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8.7b. Binocular Rivalry (Binocular Rivalry on PhilPapers)

See also:
Barrett, William (1986). Death of the Soul: From Descartes to the Computer. Anchor Press.   (Google)
Blake, R. R. (2001). A Primer on binocular rivalry, including current controversies. Brain and Mind 2 (1):5-38.   (Cited by 37 | Google | More links)
Abstract: Among psychologists and vision scientists,binocular rivalry has enjoyed sustainedinterest for decades dating back to the 19thcentury. In recent years, however, rivalry''saudience has expanded to includeneuroscientists who envision rivalry as a tool for exploring the neural concomitants ofconscious visual awareness and perceptualorganization. For rivalry''s potential to berealized, workers using this tool need toknow details of this fascinating phenomenon,and providing those details is the purpose ofthis article. After placing rivalry in ahistorical context, I summarize major findingsconcerning the spatial characteristics and thetemporal dynamics of rivalry, discuss two majortheoretical accounts of rivalry ( eye vs stimulus rivalry) and speculate on possibleneural concomitants of binocular rivalry
Boore, W. H. (1973). First Light. London,Search Press.   (Google)
Breese, B. B. (1909). Can binocular rivalry be suppressed by practise? Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 6 (25):686-687.   (Google | More links)
Chander, Jagdish & B., K. (1983). Eternal Drama of Souls, Matter, and God. Prajapati Brama Kumaris Ishwariya Vishwa-Vidyalaya.   (Google)
Abstract: pt. 1. [without special title] -- pt. 2. The eternal world drama.
Cosmelli, Diego J. & Thompson, Evan (online). Mountains and valleys: Binocular rivalry and the flow of experience.   (Google)
Abstract: Binocular rivalry provides a useful situation for studying the relation between the temporal flow of conscious experience and the temporal dynamics of neural activity. After proposing a phenomenological framework for understanding temporal aspects of consciousness, we review experimental research on multistable perception and binocular rivalry, singling out various methodological, theoretical, and empirical aspects of this research relevant to studying the flow of experience. We then review an experimental study from our group explicitly concerned with relating the temporal dynamics of rivalrous experience to the temporal dynamics of cortical activity. Drawing attention to the importance of dealing with ongoing activity and its inherent changing nature at both phenomenological and neurodynamical levels, we argue that the notions of recurrence and variability are pertinent to understanding rivalry in particular and the flow of experience in general
Crabbe, M. James C. (ed.) (1999). From Soul to Self. Routledge.   (Google)
Abstract: From Soul to Self takes us on a fascinating journey through philosophy, theology, religious studies and physiological sciences. The contributors explore the relationship between a variety of ideas that have arisen in philosophy, religion and science, each idea seeking to explain why we think we are somehow unique and distinct
Darling, David J. (1995). After Life: In Search of Cosmic Consciousness. Fourth Estate.   (Google)
Doesburg, Sam M.; Kitajo, Keiichi & Ward, Lawrence M. (2005). Increased gamma-band synchrony precedes switching of conscious perceptual objects in binocular rivalry. Neuroreport 16 (11):1139-1142.   (Cited by 5 | Google | More links)
Elbert, Jerome W. (2000). Are Souls Real? Prometheus Books.   (Google)
Engel, Andreas K.; Fries, P.; Konig, P. Kreiter; Brecht, M. & Singer, Wolf (1999). Temporal binding, binocular rivalry, and consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 8 (2):128-51.   (Cited by 130 | Google | More links)
Abstract: Cognitive functions like perception, memory, language, or consciousness are based on highly parallel and distributed information processing by the brain. One of the major unresolved questions is how information can be integrated and how coherent representational states can be established in the distributed neuronal systems subserving these functions. It has been suggested that this so-called ''binding problem'' may be solved in the temporal domain. The hypothesis is that synchronization of neuronal discharges can serve for the integration of distributed neurons into cell assemblies and that this process may underlie the selection of perceptually and behaviorally relevant information. As we intend to show here, this temporal binding hypothesis has implications for the search of the neural correlate of consciousness. We review experimental results, mainly obtained in the visual system, which support the notion of temporal binding. In particular, we discuss recent experiments on the neural mechanisms of binocular rivalry which suggest that appropriate synchronization among cortical neurons may be one of the necessary conditions for the buildup of perceptual states and awareness of sensory stimuli
