loocke (ed.), The Physical Nature of Consciousness. John Benjamins.   (Google)
Bitbol, Michel, Consciousness, situations, and the measurement problem of quantum mechanics.   (Google)
Abstract: There are two versions of the putative connection between consciousness and the measurement problem of quantum mechanics : consciousness as the cause of state vector reduction, and state vector reduction as the physical basis of consciousness. In this article, these controversial ideas are neither accepted uncritically, nor rejected from the outset in the name of some prejudice about objective knowledge. Instead, their origin is sought in our most cherished (but disputable) beliefs about the place of mind and consciousness in the world. It is first pointed out that these common beliefs about mind and consciousness arise from reification of situated first-person experience. Then, situatedness is shown to be a constitutive part of any exhaustive treatment of quantum measurements. It turns out that the alleged connection between consciousness and the measurement problem is a symptom of (i) the ineliminability of our being situated from the end-product of science, and (ii) our difficulty to express correctly this being situated
Blackburn, Simon W. (1991). Losing your mind: Physics, identity, and folk burglar prevention. In John D. Greenwood (ed.), The Future of Folk Psychology. Cambridge University Press.   (Cited by 11 | Annotation | Google)
Burns, Jean E. (2002). Quantum fluctuations and the action of the mind. Noetic Journal 3 (4):312-317.   (Cited by 2 | Google)
Clayton, Philip (2004). Mind and Emergence: From Quantum to Consciousness. Oxford University Press.   (Cited by 26 | Google | More links)
Abstract: Clayton concludes with a defence of emergentist panentheism and a Christian constructive theology consistent with the new sciences of emergence.
Clarke, Christopher J. S. (2005). The sense of being stared at: Its relevance to the physics of consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies 12 (6):78-82.   (Google)
Dennett, Daniel C. (ms). "Quantum incoherence," review of A. G. Cairns-Smith, evolving the mind: On the nature of matter and the origin of consciousness.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: After decades of persistent work by researchers in many fields, building foundations and patiently filling in details, the gigantic jigsaw puzzle of consciousness is beginning to come into focus. As large assemblies fall into place with a gratifying convergence of details drawn from different disciplines, the pace is quickening. Everybody wants to be in on the delicious task of describing what the Big Picture is going to look like, predicting the outlines before the mopping up operations confirm them. Well, not quite everybody. There are also those who dislike what they see happening: consciousness is turning out to be "just" a great big jigsaw puzzle. What? No cosmic revolutions in quantum (or meta-) physics? No Impenetrable Mysteries? Bummer!
Dewey, Barbara (1993). Consciousness and Quantum Behavior: The Theory of Laminated Spacetime Re-Examined. Bartholomew Books.   (Google)
Donald, Matthew, A review of the physics of consciousness by Evan Harris Walker.   (Google)
Abstract: At least three books struggle to emerge from this volume. One book, at the level of popular science, leads us through the development of physics, from Newton's laws to Bell's inequalities, in order to argue for the relevance of consciousness to the understanding of quantum theory. This is followed by a sketch of an interpretation of quantum mechanics. Interwoven with both is a memoir of Walker's teenage girlfriend, who died of Hodgkin's disease nearly fifty years ago. The theme which holds the volume together is Walker's insistence on the importance of looking beyond materialism
Gabora, Liane (1999). Microtubules, anesthetics, and quantum consciousness:An interview with Stuart Hameroff. Foundations of Science 4 (2).   (Google)
Gao, Mr Shan (2002). A quantum method to test the existence of consciousness. [Journal (Paginated)].   (Google)
Abstract: As we know, "Who can be said to be a conscious being?" is one of the hard problems in present science, and no method has been found to strictly differentiate the conscious being from the being without consciousness or usual matter. In this short paper, we present a strict physical method based on revised quantum dynamics to test the existence of consciousness, and the principle is to use the distinguishability of nonorthogonal single states. We demonstrate that although the dynamical collapse time can’t be measured by a physical measuring device, a conscious being can perceive it under the assumed QSC condition, thus can distinguish the nonorthogonal single states in the framework of revised quantum dynamics This in principle provides a quantum method to differentiate man and machine, or to test the existence of consciousness. We further discuss the rationality of the assumed QSC condition, and denote that some experimental evidences have indicated that our human being can satisfy the condition. This not only provides some confirmation of our method, but also indicates that the method is a practical proposal, which can be implemented in the near future experiments
Gao, Shan (2008). A quantum theory of consciousness. Minds and Machines 18 (1).   (Google)
Abstract: The relationship between quantum collapse and consciousness is reconsidered under the assumption that quantum collapse is an objective dynamical process. We argue that the conscious observer can have a distinct role from the physical measuring device during the process of quantum collapse owing to the intrinsic nature of consciousness; the conscious observer can know whether he is in a definite state or a quantum superposition of definite states, while the physical measuring device cannot “know”. As a result, the consciousness observer can distinguish the definite states and their quantum superposition, while the physical measuring device without consciousness cannot do. This provides a possible quantum physical method to distinguish man and machine. The new result also implies that consciousness has causal efficacies in the physical world when considering the existence of quantum collapse. Accordingly consciousness is not reducible or emergent, but a new fundamental property of matter. This may establish a quantum basis for panpsychism, and make it be a promising solution to the hard problem of consciousness. Furthermore, it is suggested that a unified theory of matter and consciousness includes two parts: one is the psychophysical principle or corresponding principle between conscious content and matter state, and the other is the complete quantum evolution of matter state, which includes the definite nonlinear evolution element introduced by consciousness and relating to conscious content. Lastly, some experimental schemes are presented to test the proposed quantum theory of consciousness
Goswami, Amit (1986). The quantum theory of consciousness and psi. PSI Research 5:145-65.   (Google)
Gough, Martin (1995). Consciousness does not complete quantum physics. Cogito 9 (3):258-261.   (Google)
Gould, J. L. & Gould, C. G. (1982). The insect mind: Physics or metaphysics? In Donald R. Griffin (ed.), Animal Mind -- Human Mind. Springer-Verlag.   (Cited by 10 | Google)
Grandpierre, Attila, The physics of collective consciousness.   (Google)
Abstract: ABSTRACT: It is pointed out that the organisation of an organism necessarily involves fields which are the only means to make an approximately simultaneous tuning of the different subsystems of the organism-as-a-whole. Nature uses the olfactory fields, the acoustic fields, the electromagnetic fields and quantum-vacuum fields. Fields with their ability to comprehend the whole organism are the natural basis of a global interaction between organisms and of collective consciousness. Evidences are presented that electromagnetic potential fields mediate the collective field of consciousness. This result offers for the first time experimental access to the study of collective consciousness by measuring the field-related information-carrying potentials and their derivatives, the electric and magnetic fields between different individuals. The electrodynamic interaction of different brains/minds generates induction and in this way excitement, enhancement in the baseline of the interacting brains? activity. A list of empirical evidences is presented here proving the existence of this ?interactive excitement? effect in the known phenomenon of collective consciousness. The fundamental phenomenon of the collective consciousness is known as ?social facilitation? or ?group effect?. The character and completion of consciousness are outlined in the frame of this picture, and the role of the ?group effect? or ?social facilitation? as a primary factor in developing consciousness is described. A quantum-physical model of a multi-layered consciousness is presented, where the layering is expressed by the subsequent subtlety of the masses of the material carriers of information. I show that as the mental levels get deeper and more sensitive the couplings are on more and more global scales of their environment. I point out that direct, immediate action in distance actually exists in the electromagnetic field, which is the coupling, mediator field between waves and particles. I show how the environmental, natural and cosmic fields are determinative sources of our consciousness. The results presented point out that the Collective Field of Consciousness is a significant physical factor of the biosphere. I show that the morphogenetic field has an electromagnetic (EM) nature. EM fields are vacuum fields. Different basic forms of vacuum fields exist, and all kinds of fields, including the particle-mediated fields as well, when overlapping each other, seem to be in a direct resonant coupling, and form a complex, merged biofield. The vacuum model of consciousness presented here points to the inductive generation of consciousness, and to its self-initiating nature. Individual and collective methods, as well as the experimental possibilities of a global healing and improving the consciousness field of mankind are suggested. Keywords: olfactory, acoustic, electromagnetic, vacuum fields, generation of consciousness, evolution of collective consciousness, social evolution, completion of consciousness, healing
Gregory, Richard L. (1981). Mind In Science: A History Of Explanations In Psychology And Physics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.   (Cited by 63 | Google)
Grössing, Gerhard (2001). Comparing the long-term evolution of ``cognitive invariances'' in physics with a dynamics in states of consciousness. Foundations of Science 6 (4).   (Google)
Abstract: It is shown that the evolution of physics canin several regards be described by elements of``regression'', i.e., that within a certaintradition of ideas one begins with theconstruction of most ``plausible'' statements(axioms) at hand, and then ``works onselfbackwards'' with respect to developmental terms.As a consequence of this strategy, the furtherwork proceeds along such a ``regressive'' path,the more one arrives at concepts andrelationships which are unexpected or evencounter-intuitive in terms of our everydayexperiences. However, a comparable phenomenology is wellknown from studies on states of consciousness.In particular, the evolutionary logic of theconstructions of major ``cognitive invariances''in physics, which is in part due to everincreasing rates of data processing, ismirrored in a logic of states of consciousnesswhich deviate from a ``normal'' state of dailyroutine along increasing levels of centralnervous arousal. Examples are given from the evolution ofphysics, and future perspectives are brieflyoutlined on the basis thereof
Hameroff, Stuart (ms). Anesthesia, consciousness and hydrophobic pockets a unitary quantum hypothesis of anesthetic action.   (Google)
Abstract: Anesthetic gas molecules are recognized to act by van der Waals (London dispersion) forces in hydrophobic pockets of select brain proteins to ablate consciousness. Enigmatic features of consciousness have defied conventional neurophysiological exp lanations and prompted suggestions for supplemental occurrence of macroscopic quantum coherent states and quantum computation in the brain. Are these feasible? During conscious (non-anesthetic) conditions, endogenous Van der Waals London dispersion forces occur among non-polar amino acid groups in hydrophobic pockets of neural proteins and help regulate their conformation/function. London forces are weak instantaneous couplings between pairs of electron induced dipoles (e.g. between adjacent non-polar amino acid groups), and are quantum mechanical effects capable of supporting quantum superposition/computation and macroscopic quantum coherence. Quantum effects mediated by endogenous London forces in hydrophobic pockets of select neural proteins may be necessary for consciousness. The mechanism of anesthetics may be to inhibit (by exogenous London forces) the necessary quantum states
Hameroff, Stuart (ms). Consciousness, microtubules and the quantum world.   (Google)
Abstract: Hameroff: I became interested in understanding consciousness as an undergraduate at the University of Pittsburgh in the late 60's. In my third year of medical school at Hahnemann in Philadelphia I did a research elective in professor Ben Kahn's hematology-oncology lab. They were studying various types of malignant blood cells, and I became interested in mitosis-looking under the microscope at normal and abnormal cell division. I became fascinated by centrioles and mitotic spindles pulling apart the chromosomes, doing this little dance, dividing the cytoplasm, establishing the daughter-cell architecture, and beginning differentiation. I remember wondering to myself how these centrioles and mitotic spindles "knew" where to go and what to do. What kind of intelligence was running the show at the cellular level?
Hameroff, Stuart R. (online). Time, consciousness, and quantum events in fundamental space-time geometry.   (Google)
Abstract: 1. Introduction: The problems of time and consciousness What is time? St. Augustine remarked that when no one asked him, he knew what time was; however when someone asked him, he did not. Is time a process which flows? Is time a dimension in which processes occur? Does time actually exist? The notion that time is a process which "flows" directionally may be illusory (the "myth of passage") for if time did flow it would do so in some medium or vessel (e.g. minutes per what?) [1]. But if time is a dimension in which processes occurred, e.g. as one component of a 4 dimensional spacetime, then why would processes occur unidirectionally in time? Yet we perceive time as an orderly, unidirectional process. An alternative explanation is that time does not exist as either a process or dimension, but that reality is a collage of discrete, disconnected and haphazardly arranged configurations of the universe, e.g. as described in Julian Barbour's "The end of time" [2]. In this view our perception of a unidirectional flow of time occurs because each moment, or "Now" as Barbour terms them, involves memory of other conceptually relevant moments, and the orderly flow of time is an illusion. Barbour's deconstruction of time contrasts the Newtonian reality of objects moving deterministically through 4 dimensional spacetime. Newton's contemporary (and rival) Leibniz [3] viewed the world in a manner consistent with Barbour (and with Mach's principle that the spatiotemporal structure of the universe is dependent on the distribution of mass, a foundation of Einstein's general relativity). According to Leibniz the world is to be understood not as matter/mass moving in a framework of space and time, but of more fundamental snapshot-like entities that momentarily fuse space and matter into single possible arrangements or configurations of the entire universe. Such configurations, which can be fabulously rich and complex considering the vastness of the universe, are the ultimate "things" of reality, which Leibniz termed "monads"..