Flew, Antony (2000). Merely Mortal?: Can You Survive Your Own Death? Prometheus Books.   (Google)
Flew, Antony (1987). The Logic of Mortality. Blackwell.   (Google)
Haynes, J. D.; Deichmann, R. & Rees, G. (2005). Eye-specific effects of binocular rivalry in the human lateral geniculate nucleus. Nature 438 (7069):496-9.   (Cited by 22 | Google | More links)
Haynes, John-Dylan & Rees, Geraint (2005). Predicting the stream of consciousness from activity in human visual cortex. Current Biology 15 (14):1301-7.   (Cited by 20 | Google | More links)
Hocking, William Ernest (1937). The Meaning of Immortality in Human Experience. Westport, Conn.,Greenwood Press.   (Google)
Jafri, Maqsood (1974). Philosophy of Soul. S.N.].   (Google)
Kanai, Ryota; Moradi, Farshad; Shimojo, Shinsuke & Verstraten, Frans A. J. (2005). Perceptual alternation induced by visual transients. Perception 34 (7):803-822.   (Cited by 8 | Google | More links)
Abstract: When our visual system is confronted with ambiguous stimuli, the perceptual interpretation spontaneously alternates between the competing incompatible interpretations. The timing of such perceptual alternations is highly stochastic and the underlying neural mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that perceptual alternations can be triggered by a transient stimulus presented nearby. The induction was tested for four types of bistable stimuli: structure-from-motion, binocular rivalry, Necker cube, and ambiguous apparent motion. While underlying mechanisms may vary among them, a transient flash induced time-locked perceptual alternations in all cases. The effect showed a dependency on the adaptation to the dominant percept prior to the presentation of a flash. These perceptual alternations show many similarities to perceptual disappearances induced by transient stimuli (Kanai & Kamitani, 2003, Moradi & Shimojo, 2004). Mechanisms linking these two transient induced phenomena are discussed
Katz, Bruce (2008). Fixing functionalism. Journal of Consciousness Studies 15 (3):87-118.   (Google)
Abstract: Functionalism, which views consciousness as the product of the processing of stimuli by the brain, is perhaps the dominant view among researchers in the cognitive sciences and associated fields. However, as a workable scientific model of consciousness, it has been marred by a singular lack of tangible success, except at the broadest levels of explanation. This paper argues that this is not an accident, and that in its standard construal it is simply too unwieldy to assume the burden of full-fledged theory. In its place, a reduced functionalism is introduced by applying the principle of parsimony successively to the elements of standard functionalism until only a minimal framework remains. This simpler account states that consciousness is a function of instantaneous causal relations between processing elements rather the putative algorithm such relations are instantiating. It is then argued as a corollary that the only such relations that matter are those in which reciprocal influences are at play. Thus, purely afferent and efferent causal relations are pruned from consideration. The theory resulting from the addition of this corollary is shown to have good correspondence with a number of recent neurophysiologically-motivated approaches to consciousness, including those that stress the importance of reentry, those that view synchrony as a key independent variable, and those that highlight the importance of the accessibility of conscious contents to multiple processing modules. In addition, the theory is shown to be consistent with recent results in the literature on masking, and those in the literature on binocular rivalry. The paper concludes by arguing that the theoretical and empirical difficulties inherent in consciousness research imply that the principle of parsimony must occupy a more central role in consciousness research than it would in ordinary scientific discourse
Kenny, Anthony (1973). The Anatomy of the Soul. [Oxford]Basil Blackwell.   (Google)
Abstract: Mental health in Plato's Republic.--The practical syllogism and incontinence.--Aristotle on happiness.--Intellect and imagination in Aquinas.--Descartes on the will.--Cartesian privacy.--Appendix: The history of intention in ethics.--Bibliography (p. [147])
K. Moutoussis, ; G. A. Keliris, ; Z. Kourtzi, & N. K. Logothetis, (2005). A binocular rivalry study of motion perception in the human brain. Vision Research 45 (17):2231-43.   (Cited by 8 | Google | More links)
Abstract: The relationship between brain activity and conscious visual experience is central to our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying perception. Binocular rivalry, where monocular stimuli compete for perceptual dominance, has been previously used to dissociate the constant stimulus from the varying percept. We report here fMRI results from humans experiencing binocular rivalry under a dichoptic stimulation paradigm that consisted of two drifting random dot patterns with different motion coherence. Each pattern had also a different color, which both enhanced rivalry and was used for reporting which of the two patterns was visible at each time. As the perception of the subjects alternated between coherent motion and motion noise, we examined the effect that these alternations had on the strength of the MR signal throughout the brain. Our results demonstrate that motion perception is able to modulate the activity of several of the visual areas which are known to be involved in motion processing. More specifically, in addition to area V5 which showed the strongest modulation, a higher activity during the perception of motion than during the perception of noise was also clearly observed in areas V3A and LOC, and less so in area V3. In previous studies, these areas had been selectively activated by motion stimuli but whether their activity reflects motion perception or not remained unclear; here we show that they are involved in motion perception as well. The present findings therefore suggest a lack of a clear distinction between ?processing? versus ?perceptual? areas in the brain, but rather that the areas involved in the processing of a specific visual attribute are also part of the neuronal network that is collectively responsible for its perceptual representation
Kobayashi, T. & Kato, K. (2002). Reactivity of human cortical oscillations reflecting conscious perception in binocular rivalry. In Kunio Yasue, Marj Jibu & Tarcisio Della Senta (eds.), No Matter, Never Mind. John Benjamins.   (Google)
Kornhaber, Arthur (1988). Spirit: Mind, Body, and the Will to Existence. Warner Books.   (Google)
Kovacs, Ilona; Papathomas, Thomas; Yang, Ming & Feher, Akos (1997). When the brain changes its mind: Interocular grouping during binocular rivalry. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 38 (4):2249-2249.   (Cited by 95 | Google | More links)
Kurthen, M. Moskopp (1999). Conscious behavior explained. Consciousness and Cognition 8 (2):155-158.   (Cited by 3 | Google | More links)
Abstract: Current neurobiological research on temporal binding in binocular rivalry settings contributes to a better understanding of the neural correlate of perceptual consciousness. This research can easily be integrated into a theory of conscious behavior, but if it is meant to promote a naturalistic theory of perceptual consciousness itself, it is confronted with the notorious explanatory gap argument according to which any statement of psychophysical correlations (and their interpretation) leaves the phenomenal character of, e.g., states of perceptual consciousness open. It is argued that research on temporal binding plays no role in a naturalistic theory of consciousness if the gap argument can be solved on internal philosophical grounds or if it turns out to be unsolvable at the time being. But there may be a way to dissolve or deconstruct it, and the accessibility of this way may well depend on scientific progress, including neurobiological research on the neural correlate of perceptual consciousness
Landwehr, Joe (2007). Tracking the Soul: With an Astrology of Consciousness. Ancient Tower Press.   (Google)
Leopold, David A. & Logothetis, Nikos K. (1996). Activity changes in early visual cortex reflect monkeys' percepts during binocular rivalry. Nature 379 (6565):549-553.   (Cited by 396 | Google | More links)
Leopold, David A. & Logothetis, Nikos K. (1999). Multistable phenomena: Changing views in perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 3 (7):254-264.   (Cited by 196 | Google | More links)
Abstract: Traditional explanations of multistable visual phenomena (e.g. ambiguous figures, perceptual rivalry) suggest that the basis for spontaneous reversals in perception lies in antagonistic connectivity within the visual system. In this review, we suggest an alternative, albeit speculative, explanation for visual multistability – that spontaneous alternations reflect responses to active, programmed events initiated by brain areas that integrate sensory and non-sensory information to coordinate a diversity of behaviors. Much evidence suggests that perceptual reversals are themselves more closely related to the expression of a behavior than to passive sensory responses: (1) they are initiated spontaneously, often voluntarily, and are influenced by subjective variables such as attention and mood; (2) the alternation process is greatly facilitated with practice and compromised by lesions in non-visual cortical areas; (3) the alternation process has temporal dynamics similar to those of spontaneously initiated behaviors; (4) functional imaging reveals that brain areas associated with a variety of cognitive behaviors are specifically activated when vision becomes unstable. In this scheme, reorganizations of activity throughout the visual cortex, concurrent with perceptual reversals, are initiated by higher, largely non-sensory brain centers. Such direct intervention in the processing of the sensory input by brain structures associated with planning and motor programming might serve an important role in perceptual organization, particularly in aspects related to selective attention