Hameroff, Stuart (ms). The quantum mind of.   (Google)
Abstract: Today we’re talking with Stuart Hameroff, Professor Emeritus at the Departments of Anesthesiology and Psychology, and Director of the Center for Consciousness Studies, at the University of Arizona. Dr Hameroff is best-known for his research on 'quantum consciousness', an alternative model to the accepted view of how consciousness arises. With Sir Roger Penrose, Dr Hameroff has proposed that consciousness arises at the quantum level within structures inside neurons, known as microtubules
Hartshorne, Charles (1977). Physics and psychics: The place of mind in nature. In John B. Cobb & David Ray Griffin (eds.), Mind in Nature. University Press of America.   (Cited by 9 | Google)
Healey, R. (2003). Holism in philosophy of mind and philosophy of physics - Michael Esfeld, dordrecht, 2001, pp. XIV+366, US $113, ISBN 0-7923-7003-. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 34 (2):334-337.   (Google)
Hodgson, David (2002). Consciousness, quantum physics, and free will. In Robert H. Kane (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Free Will. Oxford University Press.   (Google)
Hodgson, David (2002). Physics, consciousness and free will. In Robert H. Kane (ed.), The Oxford Handbook on Free Will. Oxford University Press.   (Cited by 9 | Google)
Holland, P. (2002). More than the conscience of physics? From physics to philosophy - J. Butterfield and C. Pagonis (eds.), Cambridge university press, cambridge, 1999, 235pp., Price £40.00 hardback, ISBN 0 521 66025. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 33 (3):576-582.   (Google)
Hu, Huping (ms). Review of the book “quantum enigma - physics encounters consciousness”.   (Google)
Abstract: By explicitly discussing the connections between quantum mechanics and consciousness and bravely using the book containing these discussions as course material for students, the authors show the readers and teach the students that such connections are real and tangible not just pseudoscience or New Age mumbo-jumbo. In doing so, Rosenblum and Kuttner lead by example. Hopefully, other physicists and scientists in the academics would follow suit by breaking away from the invisible “prison” of conformity and orthodoxy, opening widely physicists’ closet containing their skeleton and turning the same into golden opportunities for solving the mystery of consciousness. I highly recommend this book
Hu, Huping & Wu, Maoxin (ms). Spin as primordial self-referential process driving quantum mechanics, spacetime dynamics and consciousness.   (Google)
Abstract: We have recently theorized that consciousness is intrinsically connected to quantum mechanical spin since said spin is embedded in the microscopic structure of spacetime and is more fundamental than spacetime itself, that is, spin is the “mind-pixel.” Applying these ideas to the particular structures and dynamics of the brain, we have developed a qualitative model of quantum consciousness. In this paper, we express our fundamental view that spin is a primordial self-referential process driving quantum mechanics, spacetime dynamics and consciousness. To justify such a view, we will draw support from existing literatures, discuss from a reductionist perspective the essential properties said spin should possess as mind-pixel and explore further the nature of spin to see whether said properties are present. Our conclusion is that these properties are indeed endowed to spin by Nature. One of the implications from our fundamental view is that the probabilistic structure of quantum mechanics is due to the self-referential collapse of spin state that is contextual, non-local, non-computable and irreversible. Therefore, a complete theory of the self-referential spin process is necessarily semantic, that is, it should be based on internally meaningful information
Jeffers, S. (2003). Physics and claims for anomalous effects related to consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies 10 (6):135-152.   (Cited by 6 | Google)
Kak, Subhash (2004). Architecture of Knowledge: Quantum Mechanics, Neuroscience, Computers, and Consciousness. Centre for Studies in Civilization.   (Google)
Klemm, David E. & Klink, William H. (2008). Consciousness and quantum mechanics: Opting from alternatives. Zygon 43 (2):307-327.   (Google)
Abstract: We present a model of a fundamental property of consciousness as the capacity of a system to opt among presented alternatives. Any system possessing this capacity is "conscious" in some degree, whether or not it has the higher capacity of reflecting on its opting. We argue that quantum systems, composed of microphysical particles, as studied by quantum mechanics, possess this quality in a protomental form. That is, such particles display the capacity to opt among alternatives, even though they lack the ability to experience or communicate their experiences. Human consciousness stands at the opposite end of the hierarchy of conscious life forms as the most sophisticated system of which we have direct acquaintance. We contend that it shares the common characteristic of a system capable of opting among alternatives. Because the fundamental property of consciousness is shared by human beings and the constituents of elementary matter in the universe, our model of consciousness can be considered as a modified form of panpsychism
Lockwood, Michael (1989). Mind, Brain, and the Quantum: The Compound 'I'. B. Blackwell.   (Google)
Mindell, Arnold (2000). Quantum Mind: The Edge Between Physics and Psychology. Lao Tse Press.   (Google)
Abstract: By exploring principles found in psychology, math, physics, and shamanism, it becomes possible to link a cosmic perspective with ordinary life. This comprehensive work ventures into that challenging junction, journeying through the universe on paths of reason and magic, math and myth, bringing together humanity's traditional wisdom and shamanism with contemporary science
Mitchell, Edgar D. (2000). Nature's mind: the quantum hologram. Journal of Computing Anticipatory Systems 7:295-312.   (Google)
Mohrhoff, Ulrich (2007). The quantum world, the mind, and the cookie Cutter paradigm. AntiMatters 1 (1):55-90.   (Cited by 4 | Google)
Murphy, Michael (). The Language of Physics & the Language of Mind. [N.P.]Big Sur Recordings.   (Google)
Nadeau, Robert (1999). The Non-Local Universe: The New Physics and Matters of the Mind. Oxford University Press.   (Google)
Abstract: Classical physics states that physical reality is local--a point in space cannot influence another point beyond a relatively short distance. However, In 1997, experiments were conducted in which light particles (photons) originated under certain conditions and traveled in opposite directions to detectors located about seven miles apart. The amazing results indicated that the photons "interacted" or "communicated" with one another instantly or "in no time." Since a distance of seven miles is quite vast in quantum physics, this led physicists to an extraordinary conclusion--even if experiments could somehow be conducted in which the distance between the detectors was half-way across the known universe, the results would indicate that interaction or communication between the photons would be instantaneous. What was revealed in these little-known experiments in 1997 is that physical reality is non-local--a discovery that Robert Nadeau and Menas Kafatos view as "the most momentous in the history of science." In The Non-Local Universe, Nadeau and Kafatos offer a revolutionary look at the breathtaking implications of non-locality. They argue that since every particle in the universe has been "entangled" with other particles like the two photons in the 1997 experiments, physical reality on the most basic level is an undivided wholeness. In addition to demonstrating that physical processes are vastly interdependent and interactive, they also show that more complex systems in both physics and biology display emergent properties and/or behaviors that cannot be explained in the terms of the sum of parts. One of the most startling implications of non-locality in human terms, claim the authors, is that there is no longer any basis for believing in the stark division between mind and world that has preoccupied much of western thought since the seventeenth century. And they also make a convincing case that human consciousness can now be viewed as emergent from and seamlessly connected with the entire cosmos. In pursuing this groundbreaking argument, the authors not only provide a fascinating history of developments that led to the discovery of non-locality and the sometimes heated debate between the great scientists responsible for these discoveries. They also argue that advances in scientific knowledge have further eroded the boundaries between physics and biology, and that recent studies on the evolution of the human brain suggest that the logical foundations of mathematics and ordinary language are much more similar than we previously imagined. What this new knowledge reveals, the authors conclude, is that the connection between mind and nature is far more intimate than we previously dared to imagine. What they offer is a revolutionary look at the implications of non-locality, implications that reach deep into that most intimate aspect of humanity--consciousness
Oralebkov, Bakytzhan (ms). Quantum mechanics and the consciousness.   (Google)
Pace, David Paul (1988). As Dreams Are Made On: The Probable Worlds of a New Human Mind as Presaged in Quantum Physics, Information Theory, Modal Philosophy, and Literary Myth. Libra Publishers.   (Google)
Pearce, David, Mind, brain and the quantum.   (Google)
Abstract: Does introspection grant us privileged insight into the intrinsic nature of the stuff of the world? Michael Lockwood 's startling answer is yes. Quantum mechanics may indeed supply a complete formal description of the universe. Yet what "breathes fire into" the quantum-theoretic equations, it transpires, isn't physical in the traditional sense at all
Rainio, Kullervo (2009). Discrete process model for quantum systems of matter and mind. World Futures 65 (4):270 – 303.   (Google)
Abstract: Attempts to create a coherent scientific picture of the world as a whole on the basis of quantum physics has sped up at the turn of the millennium. There particularly seem to be expectations that the development of a new kind of quantum mechanics could make it possible to describe both matter and consciousness in one frame of reference (“dual aspect approach”). These ideas are often results of brilliant intuitive visions but as yet not able to produce testable hypotheses. Maybe “wave mechanics” is not very suitable in the study of consciousness from the quantum mechanical point of view. The aim of this article is to show how both the matter and the mind systems can be described with one coherent mathematical model if we assume both space and time to be discrete
Rosenblum, Bruce (2008). Quantum Enigma: Physics Encounters Consciousness. Oxford University Press.   (Google)
Abstract: The most successful theory in all of science--and the basis of one third of our economy--says the strangest things about the world and about us. Can you believe that physical reality is created by our observation of it? Physicists were forced to this conclusion, the quantum enigma, by what they observed in their laboratories. Trying to understand the atom, physicists built quantum mechanics and found, to their embarrassment, that their theory intimately connects consciousness with the physical world. Quantum Enigma explores what that implies and why some founders of the theory became the foremost objectors to it. Schrodinger showed that it "absurdly" allowed a cat to be in a "superposition" simultaneously dead and alive. Einstein derided the theory's "spooky interactions." With Bell's Theorem, we now know Schrodinger's superpositions and Einstein's spooky interactions indeed exist. Authors Bruce Rosenblum and Fred Kuttner explain all of this in non-technical terms with help from some fanciful stories and bits about the theory's developers. They present the quantum mystery honestly, with an emphasis on what is and what is not speculation. Physics' encounter with consciousness is its skeleton in the closet. Because the authors open the closet and examine the skeleton, theirs is a controversial book. Quantum Enigma's description of the experimental quantum facts, and the quantum theory explaining them, is undisputed. Interpreting what it all means, however, is controversial. Every interpretation of quantum physics encounters consciousness. Rosenblum and Kuttner therefore turn to exploring consciousness itself--and encounter quantum physics. Free will and anthropic principles become crucial issues, and the connection of consciousness with the cosmos suggested by some leading quantum cosmologists is mind-blowing. Readers are brought to a boundary where the particular expertise of physicists is no longer a sure guide. They will find, instead, the facts and hints provided by quantum mechanics and the ability to speculate for themselves
Filk, Thomas & von Müller, Albrecht (2009). Quantum Physics and Consciousness: The Quest for a Common Conceptual Foundation. Mind and Matter 7 (1):59-80.   (Google)
Abstract: Similar problems keep reappearing in both the discussion about the “hard” problem of consciousness and in fundamental issues in quantum theory. We argue that the similarities are due to common problems within the conceptual foundations of both fields. In quantum physics, the state reduction marks the “coming into being” of a new aspect of reality for which no causal explanation is available. Likewise, the self-referential nature of consciousness constitutes a “coming into being” of a new quality which goes beyond a fully causal account of reality. Both subjects require a categorical scheme which is significantly richer then the one used in addressing factual aspects of reality alone. While parts of this categorical scheme are realized in the formalism of quantum theory, they are seldom applied in the context of consciousness. We show what the structural limitations of a classical categorical framework are, how a richer framework can be developed, and how it can be applied to both quantum physics and consciousness
Stapp, Henry P., A model of the quantum-classical and mind-brain connections, and of the role of the quantum Zeno effect in the physical implementation of conscious intent.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: A simple exactly solvable model is given of the dynamical coupling between a person’s classically described perceptions and that person’s quantum mechanically described brain. The model is based jointly upon von Neumann’s theory of measurements and the empirical findings of close connections between conscious intentions and synchronous oscillations in well separated parts of the brain. A quantum-Zeno-effect-based mechanism is described that allows conscious intentions to influence brain activity in a functionally appropriate way. The robustness of this mechanism in the face of environmental decoherence effects is emphasized
Stapp, Henry P., Dear Walter , my article ``whiteheadian process and quantum theory of mind'' was the first `target article' on the E forum.   (Google)
Abstract: There is already in quantum theory the huge *fact* of the apparent nonlocal (faster than light) connections: if one rejects the many worlds notion that all things happen [and I believe that that idea must be rejected for technical reasons --but that is a whole long argument itself] then there is an absolute need for some sort of FTL transfer of information. There simply must be a strong interconnectedness of the universe: FTL influence is unavoidable in quantum theory, if many worlds is rejected
Stapp, Henry P., Philosophy of mind and the problem of free will in the light of quantum mechanics.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: Arguments pertaining to the mind-brain connection and to the physical effectiveness of our conscious choices have been presented in two recent books, one by John Searle, the other by Jaegwon Kim. These arguments are examined, and it is explained how the encountered difficulties arise from a defective understanding and application of a pertinent part of contemporary science, namely quantum mechanics. The principled quantum uncertainties entering at the microscopic levels of brain processing cannot be confined to the micro level, but percolate up to the macroscopic regime. To cope with the conflict between the resulting macroscopic indefiniteness and the definiteness of our conscious experiences, orthodox quantum mechanics introduces the idea of agent-generated probing actions, each of which specifies a definite set of alternative possible empirically/experientially distinguishable outcomes. Quantum theory then introduces the mathematical concept of randomness to describe the probabilities of the various alternative possible outcomes of the chosen probing action. But the agent-generated choice of which probing action to perform is not governed by any known law or rule, statistical or otherwise. This causal gap provides a logical opening, and indeed a logical need, for the entry into the dynamical structure of nature of a process that goes beyond the currently understood quantum mechanical statistical generalization of the deterministic laws of classical physics. The well-known quantum Zeno effect can then be exploited to provide a natural process that establishes a causal psychophysical link within the complex structure consisting of a stream of conscious experiences and certain macroscopic classical features of a quantum mechanically described brain. This naturally created causal link effectively allows consciously felt intentions to affect brain activity in a way that tends to produce the intended feedback. This quantum mechanism provides an eminently satisfactory alternative to the classical physics conclusion that the physical present is 1 completely determined by the physical past, and hence provides a physicsbased way out of the dilemma that Searle and Kim tried to resolve by philosophical analysis..
Stapp, Henry P., Quantum mechanical coherence, resonance, and mind.   (Google)
Abstract: Norbert Wiener and J.B.S. Haldane suggested during the early thirties that the profound changes in our conception of matter entailed by quantum theory opens the way for our thoughts, and other experiential or mind-like qualities, to play a role in nature that is causally interactive and effective, rather than purely epiphenomenal, as required by classical mechanics. The mathematical basis of this suggestion is described here, and it is then shown how, by giving mind this efficacious role in natural process, the classical character of our perceptions of the quantum universe can be seen to be a consequence of evolutionary pressures for the survival of the species
Stapp, Henry P., Quantum ontology and mind matter synthesis.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: The Solvay conference of marked the birth of quantum the ory This theory constitutes a radical break with prior tradition in physics because it avers if taken seriously that nature is built not out of matter but out of knowings However the founders of the theory stipulated cautiously that the theory was not to be taken seriously in this sense as a description of nature herself but was to be construed as merely a way of computing expectations about future knowings on the basis of information provided by past knowings There have been many e orts over the intervening seventy years to rid physics of this contamination of matter by mind But I use the reports at this Sym posium to support the claim that these decontamination e orts have failed and that because of recent developments pertaining to causal ity the time has come to take quantum theory seriously to take it as the basis for a conception of the universe built on knowings and other things of the same kind Quantum theory ensures that this con ception will yield all the empirical regularities that had formerly been thought to arise from the properties of matter together with all of those more recently discovered regularities that cannot be understood in that mechanical way Thus I propose to break away from the cau tious stance of the founders of quantum theory and build a theory of..