Leopold, David A.; Maier, Alexander & Logothetis, Nikos K. (2003). Measuring subjective visual perception in the nonhuman primate. Journal of Consciousness Studies 10 (9-10):115-130.   (Cited by 5 | Google | More links)
Leslie, John (2007). Immortality Defended. Blackwell Pub..   (Google)
Abstract: Might we be parts of a divine mind? Could anything like an afterlife make sense? Starting with a Platonic answer to why the world exists, Immortality Defended suggests we could well be immortal in all of three separate ways. Tackles the fundamental questions posed by our very existence, among them ‘why does the cosmos exist?’, ‘is there a divine mind or God?’ and ‘in what sense might we have afterlives?’ Defends a belief in immortality, without the need for a religious affiliation or rejection of modern science Explores the ideas of ‘Einsteinian immortality’, the divine afterlife, and the theory of an infinite and divine mind Draws from the work of a wide-range of philosophers, from ancient Greece to the present day, and incorporates up-to-date scientific findings Written in a thought-provoking and engaging manner, accessible to anyone intrigued by the wonder of our being
Lewis, Hywel David (1978). Persons and Life After Death: Essays. Barnes & Noble.   (Google)
Abstract: Realism and metaphysics.--Ultimates and a way of looking.--Religion and the paranormal.--Quinton, A., Lewis, H. D., Williams, B. Life after death.--Lewis, H. D., Flew, A. Survival.--Shoemaker, S., Lewis, H. D. Immortality and dualism.--The belief in life after death.--The person of Christ.
Logothetis, Nikos K. (1999). Binocular rivalry: A window onto consciousness. Scientific American.   (Google)
Logothetis, Nikos K. & Schall, Jeffrey D. (1989). Neuronal correlates of subjective visual perception. Science 245:761-63.   (Cited by 222 | Google | More links)
Logothetis, Nikos K. & Leopold, David A. (1998). Single-neuron activity and visual perception. In Stuart R. Hameroff, Alfred W. Kaszniak & A. C. Scott (eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness II. MIT Press.   (Cited by 2 | Google)
Logothetis, Nikos K.; Leopold, David A. & Sheinberg, D. L. (1996). What is rivalling during binocular rivalry? Nature 30 (6575):621-624.   (Cited by 211 | Google | More links)
Lumer, E. D. (2000). Binocular rivalry and human visual awareness. In Thomas Metzinger (ed.), Neural Correlates of Consciousness. MIT Press.   (Cited by 44 | Google)
Lumer, E. D.; Friston, K. J. & Rees, Geraint (1998). Neural correlates of perceptual rivalry in the human brain. Science 280 (5371):1930-1934.   (Cited by 271 | Google | More links)
Macknik, Stephen L. & Martinez-Conde, Susana (2004). Dichoptic visual masking reveals that early binocular neurons exhibit weak interocular suppression: Implications for binocular vision and visual awareness. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 16 (6):1049-1059.   (Google)
McGraw, John J. (2004). Brain & Belief: An Exploration of the Human Soul. Aegis Press.   (Google)
McTaggart, John McTaggart Ellis (1916). Human Immortality and Pre-Existence. Kraus Reprint.   (Google)
Miller, S. M. (2001). Binocular rivalry and the cerebral hemispheres, with a note on the correlates and constitution of visual consciousness. Brain and Mind 2 (1):119-49.   (Cited by 8 | Google | More links)
Abstract: In addressing thescientific study of consciousness, Crick and Koch state, It is probable that at any moment some active neuronal processes in your head correlate with consciousness, while others do not: what is the difference between them? (1998, p. 97). Evidence from electrophysiological and brain-imaging studies of binocular rivalry supports the premise of this statement and answers to some extent, the question posed. I discuss these recent developments and outline the rationale and experimental evidence for the interhemispheric switch hypothesis of perceptual rivalry. According to this model, the perceptual alternations of rivalry reflect hemispheric alternations, suggesting that visual consciousness of rivalling stimuli may be unihemispheric at any one time (Miller et al., 2000). However, in this paper, I suggest that interhemispheric switching could involve alternating unihemispheric attentional selection of neuronal processes for access to visual consciousness. On this view, visual consciousness during rivalry could be bi hemispheric because the processes constitutive of attentional selection may be distinct from those constitutive of visual consciousness. This is a special case of the important distinction between the neuronal correlates and constitution of visual consciousness
Murphy, Nancey C. (2006). Bodies and Souls, or Spirited Bodies? Cambridge University Press.   (Google)