Stapp, Henry P., Quantum reality and mind.   (Google)
Abstract: Two fundamental questions are addressed within the framework orthodox quantum mechanics. The first is the duality-nonduality conflict arising from the fact that our scientific description of nature has two disparate parts: an empirical component and a theoretical component. The second question is the possibility of meaningful free will in a quantum world concordant with the principle of sufficient reason, which asserts that nothing happens without a sufficient reason. The two issues are resolved by an examination of the conceptual and mathematical structure of orthodox quantum mechanics, without appealing to abstract philosophical analysis or intuitive sentiments
Stapp, Henry P., Quantum theory and the role of mind in nature.   (Google)
Abstract: Orthodox Copenhagen quantum theory renounces the quest to understand the reality in which we are imbedded, and settles for practical rules that describe connections between our observations. Many physicist have believed that this renunciation of the attempt describe nature herself was premature, and John von Neumann, in a major work, reformulated quantum theory as a theory of the evolving objective universe. In the course of his work he converted to a benefit what had appeared to be a severe deficiency of the Copenhagen interpretation, namely its introduction into physical theory of the human observers. He used this subjective element of quantum theory to achieve a significant advance on the main problem in philosophy, which is to understand the relationship between mind and matter. That problem had been tied closely to physical theory by the works of Newton and Descartes. The present work examines the major problems that have appeared to block the development of von Neumann’s theory into a fully satisfactory theory of Nature, and proposes solutions to these problems
Thomsen, Dr Knud (ms). Is quantum mechanics needed to explain consciousness ?   (Google)
Abstract: In this short comment to a recent contribution by E. Manousakis [1] it is argued that the reported agreement between the measured time evolution of conscious states during binocular rivalry and predictions derived from quantum mechanical formalisms does not require any direct effect of QM. The recursive consumption analysis process in the Ouroboros Model can yield the same behavior
Wallace, B. Alan (1989). Choosing Reality: A Contemplative View of Physics and the Mind. New Science Library.   (Google)
Wolf, Fred Alan (1984). Mind and the New Physics. Heinemann.   (Google)

8.3a Consciousness and the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

42 / 48 entries displayed

Albert, D. & Loewer, A. (1988). Interpreting the many-worlds interpretation. Synthese 77 (November):195-213.   (Cited by 99 | Google | More links)
Bourget, David (2004). Quantum leaps in philosophy of mind. Journal of Consciousness Studies 11 (12):17--42.   (Google)
Abstract: I discuss the quantum mechanical theory of consciousness and freewill offered by Stapp (1993, 1995, 2000, 2004). First I show that decoherence-based arguments do not work against this theory. Then discuss a number of problems with the theory: Stapp's separate accounts of consciousness and freewill are incompatible, the interpretations of QM they are tied to are questionable, the Zeno effect could not enable freewill as he suggests because weakness of will would then be ubiquitous, and the holism of measurement in QM is not a good explanation of the unity of consciousness for essentially the same reason that local interactions may seem incapable to account for it
Butterfield, Jeremy (1998). Quantum curiosities of psychophysics. In J. Cornwell (ed.), Consciousness and Human Identity. Oxford University Press.   (Cited by 5 | Google | More links)
Abstract: I survey some of the connections between the metaphysics of the relation between mind and matter, and quantum theory’s measurement problem. After discussing the metaphysics, especially the correct formulation of physicalism, I argue that two state-reduction approaches to quantum theory’s measurement problem hold some surprises for philosophers’ discussions of physicalism. Though both approaches are compatible with physicalism, they involve a very different conception of the physical, and of how the physical underpins the mental, from what most philosophers expect. And one approach exemplifies a a problem in the definition of physicalism which the metaphysical literature has discussed only in the abstract. A version of the paper has appeared in Consciousness and Human Identity, ed. John Cornwell, OUP 1998
Butterfield, Jeremy (1995). Quantum theory and the mind. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 69 (69):113-158.   (Google)
Butterfield, Jeremy (1996). Whither the minds? British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 47 (2):200-20.   (Cited by 17 | Google | More links)
Byrne, Alex & Hall, N. (1999). Chalmers on consciousness and quantum mechanics. Philosophy of Science 66 (3):370-90.   (Cited by 3 | Google | More links)
Donald, Matthew (2002). Neural unpredictability, the interpretation of quantum theory, and the mind-body problem. Quant-Ph/0208033.   (Cited by 2 | Google | More links)
Abstract: It has been suggested, on the one hand, that quantum states are just states of knowledge; and, on the other, that quantum theory is merely a theory of correlations. These suggestions are confronted with problems about the nature of psycho-physical parallelism and about how we could define probabilities for our individual future observations given our individual present and previous observations. The complexity of the problems is underlined by arguments that unpredictability in ordinary everyday neural functioning, ultimately stemming from small-scale uncertainties in molecular motions, may overwhelm, by many orders of magnitude, many conventionally recognized sources of observed ``quantum'' uncertainty. Some possible ways of avoiding the problems are considered but found wanting. It is proposed that a complete understanding of the relationship between subjective experience and its physical correlates requires the introduction of mathematical definitions and indeed of new physical laws
Goertzel, B. (1992). Quantum theory and consciousness. Journal of Mind and Behavior 13 (1):29-36.   (Cited by 2 | Google)
Goswami, Amit (1990). Consciousness in quantum physics and the mind-body problem. Journal of Mind and Behavior 11 (1):75-96.   (Cited by 15 | Google)
Goswami, Amit (1989). The idealistic interpretation of quantum mechanics. Physics Essays 2:385-400.   (Cited by 13 | Google)
Klein, S. (1991). The duality of psycho-physics. In A. Gorea (ed.), Representations of Vision. Cambridge University Press.   (Cited by 4 | Google)
Kuttner, Fred & Rosenblum, Bruce (2006). The only objective evidence for consciousness. Journal of Mind and Behavior 27 (1):43-56.   (Google)
Lehner, C. (1997). What it feels like to be in a superposition, and why: Consciousness and the interpretation of Everett's quantum mechanics. Synthese 110 (2):191-216.   (Cited by 5 | Google)
Lockwood, Michael (1989). Mind, Brain, and the Quantum. Oxford University Press.   (Cited by 115 | Annotation | Google)
Lockwood, Michael (1996). Many-minds interpretations of quantum mechanics. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 47 (2):159-88.   (Cited by 37 | Google | More links)
Mallah, Jacques (ms). The many computations interpretation (MCI) of quantum mechanics.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: Computationalism provides a framework for understanding how a mathematically describable physical world could give rise to conscious observations without the need for dualism. A criterion is proposed for the implementation of computations by physical systems, which has been a problem for computationalism. Together with an independence criterion for implementations this would allow, in principle, prediction of probabilities for various observations based on counting implementations. Applied to quantum mechanics, this results in a Many Computations Interpretation (MCI), which is an explicit form of the Everett style Many Worlds Interpretation (MWI). Derivation of the Born Rule emerges as the central problem for most realist interpretations of quantum mechanics. If the Born Rule is derived based on computationalism and the wavefunction it would provide strong support for the MWI; but if the Born Rule is shown not to follow from these to an experimentally falsified extent, it would indicate the necessity for either new physics or (more radically) new philosophy of mind.
Mulhauser, Gregory R. (1995). Materialism and the "problem" of quantum measurement. Minds and Machines 5 (2):207-17.   (Cited by 3 | Google | More links)
Abstract:   For nearly six decades, the conscious observer has played a central and essential rôle in quantum measurement theory. I outline some difficulties which the traditional account of measurement presents for material theories of mind before introducing a new development which promises to exorcise the ghost of consciousness from physics and relieve the cognitive scientist of the burden of explaining why certain material structures reduce wavefunctions by virtue of being conscious while others do not. The interactive decoherence of complex quantum systems reveals that the oddities and complexities of linear superposition and state vector reduction are irrelevant to computational aspects of the philosophy of mind and that many conclusions in related fields are ill founded
Mulhauser, Gregory R. (1995). On the end of a quantum-mechanical romance. Psyche 2 (19).   (Cited by 7 | Google | More links)
Page, Diana N. (1995). Attaching theories of consciousness to Bohmian quantum mechanics. .   (Cited by 7 | Google | More links)
Page, Don (2003). Mindless sensationalism: A quantum framework for consciousness. In Quentin Smith & Aleksandar Jokic (eds.), Consciousness: New Philosophical Perspectives. Oxford University Press.   (Cited by 13 | Google | More links)
Page, Diana N. (1996). Sensible quantum mechanics: Are probabilities only in the mind? International Journal of Modern Physics D 5:583-96.   (Cited by 29 | Google | More links)
Abstract: Quantum mechanics may be formulated as Sensible Quantum Mechanics (SQM) so that it contains nothing probabilistic except conscious perceptions. Sets of these perceptions can be deterministically realized with measures given by expectation values of positive-operator-valued awareness operators. Ratios of the measures for these sets of perceptions can be interpreted as frequency- type probabilities for many actually existing sets. These probabilities gener- ally cannot be given by the ordinary quantum “probabilities” for a single set of alternatives. Probabilism, or ascribing probabilities to unconscious aspects of the world, may be seen to be an aesthemamorphic myth
Penrose, Roger (1987). Quantum physics and conscious thought. In Basil J. Hiley & D. Peat (eds.), Quantum Implications: Essays in Honour of David Bohm. Methuen.   (Cited by 11 | Google)
Pessoa, Osvaldo (online). What is an essentially quantum mechanical effect?   (Google)
Harness, David A. (ms). Simulated Reality Hologram Matrix State Space.   (Google)
Abstract: Gravitational and electromagnetic unification via Maxwell-Einstein gravitoelectromagnetic total stress energy (mass) density tensor eigenvector hologram interference field stationary state domain of universal wave function. S-matrix in-states/out-states eigenvalue range, features (moment of inertia x angular velocity) $SO(1,3)_{ij}$ self-adjoint operator integrations, generating Dirac-Noether conserved angular momentum observables in material coordinates. Fundamental quantum-continuum equation returns gravitoelectromagnetic spectrum photon $SO(1,3)_{yy}$ spin axis eigenvalues in units of Maxwell stress tensor pascals. New origin of electron-positron wave-particle mass-charge via energization of $SO(1,3)_{zz}$ principle spin axis angular momentum invariant, throughout inertial dynamics of electromagnetic and gravitational fields being inversely compressive/dispersive of cosmological constant vacuum energy density tensor pressure, according to principle quantum number n. In thought experiment test vs. general theory via pp-waves microlensing problem, wherein light-to-light gravitational attraction is four times matter-to-matter attraction, hypothesis predicts null microlensing result in area general theory known to break down on microscopic scale.
Shanks, N. (1995). Minds, brains, and quantum mechanics. Southern Journal of Philosophy 33 (2):243-60.   (Google)
Squires, Euan J. (1991). One mind or many? A note on the Everett interpretation of quantum theory. Synthese 89 (November):283-6.   (Cited by 3 | Google | More links)
Abstract:   The Everett interpretation of quantum theory requires either the existence of an infinite number of conscious minds associated with each brain or the existence of one universal consciousness. Reasons are given, and the two ideas are compared
Squires, Euan J. (1993). Quantum theory and the relation between the conscious mind and the physical world. Synthese 97 (1):109-23.   (Cited by 4 | Google | More links)
Abstract:   The measurement problem of quantum theory is discussed, and the difficulty of trying to solve it within the confines of a local, Lorentz-invariant physics is emphasised. This leads to the obvious suggestion to seek a solution beyond physics, in particular, by introducing the concept of consciousness. The resulting dualistic model, in the natural form suggested by quantum theory, is shown to differ in several respects from the classical model of Descartes, and to suggest solutions to some of the long-standing problems concerning the relation of consciousness to the physical world
Squires, Euan J. (1994). Quantum theory and the need for consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies 1 (2):201-4.   (Cited by 2 | Google)
Squires, Euan J. (1998). Why are quantum theorists interested in consciousness? In Stuart R. Hameroff, Alfred W. Kaszniak & A. C. Scott (eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness II. MIT Press.   (Cited by 1 | Google)
Stapp, Henry P. (1993). Mind, Matter, and Quantum Mechanics. Springer-Verlag.   (Cited by 200 | Google | More links)
Abstract: In this book, which contains several of his key papers as well as new material, he focuses on the problem of consciousness and explains how quantum mechanics...
Stapp, Henry P. (2005). Quantum interactive dualism - an alternative to materialism. Journal of Consciousness Studies 12 (11):43-58.   (Cited by 6 | Google | More links)
Abstract: _René Descartes proposed an interactive dualism that posits an interaction between the_ _mind of a human being and some of the matter located in his or her brain. Isaac Newton_ _subsequently formulated a physical theory based exclusively on the material/physical_ _part of Descartes’ ontology. Newton’s theory enforced the principle of the causal closure_ _of the physical, and the classical physics that grew out of it enforces this same principle._ _This classical theory purports to give, in principle, a complete deterministic account of the_ _physically described properties of nature, expressed exclusively in terms of these_ _physically described properties themselves. Orthodox contemporary physical theory_ _violates this principle in two separate ways. First, it injects random elements into the_ _dynamics. Second, it allows, and also requires, abrupt probing actions that disrupt the_ _mechanistically described evolution of the physically described systems. These probing_ _actions are called Process 1 interventions by von Neumann. They are psycho-physical_ _events. Neither the content nor the timing of these events is determined either by any_ _known law, or by the afore-mentioned random elements. Orthodox quantum mechanics_ _considers these events to be instigated by choices made by conscious agents. In von_ _Neumann’s formulation of quantum theory each such intervention acts upon the state of_ _the brain of some conscious agent. Thus orthodox von Neumann contemporary physics_ _posits an interactive dualism similar to that of Descartes. But in this quantum version the_ _effects of the conscious choices upon our brains are controlled, in part, by the known_ _basic rules of quantum physics. This theoretically specified mind-brain connection allows_ _many basic psychological and neuropsychological findings associated with the apparent_ _physical effectiveness of our conscious volitional efforts to be explained in a causal and_ _practically useful way..
Stapp, Henry P. (2006). Quantum interactive dualism, II: The Libet and Einstein-podolsky-Rosen causal anomalies. Erkenntnis 65 (1):117-142.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: b>: Replacing faulty nineteenth century physics by its orthodox quantum successor converts the earlier materialist conception of nature to a structure that does not enforce the principle of the causal closure of the physical. The quantum laws possess causal gaps, and these gaps are filled in actual scientific practice by inputs from our streams of consciousness. The form of the quantum laws permits and suggests the existence of an underlying reality that is built not on substances, but on psychophysical events, and on objective tendencies for these events to occur. These events constitute intrinsic mind-brain connections. They are fundamental links between brain processes described in physical terms and events in our streams of consciousness. This quantum ontology confers upon our conscious intentions the causal efficacy assigned to them in actual scientific practice, and creates a substance- free interactive dualism. This putative quantum ontology has previously been shown to have impressive explanatory power in both psychology and neuroscience. Here it is used to reconcile the existence of physically efficacious conscious free will with causal anomalies of both the Libet and Einstein-Rosen-Podolsky types
Stapp, Henry P. (2006). Quantum interactive dualism: An alternative to materialism. Zygon 41 (3):599-615.   (Cited by 7 | Google | More links)
Abstract: René Descartes proposed an interactive dualism that posits an interaction between the mind of a human being and some of the matter located in his or her brain. Isaac Newton subsequently formulated a physical theory based exclusively on the material/physical part of Descartes’ ontology. Newton’s theory enforced the principle of the causal closure of the physical, and the classical physics that grew out of it enforces this same principle. This classical theory purports to give, in principle, a complete deterministic account of the physically described properties of nature, expressed exclusively in terms of these physically described properties themselves. Orthodox contemporary physical theory violates this principle in two separate ways. First, it injects random elements into the dynamics. Second, it allows, and also requires, abrupt probing actions that disrupt the mechanistically described evolution of the physically described systems. These probing actions are called Process 1 interventions by von Neumann. They are psycho-physical events. Neither the content nor the timing of these events is determined either by any known law, or by the afore-mentioned random elements. Orthodox quantum mechanics considers these events to be instigated by choices made by conscious agents. In von Neumann’s formulation of quantum theory each such intervention acts upon the state of the brain of some conscious agent. Thus orthodox von Neumann contemporary physics posits an interactive dualism similar to that of Descartes. But in this quantum version the effects of the conscious choices upon our brains are controlled, in part, by the known basic rules of quantum physics. This theoretically specified mind-brain connection allows many basic psychological and neuropsychological findings associated with the apparent physical effectiveness of our conscious volitional efforts to be explained in a causal and practically useful way..
Stapp, Henry P. (2007). Quantum mechanical theories of consciousness. In Max Velmans & Susan Schneider (eds.), A Companion to Consciousness. Blackwell.   (Cited by 1 | Google | More links)
Abstract: Quantum mechanical theories of consciousness are contrasted to classical ones. A key difference is that the quantum laws are fundamentally psychophysical and provide an explanation of the causal effect of conscious effort on neural processes, while the laws of classical physics, being purely physical, cannot. The quantum approach provides causal explanations, deduced from the laws of physics, of correlations found in psychology and in neuropsychology
Stapp, Henry P. (1991). Quantum propensities and the brain-mind connection. Foundations of Physics 21:1451-77.   (Cited by 6 | Google)
Stapp, Henry P. (online). The causal role of consciousness in the quantum brain.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: Science is basically about correlations between conscious human experiences: that is what makes it both useful and testable in the realm of our expanding human knowledge. Explicit recognition of this understanding lies at the core of the formulation of quantum theory that was originally developed during the twenties by its founders
Stapp, Henry P. (1998). The evolution of consciousness. In Stuart R. Hameroff, Alfred W. Kaszniak & A. C. Scott (eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness II. MIT Press.   (Cited by 5 | Google | More links)
Abstract: It is argued that the principles of classical physics are inimical to the development of a satisfactory science of consciousness The problem is that insofar as the classical principles are valid consciousness can have no e ect on the behavior and hence on the survival prospects of the organisms in which it inheres Thus within the classical framework it is not possible to explain in natural terms the development of consciousness to the high level form found in human beings In quantum theory on the other hand consciousness can be dynamically e cacious quantum the ory does allows consciousness to in uence behavior and thence to evolve in accordance with the principles of natural selection However this evo lutionary requirement places important constraints upon the details of the formulation of the quantum dynamical principles..
Stapp, Henry P. (online). "The observer" in physics and neuroscience.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: Neuroscience is an important component of the scientific attack on the problem of consciousness. However, most neuroscientists, viewing our discussions, see only conflict and discord, and no reason why quantum theory has any great relevance the dynamics of the conscious brain. It is therefore worthwhile, in this first plenary talk of the 2003 Tucson conference on “Quantum Approaches to the Understanding of Consciousness,” to focus on the central issue, which is the crucial role of “The Observer,” and specifically, “The Mind of The Observer” in contemporary physical theory. I shall therefore review here this radical departure of present-day basic physics from the principles of classical physics, and then spell out some of its ramifications for neuroscience
Stapp, Henry P. (1995). Why classical mechanics cannot accommodate consciousness but quantum mechanics can. Psyche 2 (5).   (Cited by 1 | Google | More links)
Wasserman, G. D. (1983). Quantum mechanics and consciousness. Nature and System 5 (March-June):3-16.   (Google)
Wigner, Eugene P. (1961). Remarks on the mind-body problem. In I. J. Good (ed.), The Scientist Speculates. Heineman.   (Cited by 28 | Google)
Woo, C. H. (1981). Consciousness and quantum interference: An experimental approach. Foundations of Physics 11:933-44.   (Cited by 4 | Google)

8.3b Quantum Mechanisms of Consciousness

Amoroso, Richard L. (2004). Application of double-cusp catastrophe theory to the physical evolution of qualia: Implications for paradigm shift in medicine and psychology. Anticipative and Predictive Models in Systems Science 1 (1):19-26.   (Google)
Arecchi, F. Tito (2003). Chaotic neuron dynamics, synchronization, and feature binding: Quantum aspects. Mind and Matter 1 (1):15-43.   (Cited by 8 | Google | More links)
Abstract: A central issue of cognitive neuroscience is to understand how a large collection of coupled neurons combines external signals with internal memories into new coherent patterns of meaning. An external stimulus localized at some input spreads over a large assembly of coupled neurons, building up a collective state univocally corresponding to the stimulus. Thus, the synchronization of spike trains of many individual neurons is the basis of a coherent perception. Based on recent investigations of homoclinic chaotic systems and their synchronization, a novel conjecture for the dynamics of single neurons and, consequently, for neuron assemblies is formulated. Homoclinic chaos is proposed as a suitable way to code information in time by trains of equal spikes occurring at apparently erratic times. In order to classify the set of different perceptions, the percept space can be given a metric structure by introducing a distance measure between distinct percepts. The distance in percept space is conjugate to the duration of the perception in the sense that an uncertainty relation in percept space is associated with time-limited perceptions. This coding of different percepts by synchronized spike trains entails fundamental quantum features which are not restricted to microscopic phenomena. It is conjectured that they are related to the details of the perceptual chain rather than depending on Planck's action
Atmanspacher, Harald (2004). Quantum theory and consciousness: An overview with selected examples. Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society 1:51-73.   (Cited by 4 | Google | More links)
Abstract: It is widely accepted that consciousness or, in other words, mental activity is in some way correlated to the behavior of the brain or, in other words, material brain activity. Since quantum theory is the most fundamental theory of matter that is currently available, it is a legitimate question to ask whether quantum theory can help us to understand consciousness. Several approaches answering this question a?rmatively, proposed in recent decades, will be surveyed. It will be pointed out that they make di?erent epistemological assumptions, refer to di?erent neurophysiological levels of description, and adopt quantum theory in di?erent ways. For each of the approaches discussed, these imply both..
Bass, Ludvik (1975). A quantum-mechanical mind-body interaction. Foundations of Physics 5:159-72.   (Cited by 9 | Google)
Beck, Friedrich & Eccles, John C. (1992). Quantum aspects of brain activity and the role of consciousness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 89:11357-61.   (Cited by 79 | Google | More links)
Beck, Friedrich (2001). Quantum brain dynamics and consciousness. In P. Van Loocke (ed.), The Physical Nature of Consciousness. John Benjamins.   (Cited by 5 | Google)
Beck, Friedrich (1994). Quantum mechanics and consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies 1 (2):253-255.   (Cited by 1 | Google)
Beck, Friedrich & Eccles, John C. (2003). Quantum processes in the brain: A scientific basis of consciousness. In Naoyuki Osaka (ed.), Neural Basis of Consciousness. John Benjamins.   (Cited by 2 | Google)
Beck, Friedrich (1998). Synaptic transmission, quantum-state selection, and consciousness. In Stuart R. Hameroff, Alfred W. Kaszniak & A. C. Scott (eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness II. MIT Press.   (Google)
Berezin, Alexander A. (1992). Correlated isotopic tunneling as a possible model for consciousness. Journal of Theoretical Biology 154:415-20.   (Cited by 1 | Google)
Bieberich, Erhard, In search of a neuronal substrate of the human mind: New concepts from "topological neurochemistry".   (Cited by 3 | Google | More links)
Abstract: Neurochemistry is a powerful discipline of modern neuroscience based on a description of neuronal function in terms of molecular reaction and interaction. This study aims at a neurochemical approach to the "hard" philosophical mind-body problem: the search for the neuronal correlate of consciousness. The scattered pattern of remote areas in the human brain simultaneously busy with the computation of single perceptions has left us with the unanswered questions why, where, and how the neuronal activity gives rise to a unified conscious observation of the outer world in a space inside of the human brain. In this study, conscious perception of temporally and spatially distinct events by an inner observer, the self, is treated as a topological problem demanding for a correlation of the self with a particular orchestration of neuronal or neurochemical activity triggered by action potentials. According to a novel concept of "topological neurochemistry" it is assumed that three features of the human brain are necessary in order to generate consciousness: 1) A network of neurons with dendritic branching structure and re-entry signaling of action potentials. 2)A macromolecular lattice structure as part of the neuron which is excitable or modulated by action potentials. 3) A spatial superposition of action potentials which underlies conscious perception but reveals not necessarily the same topology as the space perceived in consciousness. Several molecular models for the generation of consciousness and the self will be discussed, and a new concept, the "fractal approach", will be introduced. Mathematical theory and experimental methods for investigation of human consciousness will be presented
Bourget, David (2004). Quantum leaps in philosophy of mind. Journal of Consciousness Studies 11 (12):17--42.   (Google)
Abstract: I discuss the quantum mechanical theory of consciousness and freewill offered by Stapp (1993, 1995, 2000, 2004). First I show that decoherence-based arguments do not work against this theory. Then discuss a number of problems with the theory: Stapp's separate accounts of consciousness and freewill are incompatible, the interpretations of QM they are tied to are questionable, the Zeno effect could not enable freewill as he suggests because weakness of will would then be ubiquitous, and the holism of measurement in QM is not a good explanation of the unity of consciousness for essentially the same reason that local interactions may seem incapable to account for it
Clarke, Christopher J. S. (2007). The role of quantum physics in the theory of subjective consciousness. Mind and Matter 5 (1):45-81.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: I argue that a dual-aspect theory of consciousness, associated with a particular class of quantum states, can provide a consistent account of consciousness. I illustrate this with the use of coherent states as this class. The proposal meets Chalmers 'requirements of allowing a structural correspondence between consciousness and its physical correlate. It provides a means for consciousness to have an effect on the world (it is not an epiphenomenon, and can thus be selected by evolution) in a way that supplements and completes conventional physics, rather than interfering with it. I draw on the work of Hameroff and Penrose to explain the consistency of this proposal with decoherence, while adding details to this work. The proposal is open to extensive further research at both theoretical and experimental levels
Vimal, Ram Lakhan Pandey (2009). Dual Aspect Framework for Consciousness and Its Implications: West meets East for Sublimation Process. In G. Derfer, Z. Wang & M. Weber (eds.), The Roar of Awakening. A Whiteheadian Dialogue Between Western Psychotherapies and Eastern Worldviews. Ontos Verlag.   (Google)
Abstract: Previously (Vimal, 2009b) in Whitehead Psychology Nexus Studies, we discussed (i) the dual-aspect-dual-mode proto-experience (PE)-subjective experience (SE) framework of consciousness based on neuroscience, (ii) its implication in war, suffering, peace, and happiness, (iii) the process of sublimation for optimizing them and converting the negative aspects of seven groups of self-protective energy system (desire, anger, ego, greed, attachment, jealousy, and selfish-love) into their positive aspects from both western and eastern perspectives. In this article, we summarize the recent development since then as follows. (1) In (Vimal, 2009e), we rigorously investigated the classical and quantum matching and selection processes for precisely experiencing a specific SE in a specific neural-network. (2) In (Vimal, 2009i), we unpacked the quantum view of superposition related to the superposition-based hypothesis H1 of our framework in terms of subquantum dual-aspect primal entities (bhutatmas) and addressed the related explanatory gaps. (3) In, we developed alternative hypotheses of our framework, namely, the superposition-then-integration-emergence based H2, the integration-emergence based H3, the intelligent mechanism based H4, and the vacuum/Aether based H5. We concluded that our framework with H1 is the most optimal one because it has the least number of problems (Vimal, 2009j). (4) In, we found over 40 different but overlapping meanings attributed to the term ‘consciousness’ and suggested that authors must specify which aspect of consciousness they refer to when using this term to minimize confusion (Vimal, 2009f). (5) In, we proposed definitions of consciousness, qualia, mind, and awareness (Vimal, 2009h). (6) In, we investigated the necessary ingredients for access (reportable) consciousness: wakefulness, re-entry, attention, working memory and so on (Vimal, 2009g). (7) In, we discussed Nāgārjuna’s philosophy of dependent co-origination with respect to our PE-SE framework (Vimal, 2009a). (8) In, we linked dynamic systems theory and fractal catalytic theory with standard representation theory using our framework (Vimal, 2009d). (9) In, we introduce the PE-SE aspects of consciousness in theoretical classical and quantum physics including loop quantum gravity and string theory (Vimal, 2009k). (10) In (Vimal, 2009c), we proposed that the SE of subject or ‘self’ in self-related neural-network is tuned to the self-related SEs/PEs superposed in other innumerable entities during samadhi state via matching and selection processes. This leads to bliss, ecstasy, or exceptionally high degree of climax at samadhi state. We conclude that, so far, the dual-aspect-dual-mode PE-SE framework with hypothesis H1 is the most optimal framework for explaining our conventional reality because it has the least number of problems.
del Giudice, E. (2004). The psycho-emotional-physical unity of living organisms as an outcome of quantum physics. In Gordon G. Globus, Karl H. Pribram & Giuseppe Vitiello (eds.), Brain and Being. John Benjamins.   (Google)
De Silva, Frank (ms). Foundation of all Axioms the Axioms of Consciousness.   (Google)
Abstract: A description of consciousness leads to a contradiction with the postulation from special relativity that there can be no connections between simultaneous event. This contradiction points to consciousness involving quantum level mechanisms. The Quantum level description of the universe is re- evaluated in the light of what is observed in consciousness namely 4 Dimensional objects. A new improved interpretation of Quantum level observations is introduced. From this vantage point the following axioms of consciousness is presented. Consciousness consists of two distinct components, the observed U and the observer I. The observed U consist of all the events I is aware of. A vast majority of these occur simultaneously. Now if I were to be an entity within the space-time continuum, all of these events of U together with I would have to occur at one point in space-time. However, U is distributed over a definite region of space-time (region in brain). Thus, I is aware of a multitude of space-like separated events. It is seen that this awareness necessitates I to be an entity outside the space-time continuum. With I taken as such, a new concept called concept A is introduced. With the help of concept A a very important axiom of consciousness, namely Free Will is explained. Libet s Experiment which was originally seen to contradict Free will, in the light of Concept A is shown to support it. A variation to Libet s Experiment is suggested that will give conclusive proof for Concept A and Free Will.