Abstract: Are humans composed of a body and a nonmaterial mind or soul, or are we purely physical beings? Opinion is sharply divided over this issue. In this clear and concise book, Nancey Murphy argues for a physicalist account, but one that does not diminish traditional views of humans as rational, moral, and capable of relating to God. This position is motivated not only by developments in science and philosophy, but also by biblical studies and Christian theology. The reader is invited to appreciate the ways in which organisms are more than the sum of their parts. That higher human capacities such as morality, free will, and religious awareness emerge from our neurobiological complexity and develop through our relation to others, to our cultural inheritance, and, most importantly, to God. Murphy addresses the questions of human uniqueness, religious experience, and personal identity before and after bodily resurrection
Newman, J. B. & Grace, A. A. (1999). Binding across time: The selective gating of frontal and hippocampal systems modulating working memory and attentional states. Consciousness and Cognition 8 (2):196-212.   (Cited by 41 | Google | More links)
Abstract: Temporal binding via 40-Hz synchronization of neuronal discharges in sensory cortices has been hypothesized to be a necessary condition for the rapid selection of perceptually relevant information for further processing in working memory. Binocular rivalry experiments have shown that late stage visual processing associated with the recognition of a stimulus object is highly correlated with discharge rates in inferotemporal cortex. The hippocampus is the primary recipient of inferotemporal outputs and is known to be the substrate for the consolidation of working memories to long-term, episodic memories. The prefrontal cortex, on the other hand, is widely thought to mediate working memory processes, per se. This article reviews accumulated evidence for the role of a subcortical matrix in linking frontal and hippocampal systems to select and ''stream'' conscious episodes across time (hundreds of milliseconds to several seconds). ''Streaming'' is hypothesized to be mediated by the selective gating of reentrant flows of information between these cortical systems and the subcortical matrix. The physiological mechanism proposed for this temporally extended form of binding is synchronous oscillations in the slower EEG spectrum (< 8 Hz)
O'Shea, Robert P. & Corballis, Paul M. (2001). Binocular rivalry between complex stimuli in split-brain observers. Brain and Mind 2 (1).   (Google)
Abstract: We investigated binocular rivalry in the twocerebral hemispheres of callosotomized(split-brain) observers. We found that rivalryoccurs for complex stimuli in split-brainobservers, and that it is similar in the twohemispheres. This poses difficulties for twotheories of rivalry: (1) that rivalry occursbecause of switching of activity between thetwo hemispheres, and (2) that rivalry iscontrolled by a structure in the rightfrontoparietal cortex. Instead, similar rivalryfrom the two hemispheres is consistent with atheory that its mechanism is low in the visualsystem, at which each hemisphere conducts asimilar analysis of its half of visual space
Osmond, Rosalie (2003). Imagining the Soul: A History. Sutton Pub. Ltd..   (Google)
Abstract: Is there a ghost in the machine? Are we born trailing clouds of glory? Is there a part of us that will survive death? Is the soul reborn in different bodily forms? These and similar questions have occupied humankind since the dawn of consciousness. Rosalie Osmond's book explores the way the soul has been represented in different cultures and at different times, from ancient Egypt and Greece, through medieval Europe and into the 21st century. Basing her approach on historical sources, she reveals the many different ways in which the soul has been imagined and the range of human needs and aspirations these imaginings have addressed
Pearson, Joel & Clifford, Colin W. G. (2004). Determinants of visual awareness following interruptions during rivalry. Journal of Vision 4 (3):196-202.   (Cited by 9 | Google | More links)
Seidel, George J. (2000). Toward a Hermeneutics of Spirit. Bucknell University Press.   (Google)
Sengpiel, Frank; Bonhoeffer, Tobias; Freeman, Tobe C. B. & Blakemore, Colin (2001). On the relationship between interocular suppression in the primary visual cortex and binocular rivalry. Brain and Mind 2 (1).   (Google)
Abstract: Both classical psychophysical work and recentfunctional imaging studies have suggested acritical role for the primary visual cortex(V1) in resolving the perceptual ambiguitiesexperienced during binocular rivalry. Here weexamine, by means of single-cell recordings andoptical imaging of intrinsic signals, thespatial characteristics of suppression elicitedby rival stimuli in cat V1. We find that the interocular suppression field of V1 neuronsis centred on the same position in space and isslightly larger (by a factor of 1.3) than theminimum response field, measured through thesame eye. Suppression is always strongest at asingle position corresponding very closely tothe centre of the classical receptive field,and reduces responses through the other eye byup to 90% but typically around 40%. Thespatial pattern of interocular suppression, asrevealed by optical imaging, closely matchesthe cortical representation of the stimulus,which is being suppressed, both in terms of itsorientation and the eye of origin. Theseresults indicate that interocular suppressionis directly related to the functionalarchitecture of V1; it is probably caused bydirect inhibitory interactions betweenneighbouring cortical columns of oppositeocular dominance