Dyer, Michael G. (1994). Quantum physics and consciousness, creativity, computers: A commentary on Goswami's quantum-based theory of consciousness and free will. Journal of Mind and Behavior 15 (3):265-90.   (Google)
Eccles, John C. (1986). Do mental events cause neural events analogously to the probability fields of quantum mechanics? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 227:411-28.   (Cited by 37 | Google | More links)
Faro, Alberto & Giordano, Daniela (2007). An account of consciousness from the synergetics and quantum field theory perspectives. In Antonio Chella & Riccardo Manzotti (eds.), Artificial Consciousness. Imprint Academic.   (Google)
Flanagan, Brian (2003). Are perceptual fields quantum fields? Neuroquantology 3.   (Cited by 1 | Google)
Gao, Shan (2003). A possible quantum basis of panpsychism. [Journal (Paginated)] 1 (1):4-9.   (Cited by 3 | Google | More links)
Abstract: We show that consciousness may violate the basic quantum principle, according to which the nonorthogonal quantum states can't be distinguished. This implies that the physical world is not causally closed without consciousness, and consciousness is a fundamental property of matter, thus provides a possible quantum basis for panpsychism
Gao, Mr Shan (ms). Quantum, consciousness and panpsychism: A solution to the hard problem.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: We analyze the results and implications of the combination of quantum and consciousness in terms of the recent QSC analysis. The quantum effect of consciousness is first explored. We show that the consciousness of the observer can help to distinguish the nonorthogonal states under some condition, while the usual physical measuring device without consciousness can’t. The result indicates that the causal efficacies of consciousness do exist when considering the basic quantum process. Based on this conclusion, we demonstrate that consciousness is not reducible or emergent, but a new fundamental property of matter. This provides a quantum basis for panpsychism. Furthermore, we argue that the conscious process is one kind of quantum computation process based on the analysis of consciousness time and combination problem. It is shown that a unified theory of matter and consciousness should include two parts: one is the complete quantum evolution of matter state, which includes the definite nonlinear evolution element introduced by consciousness, and the other is the psychophysical principle or corresponding principle between conscious content and matter state. Lastly, some experimental suggestions are presented to confirm the theoretical analysis of the paper
Georgiev, Danko (ms). Falsifications of Hameroff-Penrose orch OR model of consciousness and novel avenues for development of quantum mind theory.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: In this paper we try to make a clear distinction between quantum mysticism and quantum mind theory. Quackery always accompanies science especially in controversial and still under development areas and since the quantum mind theory is a science youngster it must clearly demarcate itself from the great stuff of pseudo-science currently patronized by the term "quantum mind". Quantum theory has attracted a big deal of attention and opened new avenues for building up a physical theory of mind because its principles and experimental foundations are as strange as the phenomenon of consciousness itself. Yet, the unwarranted recourse to paranormal phenomena as supporting the quantum mind theory plus the extremely bad biological mismodeling of brain physiology lead to great scepticism about the viability of the approach. We give as an example the Hameroff-Penrose Orch OR model with a list of twenty four problems not being repaired for a whole decade after the birth of the model in 1996. In the exposition we have tried not only to pesent critique of the spotted flaws, but to provide novel possibilities towards creation of neuroscientific quantum model of mind that incorporates all the available data from the basic disciplines (biochemistry, cell physiology, etc.) up to the clinical observations (neurology, neurosurgery, molecular psychiatry, etc.). Thus in a concise fashion we outline what can be done scientifically to improve the Q-mind theory and start a research programme (in Lakatos sense) that is independent on the particular flaws in some of the existing Q-mind models
Georgiev, Danko (2003). On the dynamic timescale of mind-brain interaction. In Proceedings Quantum Mind 2003 Conference: Consciousness, Quantum Physics and the Brain , Tucson, Arizona, USA.   (Cited by 3 | Google | More links)
Abstract: In neurophysiology it is widely assumed that our mind operates in millisecond timescale. This view might be wrong, because if consciousness is quantum coherent phenomenon at the level of protein assemblies, then its dynamic timescale can be picosecond one
Germine, M. (1991). Consciousness and synchronicity. Medical Hypotheses 36:277-83.   (Cited by 4 | Google)
Globus, Gordon G. (1997). Nonlinear brain systems with nonlocal degrees of freedom. Journal of Mind and Behavior 18 (2-3):195-204.   (Google)
Globus, Gordon G. (2002). Ontological implications of quantum brain dynamics. In Kunio Yasue, Marj Jibu & Tarcisio Della Senta (eds.), No Matter, Never Mind. John Benjamins.   (Google)
Globus, Gordon G. (2003). Quantum Closures and Disclosures: Thinking-Together Postphenomenology and Quantum Brain Dynamics. John Benjamins.   (Cited by 7 | Google | More links)
Globus, Gordon G. (1996). Quantum consciousness is cybernetic. Psyche 2 (21).   (Cited by 7 | Google | More links)
Globus, Gordon G. (1998). Self, cognition, qualia, and world in quantum brain dynamics. Journal of Consciousness Studies 5 (1):34-52.   (Cited by 5 | Google)
Grush, Rick & Churchland, P. (1995). Gaps in Penrose's toiling. In Thomas Metzinger (ed.), Conscious Experience. Ferdinand Schoningh.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: Using the Gödel Incompleteness Result for leverage, Roger Penrose has argued that the mechanism for consciousness involves quantum gravitational phenomena, acting through microtubules in neurons. We show that this hypothesis is implausible. First, the Gödel Result does not imply that human thought is in fact non algorithmic. Second, whether or not non algorithmic quantum gravitational phenomena actually exist, and if they did how that could conceivably implicate microtubules, and if microtubules were involved, how that could conceivably implicate consciousness, is entirely speculative. Third, cytoplasmic ions such as calcium and sodium are almost certainly present in the microtubule pore, barring the quantum mechanical effects Penrose envisages. Finally, physiological evidence indicates that consciousness does not directly depend on microtubule properties in any case, rendering doubtful any theory according to which consciousness is generated in the microtubules
Hameroff, Stuart R. & Scott, A. C. (1998). A sonoran afternoon: A dialogue on quantum mechanics and consciousness. In Stuart R. Hameroff, Alfred W. Kaszniak & A. C. Scott (eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness II. MIT Press.   (Cited by 1 | Google)
Abstract: _Sonoran Desert, Stuart Hameroff and Alwyn Scott awoke from their_ _siestas to take margaritas in the shade of a ramada. On a nearby_ _table, a tape recorder had accidentally been left on and the following_ _is an unedited transcript of their conversation._
Hameroff, Stuart R. (2001). Biological feasibility of quantum approaches to consciousness: The Penrose-Hameroff 'orch or' model. In P. Van Loocke (ed.), The Physical Nature of Consciousness. John Benjamins.   (Google)
Hameroff, Stuart R. & Penrose, Roger (1996). Conscious events as orchestrated space-time selections. Journal of Consciousness Studies 3 (1):36-53.   (Cited by 108 | Google | More links)
Hameroff, Stuart (2006). Consciousness, neurobiology and quantum mechanics: The case for a connection. In J. Tuszynski (ed.), The Emerging Physics of Consciousness. Springer-Verlag.   (Cited by 4 | Google | More links)
Abstract: Consciousness involves phenomenal experience, self-awareness, feelings, choices, control of actions, a model of the world, etc. But what _is_ _it?_ Is consciousness something specific, or merely a byproduct of information processing? Whatever it is, consciousness is a multi-faceted puzzle. Despite enormous strides in behavioral and brain science, essential features of consciousness continue to elude explanation. Unresolved problems include: 1) Neural correlates of conscious perception apparently occur too late—150 to 500 milliseconds (msec) after impingement on our sense organs—to have causal efficacy in seemingly conscious perceptions and willful actions, often initiated or completed within 100 msec after sensory impingement. For example in the
Hameroff, Stuart R. (2001). Consciousness, the brain, and space-time geometry. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 929:74-104.   (Google)
Hameroff, Stuart R. (online). Consciousness, Whitehead and quantum computation in the brain: Panprotopsychism meets the physics of fundamental spacetime geometry.   (Cited by 2 | Google)
Abstract: _dualism_ (consciousness lies outside knowable science), _emergence_ (consciousness arises as a novel property from complex computational dynamics in the brain), and some form of _panpsychism_, _pan-protopsychism, or pan-experientialism_ (essential features or precursors of consciousness are fundamental components of reality which are accessed by brain processes). In addition to 1) the problem of subjective experience, other related enigmatic features of consciousness persist, defying technological and philosophical inroads. These include 2) the “binding problem”—how disparate brain activities give rise to a unified sense of “self” or unified conscious content. Temporal synchrony—brain-wide coherence of neural membrane electrical activities—is often assumed to accomplish binding, but _what_ is being synchronized? What is being coherently bound? Another enigmatic feature is 3) the transition from pre-conscious processes to consciousness itself. Most neuroscientists agree that consciousness is the “tip of an iceberg”, that the vast majority of brain activities is
Hameroff, Stuart R. (1998). "Funda-mentality": Is the conscious mind subtly linked to a basic level of the universe? [Journal (Paginated)] 2 (4):119-124.   (Cited by 52 | Google | More links)
Abstract: Age-old battle lines over the puzzling nature of mental experience are shaping a modern resurgence in the study of consciousness. On one side are the long-dominant "physicalists" who view consciousness as an emergent property of the brain's neural networks. On the alternative, rebellious side are those who see a necessary added ingredient: proto-conscious experience intrinsic to reality, perhaps understandable through modern physics (panpsychists, pan-experientialists, "funda-mentalists"). It is argued here that the physicalist premise alone is unable to solve completely the difficult issues of consciousness and that to do so will require supplemental panpsychist/pan-experiential philosophy expressed in modern physics. In one scheme proto-conscious experience is a basic property of physical reality accessible to a quantum process associated with brain activity. The proposed process is Roger Penrose's "objective reduction" (OR), a self-organizing "collapse" of the quantum wave function related to instability at the most basic level of space-time geometry. In the Penrose- Hameroff model of "orchestrated objective reduction" (Orch OR), OR quantum computation occurs in cytoskeletal microtubules within the brain's neurons. The basic thesis is that consciousness involves brain activities coupled to a self-organizing ripples in fundamental reality
Hameroff, Stuart R. (1998). More neural than thou (reply to churchland). In S. Ameroff, Alfred W. Kaszniak & A. C. Scott (eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness II: The 1996 Tucson Discussions and Debates. MIT Press.   (Google)
Abstract: In "Brainshy: Non-neural theories of conscious experience," (this volume) Patricia Churchland considers three "non-neural" approaches to the puzzle of consciousness: 1) Chalmers' fundamental information, 2) Searle's "intrinsic" property of brain, and 3) Penrose-Hameroff quantum phenomena in microtubules. In rejecting these ideas, Churchland flies the flag of "neuralism." She claims that conscious experience will be totally and completely explained by the dynamical complexity of properties at the level of neurons and neural networks. As far as consciousness goes, neural network firing patterns triggered by axon-to-dendrite synaptic chemical transmissions are the fundamental correlates of consciousness. There is no need to look elsewhere
Hameroff, Stuart R. & Penrose, Roger (1996). Orchestrated reduction of quantum coherence in brain microtubules: A model for consciousness. In Stuart R. Hameroff, Alfred W. Kaszniak & A. C. Scott (eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness. MIT Press.   (Cited by 143 | Google | More links)
Hameroff, Stuart R. & Woolf, Nancy J. (2003). Quantum consciousness: A cortical neural circuit. In Naoyuki Osaka (ed.), Neural Basis of Consciousness. John Benjamins.   (Google)
Hameroff, Stuart R. (1994). Quantum coherence in microtubules: A neural basis for emergent consciousness? Journal of Consciousness Studies 1:91-118.   (Cited by 150 | Google | More links)
Hameroff, Stuart R. (2002). Quantum computation in brain microtubules. Physical Review E 65 (6).   (Cited by 11 | Google)
Abstract: Proposals for quantum computation rely on superposed states implementing multiple computations simultaneously, in parallel, according to quantum linear superposition (e.g., Benioff, 1982; Feynman, 1986; Deutsch, 1985, Deutsch and Josza, 1992). In principle, quantum computation is capable of specific applications beyond the reach of classical computing (e.g., Shor, 1994). A number of technological systems aimed at realizing these proposals have been suggested and are being evaluated as possible substrates for quantum computers (e.g. trapped ions, electron spins, quantum dots, nuclear spins, etc., see Table 1; Bennett, 1995; and Barenco, 1995). The main obstacle to realization of quantum computation is the problem of interfacing to the system (input, output) while also protecting the quantum state from environmental decoherence. If this problem can be overcome, then present day classical computers may evolve to quantum computers
Hameroff, Stuart R. (ms). The brain is both neurocomputer and quantum computer.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: _Figure 1. Dendrites and cell bodies of schematic neurons connected by dendritic-dendritic gap junctions form a laterally connected input_ _layer (“dendritic web”) within a neurocomputational architecture. Dendritic web dynamics are temporally coupled to gamma synchrony_ _EEG, and correspond with integration phases of “integrate and fire” cycles. Axonal firings provide input to, and output from, integration_ _phases (only one input, and three output axons are shown). Cell bodies/soma contain nuclei shown as black circles; microtubule networks_ _pervade the cytoplasm. According to the Orch OR theory, gamma EEG-synchronized integration phases include quantum computations in_ _microtubule networks which culminate with conscious moments. Insert closeup shows a gap junction through which microtubule quantum_ _states entangle among different neurons, enabling macroscopic quantum states in dendritic webs extending throughout cortex and other_ _brain regions._
Heelan, Patrick A. (2004). The phenomenological role of consciousness in measurement. Mind and Matter 2 (1):61-84.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: A structural analogy is pointed out between a check hermeneutically developed phenomenological description, based on Husserl, of the process of perceptual cognition on the one hand and quantum mechanical measurement on the other hand. In Husserl's analytic phase of the cognition process, the 'intentionality-structure' of the subject/object union prior to predication of a local object is an entangled symmetry-making state, and this entanglement is broken in the synthetic phase when the particular local object is constituted under the influence of an iota ('inner horizon') and the 'facticity' of the local world ('outer horizon'). Replacing 'perceptual cognition' by 'measurement' and 'subject' by 'expert subject using a measuring device' the analogy of a formal quantum structure is extended to the conscious structure of all empirical cognition. This is laid out in three theses: about perception, about classical measurement, and about quantum measurement. The results point to the need for research into the quantum structure of the physical embodiment of human cognition
Hiley, Basil J. & Pylkkanen, Paavo (2005). Can mind affect matter via active information? Mind and Matter 3 (2):8-27.   (Cited by 1 | Google | More links)
Abstract: Mainstream cognitive neuroscience typically ignores the role of quantum physical effects in the neural processes underlying cogni¬tion and consciousness. However, many unsolved problems remain, suggesting the need to consider new approaches. We propose that quantum theory, especially through an ontological interpretation due to Bohm and Hiley, provides a fruitful framework for addressing the neural correlates of cognition and consciousness. In particular, the ontological interpretation suggests that a novel type of 'active information', connected with a novel type of 'quantum potential energy', plays a key role in quantum physical processes. After introducing the ontological interpretation we illustrate its value for cognitive neuroscience by discussing it in the light of a proposal by Beck and Eccles about how quantum tunneling could play a role in controlling the frequency of synaptic exocytosis. In this proposal, quantum tunneling would enable the 'self' to control its brain without violating the energy conservation law. We argue that the ontological interpretation provides a sharper picture of what actually could be taking place in quantum tunneling in general and in synaptic exocytosis in particular. Based on the notions of active information and quantum potential energy, we propose a coherent way of understanding how mental processes (understood as involving non-classical physical processes) can act on traditional, classically describable neural processes without violating the energy conservation law
Hiley, Basil J. & Pylkkanen, Paavo (2001). Naturalizing the mind in a quantum framework. In Paavo Pylkkanen & Tere Vaden (eds.), Dimensions of Conscious Experience. John Benjamins.   (Cited by 2 | Google)
Hodgson, David (2002). Quantum physics, consciousness, and free will. In Robert H. Kane (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Free Will. New York: Oxford University Press.   (Cited by 8 | Google)
Hunt, Harry T. (2001). Some perils of quantum consciousness - epistemological pan-experientialism and the emergence-submergence of consciousness. Journal Of Consciousness Studies 8 (9-10):35-45.   (Google)
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Jahn, Robert G. & Dunne, Brenda J. (1986). On the quantum mechanics of consciousness, with application to anomalous phenomena. Foundations of Physics 16 (8):721-772.   (Cited by 50 | Google | More links)
Jahn, Robert G. (1993). The Complementarity of Consciousness. In K. R. Rao (ed.), Cultivating Consciousness for Enhancing Human Potential, Wellness, and Healing. Praeger.   (Cited by 8 | Google | More links)
Jibu, Marj & Yasue, Kunio (1997). Magic without magic: Meaning of quantum brain dynamics. Journal of Mind and Behavior.   (Cited by 1 | Google)
Jibu, Marj & Yasue, Kunio (1995). Quantum Brain Dynamics and Consciousness: An Introduction. John Benjamins.   (Cited by 79 | Google | More links)
Abstract: The book is the first to give a systematic account, founded in fundamental quantum physical principles, of how the brain functions as a unified system.
Jibu, Marj & Yasue, Kunio (2004). Quantum brain dynamics and quantum field theory. In Gordon G. Globus, Karl H. Pribram & Giuseppe Vitiello (eds.), Brain and Being. John Benjamins.   (Cited by 1 | Google)
Kedar, Joshi (2002). The Quantum Conscious Mastermind and Unconscious Machines: With a Revolutionary NSTP (Non-Spatial Thinking Process) Theory. Pune: K Joshi.   (Google)
King, C. Daly (1997). Chaos, quantum mechanics, and the conscious brain. Journal of Mind and Behavior.   (Google)
Klein, Stanley (1995). Is quantum mechanics relevant to understanding consciousness? Psyche 2 (3).   (Cited by 7 | Google | More links)
Lahav, Ran & Shanks, N. (1992). How to be a scientifically respectable 'property dualist'. Journal of Mind and Behavior 13 (3):211-32.   (Cited by 5 | Annotation | Google)
Ludwig, Kirk A. (1995). Why the difference between quantum and classical mechanics is irrelevant to the mind-body problem. Psyche 2 (16).   (Google)
Abstract: I argue that the logical difference between classical and quantum mechanics that Stapp (1995) claims shows quantum mechanics is more amenable to an account of consciousness than is classical mechanics is irrelevant to the problem
Marshall, I. N. (1989). Consciousness and Bose-Einstein condensates. New Ideas in Psychology 7:73-83.   (Cited by 46 | Google)
Marshall, I. N. (1995). Some phenomenological implications of a quantum model of consciousness. Minds and Machines 5 (4):609-20.   (Google | More links)
Abstract:   We contrast person-centered categories with objective categories related to physics: consciousness vs. mechanism, observer vs. observed, agency vs. event causation. semantics vs. syntax, beliefs and desires vs. dispositions. How are these two sets of categories related? This talk will discuss just one such dichotomy: consciousness vs. mechanism. Two extreme views are dualism and reductionism. An intermediate view is emergence. Here, consciousness is part of the natural order (as against dualism), but consciousness is not definable only in terms of physical mass, length, and time (as against reductionism). There are several detailed theories of emergence. One is based on the Great Chain of Being and on organic evolutionary hierarchy. The theory here is based instead on the concept of relational holism in quantum mechanics. The resulting brain model has two interacting systems: a computational system and a quantum system (a Bose-Einstein condensate), perhaps interacting via EEG waves. Thus, we need both person-centered and matter-centered categories to describe human beings. Some possible experimental tests are discussed
Marcer, P. & Mitchell, E. (2001). What is consciousness? An essay on the relativistic quantum holographic model of the brain/mind, working by phase conjugate adaptive resonance. In P. Van Loocke (ed.), The Physical Nature of Consciousness. John Benjamins.   (Google)
Miranker, W. L. (2002). A quantum state model of consciousness. Journal Of Consciousness Studies 9 (3):3-14.   (Google)
Mohrhoff, Ulrich (online). Psychology all the way down.   (Cited by 2 | Google)
Mohrhoff, Ulrich (ms). Quantum mechanics and consciousness: Fact and fiction.   (Cited by 2 | Google | More links)
Nakagomi, T. (2004). Quantum monadology and consciousness. In Gordon G. Globus, Karl H. Pribram & Giuseppe Vitiello (eds.), Brain and Being. John Benjamins.   (Cited by 25 | Google)
Atmanspacher, Harald (online). Quantum Approaches to Consciousness. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.   (Cited by 4 | Google)
Abstract: It is widely accepted that consciousness or, more generally, mental activity is in some way correlated to the behavior of the material brain. Since quantum theory is the most fundamental theory of matter that is currently available, it is a legitimate question to ask whether quantum theory can help us to understand consciousness. Several approaches answering this question affirmatively, proposed in recent decades, will be surveyed. It will be pointed out that they make different epistemological assumptions, refer to different neurophysiological levels of description, and use quantum theory in different ways. For each of the approaches discussed, problematic and promising features will be equally highlighted
Oku, Takeo (2005). A study on consciousness and life energy based on quantum holographic cosmology. Journal of International Society of Life Information Science 23 (1):133-143.   (Google)
Penrose, Roger (2001). Consciousness, the brain, and spacetime geometry: An addendum: Some new developments on the orch OR model for consciousness. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 929:105-10.   (Cited by 7 | Google | More links)
Penrose, Roger (1994). Mechanisms, microtubules, and the mind. Journal of Consciousness Studies 1 (2):241-49.   (Cited by 12 | Google)
Penrose, Roger & Hameroff, Stuart (1996). Orchestrated objective reduction of quantum coherence in brain microtubules: The "orch OR" model for consciousness. Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 40:453-480.   (Google)
Abstract: Features of consciousness difficult to understand in terms of conventional neuroscience have evoked application of quantum theory, which describes the fundamental behavior of matter and energy. In this paper we propose that aspects of quantum theory (e.g. quantum coherence) and of a newly proposed physical phenomenon of quantum wave function "self-collapse"(objective reduction: OR -Penrose, 1994) are essential for consciousness, and occur in cytoskeletal microtubules and other structures within each of the brain's neurons. The particular characteristics of microtubules suitable for quantum effects include their crystal-like lattice structure, hollow inner core, organization of cell function and capacity for information processing. We envisage that conformational states of microtubule subunits (tubulins) are coupled to internal quantum events, and cooperatively interact (compute) with other tubulins. We further assume that macroscopic coherent superposition of quantum-coupled tubulin conformational states occurs throughout significant brain volumes and provides the global binding essential to consciousness. We equate the emergence of the microtubule quantum coherence with pre-conscious processing which grows (for up to 500 milliseconds) until the mass-energy difference among the separated states of tubulins reaches a threshold related to quantum gravity. According to the arguments for OR put forth in Penrose (1994), superpositioned states each have their own space-time geometries. When the degree of coherent mass-energy difference leads to sufficient separation of space-time geometry, the system must choose and decay (reduce, collapse) to a single universe state. In this way, a transient superposition of slightly differing space-time geometries persists until an abrupt quantum classical reduction occurs. Unlike the random, "subjective reduction"( SR, or R) of standard quantum theory caused by observation or environmental entanglement, the OR we propose in microtubules is a self-collapse and it results in particular patterns of microtubule-tubulin conformational states that regulate neuronal activities including synaptic functions.
Penrose, Roger & Hameroff, Stuart R. (1995). What 'gaps'? Reply to Grush and Churchland. Journal of Consciousness Studies 2 (2).   (Cited by 30 | Google)
Abstract: Grush and Churchland (1995) attempt to address aspects of the proposal that we have been making concerning a possible physical mechanism underlying the phenomenon of consciousness. Unfortunately, they employ arguments that are highly misleading and, in some important respects, factually incorrect. Their article ‘Gaps in Penrose’s Toilings’ is addressed specifically at the writings of one of us (Penrose), but since the particular model they attack is one put forward by both of us (Hameroff and Penrose, 1995; 1996), it is appropriate that we both reply; but since our individual remarks refer to different aspects of their criticism we are commenting on their article separately. The logical arguments discussed by Grush and Churchland, and the related physics are answered in Part l by Penrose, largely by pointing out precisely where these arguments have already been treated in detail in Shadows of the Mind (Penrose, 1994). In Part 2, Hameroff replies to various points on the biological side, showing for example how they have seriously misunderstood what they refer to as ‘physiological evidence’ regarding to effects of the drug colchicine. The reply serves also to discuss aspects of our model ‘orchestrated objective reduction in brain microtubules – Orch OR’ which attempts to deal with the serious problems of consciousness more directly and completely than any previous theory
Persinger, M. A. & Koren, S. A. (2007). A theory of neurophysics and quantum neuroscience: Implications for brain function and the limits of consciousness. International Journal of Neuroscience 117 (2):157-175.   (Google | More links)
Perry, R. Michael (2006). Consciousness as computation: A defense of strong AI based on quantum-state functionalism. In Charles Tandy (ed.), Death and Anti-Death, Volume 4: Twenty Years After De Beauvoir, Thirty Years After Heidegger. Palo Alto: Ria University Press.   (Google)
Pereira, Alfredo (2003). The quantum mind/classical brain problem. Neuroquantology.   (Cited by 2 | Google)
Pessa, Eliano & Vitiello, Giuseppe (2003). Quantum noise, entanglement and chaos in the quantum field theory of mind/brain states. Mind and Matter 1 (1):59-79.   (Cited by 9 | Google | More links)
Abstract: We review the dissipative quantum model of the brain and present recent developments related to the role of entanglement, quantum noise and chaos in the model
Plotnitsky, Arkady (2004). The unthinkable: Nonclassical theory, the unconscious mind and the quantum brain. In Gordon G. Globus, Karl H. Pribram & Giuseppe Vitiello (eds.), Brain and Being. John Benjamins.   (Google)
Pribram, Karl H. (2002). Brain and quantum holography: Recent ruminations. In Kunio Yasue, Marj Jibu & Tarcisio Della Senta (eds.), No Matter, Never Mind. John Benjamins.   (Google)
Schwartz, Jeffrey M.; Stapp, Henry P. & Beauregard, Mario (2004). The volitional influence of the mind on the brain, with special reference to emotional self-regulation. In Mario Beauregard (ed.), Consciousness, Emotional Self-Regulation and the Brain. John Benjamins.   (Cited by 4 | Google)
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Scott, A. C. (2003). On quantum theories of the mind. In Naoyuki Osaka (ed.), Neural Basis of Consciousness. John Benjamins.   (Cited by 6 | Google)
Shan, Gao (2004). A possible connection between self-consciousness and quantum. Axiomathes 14 (4):295-305.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: We study the possible connection between self-consciousness and quantum process. It is shown that the self-consciousness function can help to measure the collapse time of wave function under some condition, while the usual physical device without self-consciousness can't. Furthermore, we show that the observer with self-consciousness can distinguish the definite state and the superposition of definite states under some stronger condition. This provides a practical physical method to differentiate man and machine, and will also help to find the possible existence of self-consciousness in the animal kingdom. We finally give some further discussions about these new results
Shan, Gao (2004). Quantum collapse, consciousness and superluminal communication. Foundations Of Physics Letters 17 (2):167-182.   (Cited by 7 | Google | More links)
Abstract: The relation between quantum collapse, consciousness and superluminal communication is analyzed. As we know, quantum collapse, if exists, can result in the appearance of quantum nonlocality, and requires the existence of a pre- ferred Lorentz frame. This may permit the realization of quantum superluminal communication (QSC), which will no longer result in the usual causal loop in case of the existence of a preferred Lorentz frame. The possibility of the existence of QSC is further analyzed under the assumption that quantum collapse is a real process. We demonstrate that the combination of quantum collapse and the consciousness of the observer will permit the observer to distinguish nonorthogonal states in principle. This provides a possible way to realize QSC. Some implications of the existence of QSC are briefy discussed
Smith, Quentin (2003). Why cognitive scientists cannot ignore quantum mechanics. In Quentin Smith & Aleksandar Jokic (eds.), Consciousness: New Philosophical Perspectives. Oxford University Press.   (Cited by 3 | Google)
Stapp, Henry P. (1985). Consciousness and values in the quantum universe. Foundations of Physics 15:35-47.   (Cited by 4 | Google | More links)
Stapp, Henry P. (online). Chance, choice, and consciousness: A causal quantum theory of the mind/brain.   (Cited by 7 | Google | More links)
Abstract: Quantum mechanics unites epistemology and ontology: it brings human knowledge explicitly into physical theory, and ties this knowledge into brain dynamics in a causally efficacious way. This development in science provides the basis for a natural resolution of the dualist functionalist controversy, which arises within the classical approach to the mind brain system from the fact that the phenomenal aspects are not derivable from the principles of classical mechanics. A conceptually simple causal quantum mechanical theory of the mind/brain is described, and used to examine the necessity and function of consciousness in brain process
Stapp, Henry P. (2005). Commentary on Hodgson. Journal of Consciousness Studies 12 (1):69-75.   (Google)
Stapp, Henry P. (1999). On quantum theories of the mind. Journal of Consciousness Studies 6 (1):61-65.   (Cited by 1 | Google | More links)
Abstract: Replies are given to arguments advanced in this journal that claim to show that it is to nonlinear classical mechanics rather than quantum mechanics that one must look for the physical underpinnings of conscious ness..
Stapp, Henry P. (ms). Physics in neuroscience.   (Google)
Abstract: Classical physics is a theory of nature that originated with the work of Isaac Newton in the seventeenth century and was advanced by the contributions of James Clerk Maxwell and Albert Einstein. Newton based his theory on the work of Johannes Kepler, who found that the planets appeared to move in accordance with a simple mathematical law, and in ways wholly determined by their spatial relationships to other objects. Those motions were apparently independent of our human observations of them
Stapp, Henry P. (2005). Quantum approaches to consciousness. Cambridge Handbook of Consciousness.   (Cited by 4 | Google | More links)
Abstract: Quantum approaches to consciousness are sometimes said to be motivated simply by the idea that quantum theory is a mystery and consciousness is a mystery, so perhaps the two are related. That opinion betrays a profound misunderstanding of the nature of quantum mechanics, which consists fundamentally of a pragmatic scientific solution to the problem of the connection between mind and matter
Stapp, Henry P. (2006). Quantum interactive dualism, II: The Libet and Einstein-podolsky-Rosen causal anomalies. Erkenntnis 65 (1):117-142.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: b>: Replacing faulty nineteenth century physics by its orthodox quantum successor converts the earlier materialist conception of nature to a structure that does not enforce the principle of the causal closure of the physical. The quantum laws possess causal gaps, and these gaps are filled in actual scientific practice by inputs from our streams of consciousness. The form of the quantum laws permits and suggests the existence of an underlying reality that is built not on substances, but on psychophysical events, and on objective tendencies for these events to occur. These events constitute intrinsic mind-brain connections. They are fundamental links between brain processes described in physical terms and events in our streams of consciousness. This quantum ontology confers upon our conscious intentions the causal efficacy assigned to them in actual scientific practice, and creates a substance- free interactive dualism. This putative quantum ontology has previously been shown to have impressive explanatory power in both psychology and neuroscience. Here it is used to reconcile the existence of physically efficacious conscious free will with causal anomalies of both the Libet and Einstein-Rosen-Podolsky types
Stapp, Henry P. (2004). Quantum leaps in the philosophy of mind: Reply to Bourget's critique. Journal of Consciousness Studies 11 (12):43-49.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: David Bourget has raised some conceptual and technical objections to my development of von Neumann’s treatment of the Copenhagen idea that the purely physical process described by the Schrödinger equation must be supplemented by a psychophysical process called the choice of the experiment by Bohr and Process 1 by von Neumann. I answer here each of Bourget’s objections
Stapp, Henry P. (2005). Quantum physics in neuroscience and psychology: A neurophysical model of mind €“brain interaction. Philosophical Transactions-Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences 360 (1458):1309-1327.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: Neuropsychological research on the neural basis of behaviour generally posits that brain mechanisms will ultimately suffice to explain all psychologically described phenomena. This assumption stems from the idea that the brain is made up entirely of material particles and fields, and that all causal mechanisms relevant to neuroscience can therefore be formulated solely in terms of properties of these elements. Thus, terms having intrinsic mentalistic and/or experiential content (e.g. ‘feeling’, ‘knowing’ and ‘effort’) are not included as primary causal factors. This theoretical restriction is motivated primarily by ideas about the natural world that have been known to be fundamentally incorrect for more than three-quarters of a century. Contemporary basic physical theory differs profoundly from classic physics on the important matter of how the consciousness of human agents enters into the structure of empirical phenomena. The new principles contradict the older idea that local mechanical processes alone can account for the structure of all observed empirical data. Contemporary physical theory brings directly and irreducibly into the overall causal structure certain psychologically described choices made by human agents about how they will act. This key development in basic physical theory is applicable to neuroscience, and it provides neuroscientists and psychologists with an alternative conceptual framework for describing neural processes. Indeed, owing to certain structural features of ion channels critical to synaptic function, contemporary physical theory must in principle be used when analysing human brain dynamics. The new framework, unlike its classic-physics-based predecessor, is erected directly upon, and is compatible with, the prevailing principles of physics. It is able to represent more adequately than classic concepts the neuroplastic mechanisms relevant to the growing number of empirical studies of the capacity of directed attention and mental effort to systematically alter brain function..
Stapp, Henry P. (1997). Science of consciousness and the hard problem. Journal of Mind and Behavior 18 (2-3):171-93.   (Cited by 18 | Google | More links)
Abstract: Quantum theory can be regarded as a rationally coherent theory of the interaction of mind and matter and it allows our conscious thoughts to play a causally e cacious and necessary role in brain dynamics It therefore provides a natural basis created by scientists for the science of consciousness As an illustration it is explained how the interaction of brain and consciousness can speed up brain processing and thereby enhance the survival prospects of conscious organisms as compared to similar organisms that lack consciousness As a second illustration it is explained how within the quantum framework the consciously experi enced I directs the actions of a human being It is concluded that contemporary science already has an adequate framework for incorporat ing causally e cacious experiential events into the physical universe in a manner that puts the neural correlates of consciousness into the theory in a well de ned way explains in principle how the e ects of consciousness per se can enhance the survival prospects of organisms that possess it allows this survival e ect to feed into phylogenetic de velopment and explains how the consciously experienced I can direct human behaviour..