Sewards, Terence V. & Sewards, Mark A. (2001). On the correlation between synchronized oscillatory activities and consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 10 (4):485-495.   (Cited by 9 | Google | More links)
Abstract: Recent experiments have shown that the amplitudes of cortical gamma band oscillatory activities that occur during anesthesia are often greater than amplitudes of similar activities that occur without anesthesia. This result is apparently at odds with the hypothesis that synchronized oscillatory activities constitute the neural correlate of consciousness. We argue that while synchronization and oscillatory patterning are necessary conditions for consciousness, they are not sufficient. Based on the results of a binocular rivalry study of Fries et al. (1997), we propose that the degrees of oscillatory strength and synchronization of neuronal activities determine the degree of awareness those activities produce. On the other hand, the overal firing rates of neurons in cortical sensory areas are not correlated with the degree of awareness the activities of those neurons produce. The results of the experiment of Fries et al. (1997) appear to conflict with the results of another binocular rivalry experiment, in which monkeys were trained to pull a lever in order to report which stimulus object was being perceived (Leopold & Logothetis, 1996). In the latter experiment, it was demonstrated that the firing rates of neurons in striate cortex did not change during perceptual alterations, while 90% of neurons in inferior and superior temporal cortices changed their firing rate when the perceived image changed. This result led to the conclusion that activities in temporal cortex are correlated with visual awareness, but those in striate cortex are not. We argue that activities in temporal cortex contribute little, if anything, to perceptual awareness, and that their primary function is computational. Thus the correlation between the firing rates of neurons in these areas and the responses of the monkeys is due to the recognition of a particular stimulus object, which in turn is due to the computations made there
Smythies, J. (1999). Consciousness: Some basic issues- a neurophilosophical perspective. Consciousness and Cognition 8 (2):164-172.   (Cited by 7 | Google | More links)
Abstract: This paper concentrates on the basic properties of ''consciousness'' that temporal coding is postulated to relate to. A description of phenomenal consciousness based on what introspection tells us about its contents is offered. This includes a consideration of the effect of various brain lesions that result in cortical blindness, apperceptive and associative agnosia, and blindsight, together with an account of the manner in which sight is regained after cortical injuries. I then discuss two therories of perception-Direct Realism and the Representative Theory. This includes a discussion of the concept of the body-image, phantom limbs, the alleged projection of sensations, the ontological status of phenomenal space, the homunculus argument, the validity of topographic coding, the difference between the stimulus field and the visual field, and two theories of brain-mind relationship-the Identity Theory and the Bohr-Heisenberg theory of brain-mind complementarity. Finally I suggest that the binocular rivalry obtained in the case of the stroboscopic patterns that result from intermittent photic stimulation of one eye, when used in animal expeiments with unit recording, offers a good experimental method of investigating the binding problem
Srinivasan, Ramesh & Petrovic, Sanja (2006). Meg phase follows conscious perception during binocular rivalry induced by visual stream segregation. Cerebral Cortex 16 (5):597-608.   (Cited by 1 | Google | More links)
Stapp, Henry P., Quantum mechanics of presentiment in binocular rivalry.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: This is a brief account of a theory of presentiment/retrocausation in the context of a proposed binocular rivalry experiment. According to orthodox (classical or quantum mechanical) physics there can be no retrocausal effects. In order to accommodate such effects one must go beyond/outside orthodox theories. The simplest way to modify QM in a way that would permit such effects is to accept the hypothesis of Eccles (1987) that mental involvement (mental effort or emotion) can alter the orthodox statistical weighting factors associated with the observed outcomes of our experimental probing actions