Stapp, Henry P. (1995). The hard problem: A quantum approach. Journal of Consciousness Studies 3 (3):194-210.   (Cited by 25 | Google | More links)
Stapp, Henry P. (1994). Theoretical model of a purported empirical violation of the predictions of quantum mechanics. Physical Review A 50:18-22.   (Google)
Stapp, Henry P. (online). The Quest for consciousness: A quantum neurobiological approach.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: _ Theoretical Physics Group_ _ Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory_ _ University of California_ _ Berkeley, California 94720_
Stenger, Victor (1992). The myth of quantum consciousness. The Humanist 53 (3).   (Cited by 1 | Google)
Vimal, Ram Lakhan Pandey (2009). Towards a Theory of Everything: Unification of Consciousness with Fundamental Forces in Theories of Physics. Vision Research Institute: Living Vision and Consciousness Research 1 (2).   (Google)
Abstract: Theory of everything must include consciousness. In this article, we focus on the subjective experiences component of consciousness. In Vimal (J Integrative Neuroscience, 2008: 7(1), 49-73), it was hypothesized that fundamental entities (strings or elementary particles: fermions and bosons) have two aspects: (i) material aspect such as mass, charge, spin, and space-time, and (ii) mental aspect, such as experiences. There are three competing hypotheses: superposition based H1, superposition-then-integration based H2, and integration based H3 where superposition is not required. In H1, the fundamental entities and inert matter are the carriers of superimposed fundamental subjective experiences (SEs)/proto-experiences (PEs). In H2, the fundamental entities and inert matter are the carriers of superimposed fundamental PEs (not SEs), which are integrated by neural-Darwinism (co-evolution, co-development, and sensorimotor co-tuning by the evolutionary process of adaptation and natural selection). There is a PE attached to every level of evolution (such as atomic-PE, molecular-PE, … genetic-PE, … bacterium-PE, … neural-PE, and neural-net-PE). In H3, a string has its own string-PE; a matter is not a carrier of PE(s) in superposed form as it is in H2, rather matter is a proto-experiential entity and has two aspects at every level; H3 is a dual-aspect panpsychism. These two aspects are rigorously integrated together by neural-Darwinism. One could argue for H3 that the PE keeps on transforming appropriately as matter evolves from elementary particles to atoms to molecules to eventually neural-networks. For example, when long wavelength light is presented to the V4/V8/VO neural-network, the neural-net PE takes the form of SE redness, in analogy to water takes the shape and color of the container. However, one has to unpack this mystery. In H1, a specific SE arises in a neural-net as follows: (i) there exist a virtual reservoir that stores all possible fundamental SEs/PEs, (ii) the interaction of stimulus-dependent feed-forward and feedback signals in the neural-net creates a specific neural-net state, (iii) this specific state is assigned to a specific SE from the virtual reservoir during neural Darwinism, (iv) this specific SE is embedded as a memory trace of neural-net-PE, and (v) when a specific stimulus is presented to the neural-net, the associated specific SE is selected by the matching and selection process and experienced by this net. In hypotheses H2 and H3, a specific SE emerges in a neural-net from the interaction of its constituent neural-PEs, such as in feed-forward stimulus-dependent neural signals and fronto-parietal feedback attentional signals, in analogy to water emerges from the interaction of hydrogen and oxygen. In all hypotheses, SEs occur when essential ingredients of SEs (such as wakefulness, attention, re-entry, working memory, stimulus at or above threshold level, and neural-net-PEs) are satisfied. We found that the followings in physics are invariant under the PE-SE transformation: Schrödinger equation, current, Dirac Lagrangian, electromagnetic strength tensor, electromagnetic stress-energy tensor, the Lagrangian for free gauge field, the Lagrangian for a charged self–interacting scalar field, electromagnetic theory (Maxwell's equations), Standard Model, Lagrangian for the electromagnetic interaction of a charged scalar field (Higgs Mechanism), Newtonian gravitational potential and field, special theory of Relativity and Lorentz transformation, geodesic equation, general theory of relativity and gravitational field, the metric gmn, Ricci curvature tensor Rmn, Ricci scalar curvature R, the cosmological constant L, the stress-energy tensor Tmn, the PE-SE transformation, Loop Quantum Gravity, and string theory. For H1 and H2, we quantitatively introduced the superposition of experiences (SEs/PEs) in the mental aspect of bosonic and fermionic strings using the Polyakov action. We conclude that experiences are independent of the time-like and space-like parameters (t,s). This is interpreted as a string is dual-aspect entity and all fundamental SEs/PEs superposed in the mental aspect of the string remains invariant with time and space. The introduction of mental aspect in this manner suggests that the mental aspect of string could be in all dimensions: both (3+1)D real dimensions and also in the hidden dimensions that are compactified (curled up). In addition, the Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions were also satisfied. These led us to conclude that the material aspect of the behavior of system in string theory remains invariant under the introduction of experiences in the mental aspect of strings as a function of experiences. For hypothesis H3, the equations of string theory remain the same; we simply need to acknowledge that a string has dual-aspect; its mental aspect is string-PE. We concluded that it is possible to unify consciousness with all four fundamental material forces by the introduction of (i) SEs/PEs (as in H1) or PEs (as in H2) in superposed form in bosonic and fermionic strings or (ii) the bosonic-string-PE and fermionic-string-PE based on integration principle (as in H3). This leads us towards the theory of everything.
Thompson, Ian J. (online). Quantum mechanics and consciousness: A causal correspondence theory.   (Google)
Abstract: Physics Department, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 5XH, U.K October, 1990. We may suspect that quantum mechanics and consciousness are related, but the details are not at all clear. In this paper, I suggest how the mind and brain might fit together intimately while still maintaining distinct identities. The connection is based on the correspondence of similar functions in both the mind and the quantum-mechanical brain. Accompanying material for a talk at The Second Mind and Brain Symposium held at the Institute of Psychiatry, Denmark Hill, London on 20th October, 1990
Triffet, T. & Green, H. S. (1996). Consciousness: Computing the uncomputable. Mathematical and Computational Modelling 24:37-56.   (Google)
Vaas, Ruediger (2001). Why quantum correlates of consciousness are fine, but not enough. Informacao E Cognicao 3 (3).   (Cited by 4 | Google)
Vitiello, Giuseppe (2002). Dissipative quantum brain dynamics. In Kunio Yasue, Marj Jibu & Tarcisio Della Senta (eds.), No Matter, Never Mind: Proceedings of Toward a Science of Consciousness: Fundamental Approaches (Tokyo '99). John Benjamins.   (Cited by 3 | Google)
Vitiello, Giuseppe (2001). My Double Unveiled: The Dissipative Quantum Model of Brain. John Benjamins.   (Cited by 56 | Google | More links)
Walker, Evan Harris (2000). The Physics of Consciousness. Perseus.   (Cited by 19 | Google | More links)
Werbos, P. (2002). What do neural nets and quantum theory tell us about mind and reality? In Kunio Yasue, Marj Jibu & Tarcisio Della Senta (eds.), No Matter, Never Mind: Proceedings of Toward a Science of Consciousness: Fundamental Approaches (Tokyo '99). John Benjamins.   (Cited by 5 | Google | More links)
Wolf, Fred Alan (1996). On the quantum mechanics of dreams and the emergence of self-awareness. In Stuart R. Hameroff, Alfred W. Kaszniak & A. C. Scott (eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness. MIT Press.   (Google)
Woolf, Nancy J. & Hameroff, Stuart R. (2001). A quantum approach to visual consciousness. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (11):472-478.   (Google)
Woolf, Nancy J. (1999). Dendritic encoding: An alternative to temporal synaptic coding of conscious experience. Consciousness and Cognition 8 (4):447-454.   (Cited by 5 | Google | More links)
Abstract: In this commentary, arguments are made for a dendritic code being preferable to a temporal synaptic code as a model of conscious experience. A temporal firing pattern is a product of an ongoing neural computation; hence, it is based on a neural algorithm and an algorithm may not provide the most suitable model for conscious experience. Reiteration of a temporal firing code as suggested in a preceding article (Helekar, 1999) does not necessarily improve the situation. The alternative model presented here is that certain synaptic activity patterns, possibly those possessing universal features as suggested by Helekar, can become encoded in the dendritic structure. Following dendritic encoding, quantum phenomena in those specific dendrite sets could illuminate the static image of that encoded synaptic activity. It is the activation of the static image that would be equivalent to conscious experience; thus, conscious awareness would not be directly affiliated with synaptic activity. This dendrite encoding model may go farther than other models to explain the gestalt nature of consciousness, insofar as quantum entanglement could produce an interconnectedness between specific sets of dendrites-an interconnectedness that need not be based on neural computation or neural connections
Yasue, Kunio; Jibu, Marj & Senta, Tarcisio Della (eds.) (2000). No Matter, Never Mind: Proceedings of Toward a Science of Consciousness: Fundamental Approaches, Tokyo 1999. John Benjamins.   (Google)
Zaman, L. Frederick Iii (2002). Nature's psychogenic forces: Localized quantum consciousness. Journal of Mind and Behavior 23 (4):351-374.   (Google)
Zaman, L. Frederick (2002). Nature's psychogenic forces: Localized quantum consciousness. Journal of Mind and Behavior 23 (4):351-374.   (Google)
Zohar, D. (1995). A quantum-mechanical model of consciousness and the emgerence of 'I'. Minds and Machines 5 (4):597-607.   (Google | More links)
Abstract:   There have been suggestions that the unity of consciousness may be related to the kind of holism depicted only in quantum physics. This argument will be clarified and strengthened. It requires the brain to contain a quantum system with the right properties — a Bose-Einstein condensate. It probably does contain one such system, as both theory and experiment have indicated. In fact, we cannot pay full attention to a quantum whole and its parts simultaneously, though we may oscillate between the two. In a quantum theory of consciousness, emergent meanings arise as an inevitable consequence of Heisenberg''s Uncertainty Principle
Zohar, D. (1996). Consciousness and Bose-Einstein condensates. In Stuart R. Hameroff, Alfred W. Kaszniak & A. C. Scott (eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness. MIT Press.   (Cited by 2 | Google)

8.3c Consciousness and Physics, Misc

Acosta, Carlos (2006). The frame(s) problem and the physical and emotional basis of human cognition. Technoetic Arts 4 (2):151-65.   (Google | More links)
Aerts, D.; Broekaert, J. & Gabora, Liane (2002). Intrinsic contextuality as the crux of consciousness. In Kunio Yasue, Marj Jibu & Tarcisio Della Senta (eds.), No Matter, Never Mind: Proceedings of Toward a Science of Consciousness: Fundamental Approaches (Tokyo '99). John Benjamins.   (Cited by 8 | Google | More links)
Abstract: A stream of conscious experience is extremely contextual; it is impacted by sensory stimuli, drives and emotions, and the web of associations that link, directly or indirectly, the subject of experience to other elements of the individual's worldview. The contextuality of one's conscious experience both enhances and constrains the contextuality of one's behavior. Since we cannot know first-hand the conscious experience of another, it is by way of behavioral contextuality that we make judgements about whether or not, and to what extent, a system is conscious. Thus we believe that a deep understanding of contextuality is vital to the study of consciousness. Methods have been developed for handling contextuality in the microworld of quantum particles. Our goal has been to investigate the extent to which these methods can be used to analyze contextuality in conscious experience
Atmanspacher, Harald (1994). Complexity and meaning as a bridge across the cartesian cut. Journal of Consciousness Studies 1 (2):168-181.   (Cited by 18 | Google)
Atmanspacher, Harald & Primas, Hans (2006). Pauli's ideas on mind and matter in the context of contemporary of science. Journal of Consciousness Studies 13 (3):5-50.   (Google)
Abstract: Wolfgang Pauli (1900-1958) was one of the greatest physicists of the past century. He played a leading role in the development of modern physics and was known for his ruthless intellectual integrity. Pauli first became famed through the publication of his encyclopaedia article on the theory of relativity (Pauli, 1921) when he was still a student of Sommerfeld's. Einstein much admired this article, which remained a classic
Baars, Bernard J. (1995). Can physics provide a theory of consciousness? Psyche 2 (8).   (Cited by 5 | Google | More links)
Baer, Wolfgang (2007). The physical condition for consciousness: A comment on R. Shaw and J. Kinsella-Shaw. Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (8):93-104.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: If the universe is a machine, consciousness is not possible. If the universe is more than a machine, then physics is incomplete. Since we are both part of the universe and conscious, physics must be incomplete and the understanding required to construct conscious mechanisms must be sought through the advancement of physics not the continued application of inadequate concepts. In this paper I will show that an impediment to this advancement is the confusion arising through the use of terms such as 'physical reality' to refer to an absolute a priori Kantian 'Ding an Sich' when they should both be recognized as referring to data structures holding the knowledge upon which we act and nothing more. Once this confusion has been clarified, I will go on to suggest that the cycle of activity updating physical reality becomes a candidate for a conscious process. I will show how implementing algorithms in modern computers can mimic this process but if actual consciousness is to be achieved the update activity must correspond to a cycle in time. Such cycles have been identified with Whitehead's 'actual occasions' and thus I will argue that fundamental events should replace fundamental particles as the building blocks of the universe if consciousness is to be explained
Bieberich, Erhard (ms). Structure in human consciousness: A fractal approach to the topology of the self perceiving an outer world in an inner space.   (Cited by 6 | Google | More links)
Abstract: In human consciousness a world of separated objects is perceived by an inner observer who is experienced as an undivided feeling of one-self. A topological correlation of the self to the world, however, entails a paradoxical situation by either merging all separated objects into one or splitting the self into as many subselves as there are objects perceived. This study introduces a model suggesting that the self is generated in a neural network by algorithmic compression of spatial and temporal information into a fractal structure. A correlation of an inner observer to parts of a fractal structure inevitably entails a correlation to the whole, thereby preserving the undividedness of the self. Molecular mechanisms for the generation of a fractal structure in a neural network and the possibility of experimental investigation will be discussed
Bilodeau, D. (1996). Physics, machines, and the hard problem. Journal of Consciousness Studies 3 (5-6):386-401.   (Cited by 6 | Google)
Bohm, David J. (1986). A new theory of the relationship of mind and matter. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 80 (2 & 3):113-35.   (Cited by 49 | Google | More links)
Abstract: The relationship of mind and matter is approached in a new way in this article. This approach is based on the causal interpretation of the quantum theory, in which an electron, for example, is regarded as an inseparable union of a particle and afield. This field has, however, some new properties that can be seen to be the main sources of the differences between the quantum theory and the classical (Newtonian) theory. These new properties suggest that the field may be regarded as containing objective and active information, and that the activity of this information is similar in certain key ways to the activity of information in our ordinary subjective experience. The analogy between mind and matter is thus fairly close. This analogy leads to the proposal of the general outlines of a new theory of mind, matter, and their relationship, in which the basic notion is participation rather than interaction. Although the theory can be developed mathematically in more detail, the main emphasis here is to show qualitatively how it provides a way of thinking that does not divide mind from matter, and thus leads to a more coherent understanding of such questions than is possible in the common dualistic and reductionistic approaches. These ideas may be relevant to connectionist theories and might perhaps suggest new directions for their development
Burns, Jean E. (1990). Contemporary models of consciousness, part I. Journal of Mind and Behavior 11:153-171.   (Google)
Burns, Jean E. (1991). Contemporary models of consciousness, part II. Journal of Mind and Behavior 12:407-420.   (Google)
Burns, Jean E. (1996). The Possibility of Empirical Test of Hypotheses About Consciousness. In S. R. Hameroff, A. W. Kaszniak & A. C. Scott (eds.), Towards a Science of Consciousness. MIT Press.   (Cited by 2 | Google)
Clarke, Christopher J. S. (2001). Consciousness and non-hierarchical physics. In P. Van Loocke (ed.), The Physical Nature of Consciousness. John Benjamins.   (Cited by 2 | Google)
Clarke, Christopher J. S. (1995). The nonlocality of mind. Journal of Consciousness Studies 2:231-40.   (Cited by 16 | Google)
Culbertson, James T. (1982). Consciousness: Natural and Artificial. Libra.   (Cited by 4 | Google)
de Silva, F. (1996). Consciousness and special relativity. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine 15:21-26.   (Google)
De Silva, Frank (ms). Foundation of all Axioms the Axioms of Consciousness.   (Google)
Abstract: A description of consciousness leads to a contradiction with the postulation from special relativity that there can be no connections between simultaneous event. This contradiction points to consciousness involving quantum level mechanisms. The Quantum level description of the universe is re- evaluated in the light of what is observed in consciousness namely 4 Dimensional objects. A new improved interpretation of Quantum level observations is introduced. From this vantage point the following axioms of consciousness is presented. Consciousness consists of two distinct components, the observed U and the observer I. The observed U consist of all the events I is aware of. A vast majority of these occur simultaneously. Now if I were to be an entity within the space-time continuum, all of these events of U together with I would have to occur at one point in space-time. However, U is distributed over a definite region of space-time (region in brain). Thus, I is aware of a multitude of space-like separated events. It is seen that this awareness necessitates I to be an entity outside the space-time continuum. With I taken as such, a new concept called concept A is introduced. With the help of concept A a very important axiom of consciousness, namely Free Will is explained. Libet s Experiment which was originally seen to contradict Free will, in the light of Concept A is shown to support it. A variation to Libet s Experiment is suggested that will give conclusive proof for Concept A and Free Will.