Tara, (1970). The Evolution of the Soul. Milwaukee, Wis.,Universal Creative Research Institute.   (Google)
Taya, Fumihiko & Mogi, Ken (2005). Spatio-temporal dynamics of the visual system revealed in binocular rivalry. Neuroscience Letters 381 (1-2):63-68.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: From the evolutionary viewpoint, animals need to monitor the surrounding environment and capture salient features, such as motion, for survival. The visual system is highly developed for monitoring a wide area of visual field and capturing such salient features. In humans and primates, there is a wide binocular field, suggesting a necessity of integrating the images from the two eyes. Binocular rivalry [R. Blake, A neural theory of binocular rivalry, Psychol. Rev. 96 (1989) 145–167; R. Blake, N.K. Logothetis, Visual competition, Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 3 (2002) 13–21], where incompatible inputs from the two eyes compete to emerge in the subject’s visual percept, has been shown to exhibit highly adaptive behavior [I. Kovacs, T.V. Parathomas, M. Yang, A. Feher, When the brain changes its mind: interocular grouping during binocular rivalry. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93 (1996) 15508–15511; N.K. Logothetis, Single units and conscious vision, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. Biol. Sci. 353 (1998) 1801–1818]. Here we investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of the ocular dominance pattern in binocular rivalry under conditions where conflicting salient features were presented in a temporally varying manner. We found a striking example of the detailed structure of the dominance wave propagation, by using a spatio-temporal sampling method. The data show in detail the ability of the visual system to dynamically adapt to the changing stimuli in the context of the massively parallel visual field. We show by model prediction that the globally coherent dominance change in the presence of multiple stimuli can be explained by a mechanism based on local saliency comparison. © 2005 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved
Thomsen, Dr Knud (ms). Is quantum mechanics needed to explain consciousness ?   (Google)
Abstract: In this short comment to a recent contribution by E. Manousakis [1] it is argued that the reported agreement between the measured time evolution of conscious states during binocular rivalry and predictions derived from quantum mechanical formalisms does not require any direct effect of QM. The recursive consumption analysis process in the Ouroboros Model can yield the same behavior
Tong, Frank; Nakayama, K.; Vaughan, J. T. & Kanwisher, Nancy (1998). Binocular rivalry and visual awareness in human extrastriate cortex. Neuron 21:753-59.   (Cited by 298 | Google | More links)
Tong, Frank (2001). Competing theories of binocular rivalry: A possible resolution. Brain and Mind 2 (1):55-83.   (Cited by 27 | Google | More links)
Abstract: The neural basis of binocular rivalry has beenthe subject of vigorous debate. Do discrepantmonocular patterns rival for awareness becauseof neural competition among patternrepresentations or monocular channels? In thisarticle, I briefly review psychophysical andneurophysiological evidence pertaining to boththeories and discuss important new neuroimagingdata which reveal that rivalry is fullyresolved in monocular visual cortex. These newfindings strongly suggest that interocularcompetition mediates binocular rivalry and thatV1 plays an important role in the selection ofconscious visual information. They furthersuggest that rivalry is not a unitaryphenomenon. Interocular competition may fullyaccount for binocular rivalry whereas aseparate mechanism involving patterncompetition likely accounts for monocular andstimulus rivalry
Tsuchiya, Naotsugu & Koch, Christof (2005). Continuous flash suppression reduces negative afterimages. Nature Neuroscience 8 (8):1096-1101.   (Cited by 19 | Google | More links)
Abstract: Illusions that produce perceptual suppression despite constant retinal input are used to manipulate visual consciousness. Here we report on a powerful variant of existing techniques, Continuous Flash Suppression. Distinct images flashed successively around 10 Hz into one eye reliably suppress an image presented to the other eye. Compared to binocular rivalry, the duration of perceptual suppression increased more than 10-fold. Using this tool we show that the strength of the negative afterimage of an adaptor was reduced by half when it was perceptually suppressed by input from the other eye. The more likely the adaptor was completely suppressed, the larger the reduction of the afterimage intensity. Paradoxically, trial-to-trial visibility of the adaptor did not correlate with the degree of suppression. Our results imply that formation of afterimages involves neuronal structures that access input from both eyes, but that do not correspond directly to the neuronal correlates of perceptual awareness