Dugic, M.; Cirkovic, Milan M. & Rakovic, D. (2002). On a possible physical metatheory of consciousness. Open Systems and Information Dynamics 9:153-166.   (Cited by 7 | Google | More links)
Dyer, Michael G. (1994). Quantum physics and consciousness, creativity, computers: A commentary on Goswami's quantum-based theory of consciousness and free will. Journal of Mind and Behavior 15 (3):265-90.   (Google)
Elitzur, Avshalom C. (1996). Time and consciousness: The uneasy bearing of relativity on the mind-body problem. In Stuart R. Hameroff, Alfred W. Kaszniak & A. C. Scott (eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness. MIT Press.   (Google)
Esfeld, Michael (1999). Quantum holism and the philosophy of mind. Journal of Consciousness Studies 6 (1):23-38.   (Cited by 7 | Google | More links)
Abstract: This paper attempts to build a bridge between the interpretation of quantum theory and the philosophy of mind. In contrast to other such attempts, the bridge which this paper suggests does not consist in extending features of quantum theory to the philosophy of mind. The argument of this paper is that the discussion about a revision of the Cartesian tradition in current philosophy of mind is relevant to the interpretation of quantum theory: taking this discussion into account sharpens up the task for the interpretation of quantum physics as far as the scope of what is known as quantum holism is concerned. In particular, considering this discussion makes out a strong case against the interpretation that considers quantum holism to be universal in the physical realm
Globus, Gordon G.; Pribram, Karl H. & Vitiello, Giuseppe (eds.) (2004). Brain and Being. John Benjamins.   (Cited by 3 | Google)
Gordon, David (1984). Special relativity and the location of mental events. Analysis 44 (June):126-127.   (Cited by 1 | Google)
Goswami, Amit (2001). Physics within non-dual consciousness. Philosophy East and West 51 (4):535-544.   (Google | More links)
Goswami, Amit (ms). The hard questions: View from a science of consciousness.   (Google)
Haraldsen, Robert E. (online). Mind, Matter and Extreme Relativistic Aberration -ERA. Mind and Matter - a scientific approach.   (Google)
Abstract: On consciousness and the flow of spacetime with emphasis on Relativity, Quantum Mechanics and extra dimensions from the perspective of extreme relativistic aberration - ERA From the deepest levels of eternal consciousness we are shaped into an illusive subjective world of inherited collective projections built on phenomenological interactions, obeying solely the realm of purely abstract mathematics.
Haraldsen, Robert E. (ms). Spacetime Flow and Gravitation.   (Google)
Abstract: Time's speed is a subjective illusion created by the accumulation of individual perception onto reflections within the mind . It is defined by the frequency of the interactions of thought process, where distance related to space is time's reciprocal. Consequently, "space" separated from "time" is a manifestation of structured consciousness, wherein experience exists as feedback of the mind projecting onto consciousness the illusion of separate entities. The direction and the speed of light is constant only when not influenced by different factors, such as gravity and material density. Light is also absorbed and emitted in atoms. This fact of differentiated speed and absorption/emission is of crucial importance to the following discussion relating to the mind's interpretational mechanisms.
Haraldsen, Robert E. (ms). The Flow of the Oscillating Universe.   (Google)
Abstract: A deeper understanding of the dynamics of consciousness, not only in the trivial sense of immaterial psychological relations, but as the prerequisite of the universe itself, may lead to an understanding of gravitation. The following argument acknowledges theories of higher dimensions, such as string-M-theory as important descriptive models along with the embedded theories of quantum mechanics and an expanded relativity theory. It is also presumed that the unexploited consequence of special relativity; extreme relativistic aberration , will turn out to be one of the most important keys to a better understanding of the overall unity.
Herbert, N. (1993). Elemental Mind: Human Consciousness and the New Physics. Dutton.   (Cited by 22 | Google)
Hodgson, David (1996). Nonlocality, local indeterminism, and consciousness. Ratio 9 (1):1-22.   (Cited by 3 | Google)
Hodgson, David (1991). The Mind Matters: Consciousness and Choice in a Quantum World. Oxford Unversity Press.   (Cited by 36 | Google)
Abstract: In this book, Hodgson presents a clear and compelling case against today's orthodox mechanistic view of the brain-mind, and in favor of the view that "the mind matters." In the course of the argument he ranges over such topics as consciousness, informal reasoning, computers, evolution, and quantum indeterminancy and non-locality. Although written from a philosophical viewpoint, the book has important implications for the sciences concerned with the brain-mind problem. At the same time, it is largely non-technical, and thus accessible to the non-specialist reader
Ho, M. W. (1997). Quantum coherence and conscious experience. Kybernetes 26:265-76.   (Cited by 9 | Google | More links)
Jibu, Marj (2002). The mind-body and the light-matter. In Kunio Yasue, Marj Jibu & Tarcisio Della Senta (eds.), No Matter, Never Mind. John Benjamins.   (Google)
Josephson, Brian (2002). The importance of experience: Where for the future? In Kunio Yasue, Marj Jibu & Tarcisio Della Senta (eds.), No Matter, Never Mind. John Benjamins.   (Google)
Kato, Goro & Struppa, D. (2002). Category theory and consciousness. In Kunio Yasue, Marj Jibu & Tarcisio Della Senta (eds.), No Matter, Never Mind. John Benjamins.   (Cited by 4 | Google)
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Lipkin, Michael (2005). The field concept in current models of consciousness: A tool for solving the hard problem? Mind and Matter 3 (2):29-85.   (Cited by 1 | Google | More links)
Lockwood, Michael (2003). Consciousness and the quantum world: Putting qualia on the map. In Quentin Smith & Aleksandar Jokic (eds.), Consciousness: New Philosophical Perspectives. Oxford University Press.   (Google)
Lockwood, Michael (1984). Reply to David Gordon's Special Relativity and the Location of Mental Events. Analysis 44 (June):127-128.   (Google)
Loewer, Barry M. (2003). Consciousness and quantum theory: Strange bedfellows. In Quentin Smith & Aleksandar Jokic (eds.), Consciousness: New Philosophical Perspectives. Oxford University Press.   (Google)
Abstract: When I look at the scale of the apparatus I know what it reads. Those absurdly delicate, hopelessly inaccessible, global correlations obviously vanish when they connect up with me. Whether this is because consciousness is beyond the range of phenomena that quantum mechanics is capable of dealing with, or because it has infinitely many degrees of freedom or special super selection rules of its own, I would not presume to guess. But this is a puzzle about consciousness that should not get mixed up with efforts to understand quantum mechanics as a theory of subsystem correlations in the nonconscious world. ( David Mermin 1998)
Loockvane, Philip (2001). The philosophy of consciousness, 'deep' teleology and objective selection. In Philip Van Loocke (ed.), The Physical Nature of Consciousness. Advances in Consciousness Research, Vol 29.   (Google)
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Abstract: Given that the world as we perceive it appears to be predominantly classical, how can we stabilize quantum effects? Given the fundamental description of our world is quantum mechanical, how do classical phenomena emerge? Answers can be found from the analysis of the scaling properties of modular quantum systems with respect to a given level of description. It is argued that, depending on design, such partitioned quantum systems may support various functions. Despite their local appearance these functions are emergent properties of the system as a whole. With respect to the separation of subject and object such functions of interest are control, simulation, and observation. They are interpreted in close analogy with more basic physical behavior
McFadden, J. (2002). Synchronous firing and its influence on the brain's electromagnetic field: Evidence for an electromagnetic field theory of consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies 9 (4):23-50.   (Google)
McFadden, J. (2002). The conscious electromagnetic information (cemi) field theory: The hard problem made easy? Journal of Consciousness Studies 9 (8):45-60.   (Cited by 7 | Google | More links)
McFadden, J. (2002). The conscious electromagnetic field: The hard problem made easy? Journal of Consciousness Studies.   (Google)
Mohrhoff, Ulrich (online). Beyond the cookie Cutter paradigm. Sri Aurobindo International Centre of Education.   (Cited by 11 | Google)
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Moravec, Hans (1995). Roger Penrose's gravitonic brains: A review of Shadows of the Mind by Roger Penrose. Psyche 2 (1).   (Cited by 1 | Google)
Abstract: Summarizing a surrounding 200 pages, pages 179 to 190 of Shadows of the Mind contain a future dialog between a human identified as "Albert Imperator" and an advanced robot, the "Mathematically Justified Cybersystem", allegedly Albert's creation. The two have been discussing a Gödel sentence for an algorithm by which a robot society named SMIRC certifies mathematical proofs. The sentence, referred to in mathematical notation as Omega(Q*), is to be precisely constructed from on a definition of SMIRC's algorithm. It can be interpreted as stating "SMIRC's algorithm cannot certify this statement." The robot has asserted that SMIRC never makes mistakes. If so, SMIRC's algorithm cannot certify the Goedel sentence, for that would make the statement false. But, if they can't certify it, what is says is true! Humans can understand it is true, but mighty SMIRC cannot certify it. The dialog ends melodramatically as the robot, apparently unhinged by this revelation, claims to be a messenger of god, and the human shuts it down with a secret control
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Penrose, Roger (1997). The Large, the Small, and the Human Mind. Cambridge University Press.   (Cited by 129 | Google | More links)
Abstract: This book is a fascinating and accessible summary of Roger Penrose's current thinking on those areas of physics in which he feels there are major...
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Abstract: This contribution explores Wolfgang Pauli's idea that mind and matter are complementary aspects of the same reality. We adopt the working hypothesis that there is an undivided timeless primordial reality (the primordial 'one world'). Breaking its symmetry, we obtain a contextual description of the holistic reality in terms of two categorically different domains, one tensed and the other tenseless. The tensed domain includes, in addition to tensed time, nonmaterial processes and mental events. The tenseless domain refers to matter and physical energy. This concept implies that mind cannot be reduced to matter, and that matter cannot be reduced to mind. The non-Boolean logical framework of modern quantum theory is general enough to implement this idea. Time is not taken to be an a priori concept, but an archetypal acausal order is assumed which can be represented by a one-parameter group of automorphisms, generating a time operator which parametrizes all processes, whether material or nonmaterial. The time-reversal symmetry is broken in the nonmaterial domain, resulting in a universal direction of time for the material domain as well
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Abstract: Sir Roger Penrose, retired professor of mathematics at the University of Oxford and collaborator with Stephen Hawking on black hole theory, has written 'a complete guide to the laws of the universe' called The Road to Reality. His publisher calls it the most important and ambitious work of science for a generation. Penrose caused a furore in the world of consciousness studies with his 1989 book The Emperor's New Mind, which conjectured a new mechanism for consciousness and kept a faithful band of researchers busy for a decade with models based on microtubules and the like. Sadly, the idea fizzled out. The title of the 2002 Tucson 'Toward a Science of Consciousness' conference poetry slam winner was: Microtubules - my ass!
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Schäfer, Lothar (2006). Quantum reality, the emergence of complex order from virtual states, and the importance of consciousness in the universe. Zygon 41 (3):505-532.   (Google)
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Abstract: The book explores philosophical issues such as idealism and free will and speculates on the relationship of consciousness to quantum mechanics.
Vimal, Ram Lakhan Pandey (2009). Towards a Theory of Everything: Unification of Consciousness with Fundamental Forces in Theories of Physics. Vision Research Institute: Living Vision and Consciousness Research 1 (2).   (Google)
Abstract: Theory of everything must include consciousness. In this article, we focus on the subjective experiences component of consciousness. In Vimal (J Integrative Neuroscience, 2008: 7(1), 49-73), it was hypothesized that fundamental entities (strings or elementary particles: fermions and bosons) have two aspects: (i) material aspect such as mass, charge, spin, and space-time, and (ii) mental aspect, such as experiences. There are three competing hypotheses: superposition based H1, superposition-then-integration based H2, and integration based H3 where superposition is not required. In H1, the fundamental entities and inert matter are the carriers of superimposed fundamental subjective experiences (SEs)/proto-experiences (PEs). In H2, the fundamental entities and inert matter are the carriers of superimposed fundamental PEs (not SEs), which are integrated by neural-Darwinism (co-evolution, co-development, and sensorimotor co-tuning by the evolutionary process of adaptation and natural selection). There is a PE attached to every level of evolution (such as atomic-PE, molecular-PE, … genetic-PE, … bacterium-PE, … neural-PE, and neural-net-PE). In H3, a string has its own string-PE; a matter is not a carrier of PE(s) in superposed form as it is in H2, rather matter is a proto-experiential entity and has two aspects at every level; H3 is a dual-aspect panpsychism. These two aspects are rigorously integrated together by neural-Darwinism. One could argue for H3 that the PE keeps on transforming appropriately as matter evolves from elementary particles to atoms to molecules to eventually neural-networks. For example, when long wavelength light is presented to the V4/V8/VO neural-network, the neural-net PE takes the form of SE redness, in analogy to water takes the shape and color of the container. However, one has to unpack this mystery. In H1, a specific SE arises in a neural-net as follows: (i) there exist a virtual reservoir that stores all possible fundamental SEs/PEs, (ii) the interaction of stimulus-dependent feed-forward and feedback signals in the neural-net creates a specific neural-net state, (iii) this specific state is assigned to a specific SE from the virtual reservoir during neural Darwinism, (iv) this specific SE is embedded as a memory trace of neural-net-PE, and (v) when a specific stimulus is presented to the neural-net, the associated specific SE is selected by the matching and selection process and experienced by this net. In hypotheses H2 and H3, a specific SE emerges in a neural-net from the interaction of its constituent neural-PEs, such as in feed-forward stimulus-dependent neural signals and fronto-parietal feedback attentional signals, in analogy to water emerges from the interaction of hydrogen and oxygen. In all hypotheses, SEs occur when essential ingredients of SEs (such as wakefulness, attention, re-entry, working memory, stimulus at or above threshold level, and neural-net-PEs) are satisfied. We found that the followings in physics are invariant under the PE-SE transformation: Schrödinger equation, current, Dirac Lagrangian, electromagnetic strength tensor, electromagnetic stress-energy tensor, the Lagrangian for free gauge field, the Lagrangian for a charged self–interacting scalar field, electromagnetic theory (Maxwell's equations), Standard Model, Lagrangian for the electromagnetic interaction of a charged scalar field (Higgs Mechanism), Newtonian gravitational potential and field, special theory of Relativity and Lorentz transformation, geodesic equation, general theory of relativity and gravitational field, the metric gmn, Ricci curvature tensor Rmn, Ricci scalar curvature R, the cosmological constant L, the stress-energy tensor Tmn, the PE-SE transformation, Loop Quantum Gravity, and string theory. For H1 and H2, we quantitatively introduced the superposition of experiences (SEs/PEs) in the mental aspect of bosonic and fermionic strings using the Polyakov action. We conclude that experiences are independent of the time-like and space-like parameters (t,s). This is interpreted as a string is dual-aspect entity and all fundamental SEs/PEs superposed in the mental aspect of the string remains invariant with time and space. The introduction of mental aspect in this manner suggests that the mental aspect of string could be in all dimensions: both (3+1)D real dimensions and also in the hidden dimensions that are compactified (curled up). In addition, the Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions were also satisfied. These led us to conclude that the material aspect of the behavior of system in string theory remains invariant under the introduction of experiences in the mental aspect of strings as a function of experiences. For hypothesis H3, the equations of string theory remain the same; we simply need to acknowledge that a string has dual-aspect; its mental aspect is string-PE. We concluded that it is possible to unify consciousness with all four fundamental material forces by the introduction of (i) SEs/PEs (as in H1) or PEs (as in H2) in superposed form in bosonic and fermionic strings or (ii) the bosonic-string-PE and fermionic-string-PE based on integration principle (as in H3). This leads us towards the theory of everything.
van Loocke, Philip (ed.) (2001). The Physical Nature of Consciousness. John Benjamins.   (Google)
Abstract: Consciousness ... The Physical Nature of Consciousness Edited by Philip Van Loocke.
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