Javascript Menu by Deluxe-Menu.com
MindPapers is now part of PhilPapers: online research in philosophy, a new service with many more features.
 
 Compiled by David Chalmers (Editor) & David Bourget (Assistant Editor), Australian National University. Submit an entry.
 
   
click here for help on how to search

8.9a. Unconscious Perception (Unconscious Perception on PhilPapers)

See also:
Adams, J. K. (1957). Laboratory studies of behavior without awareness. Psychological Bulletin 54:383-405.   (Cited by 41 | Google)
Bachmann, Talis (2004). Inaptitude of the signal detection theory, useful vexation from the microgenetic view, and inevitability of neurobiological signatures in understanding perceptual (un)awareness. Consciousness and Cognition 13 (1):101-106.   (Google)
Balay, J. & Shevrin, Howard (1988). The subliminal psychodynamic activation method: A critical review. American Psychologist 43:161-74.   (Cited by 20 | Google)
Bar, Moshe (2000). Conscious and nonconscious processing of visual object identity. In Yves Rossetti & Antti Revonsuo (eds.), Beyond Dissociation: Interaction Between Dissociated Implicit and Explicit Processing. John Benjamins.   (Cited by 1 | Google)
Bargh, John A. (1992). Does subliminality matter to social psychology? Awareness of the stimulus versus awareness of its influence. In Robert F. Bornstein & T. S. Pittman (eds.), Perception Without Awareness. Guilford.   (Cited by 41 | Google)
Bhalla, Madan M. & Proffitt, D. (2000). Geographical slant perception: Dissociation and coordination between explicit awareness and visually guided actions. In Yves Rossetti & Antti Revonsuo (eds.), Beyond Dissociation: Interaction Between Dissociated Implicit and Explicit Processing. John Benjamins.   (Cited by 4 | Google)
Bird, Graham H. (1973). Subliminal perception. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 73:217-232.   (Google)
Bornstein, Robert F. (1989). Exposure and affect: Overview and meta-analysis of research 1968-1987. Psychological Bulletin 106:265-89.   (Cited by 3 | Google)
Bornstein, Robert F. & Pittman, T. S. (1992). Perception Without Awareness: Cognitive, Clinical, and Social Perspectives. Guilford.   (Cited by 65 | Google)
Bornstein, Robert F. (2004). Subliminality, consciousness, and temporal shifts in awareness: Implications within and beyond the laboratory. Consciousness and Cognition 13:613-18.   (Cited by 3 | Google)
Bornstein, Robert F. (1992). Subliminal mere exposure effects. In Robert F. Bornstein & T. S. Pittman (eds.), Perception Without Awareness. Guilford.   (Cited by 38 | Google)
Bowers, K. S. (1982). On being unconsciously influenced and informed. In K. S. Bowers & D. Meichenbaum (eds.), The Unconscious Reconsidered. Wiley.   (Cited by 52 | Google)
Breitmeyer, Bruno G.; Ro, Tony & Ogmen, Haluk (2004). A comparison of masking by visual and transcranial magnetic stimulation: Implications for the study of conscious and unconscious visual processing. Consciousness and Cognition 13 (4):829-43.   (Google)
Breitmeyer, Bruno G.; Ogmen, Haluk; Ramon, Jose & Chen, Jian (2005). Unconscious and conscious priming by forms and their parts. Visual Cognition 12 (5):720-736.   (Cited by 3 | Google | More links)
Breitmeyer, Bruno G.; Ro, Tony & Singhal, Neel S. (2004). Unconscious color priming occurs at stimulus- not percept-dependent levels of processing. Psychological Science 15 (3):198-202.   (Cited by 13 | Google | More links)
Breitmeyer, Bruno G.; Ogmen, Haluk & Chen, Jian (2004). Unconscious priming by color and form: Different processes and levels. Consciousness and Cognition 13 (1):138-157.   (Cited by 9 | Google | More links)
Breitmeyer, Bruno G.; Ro, Tony; Ögmen, Haluk & Todd, Steven (2007). Unconscious, stimulus-dependent priming and conscious, percept-dependent priming with chromatic stimuli. Perception and Psychophysics 69 (4):550-557.   (Cited by 1 | Google)
Breitmeyer, Bruno G. & Ögmen, Haluk (2006). Visual masking reveals differences between the nonconscious and conscious processing of form and surface attributes. In Haluk Ögmen & Bruno G. Breitmeyer (eds.), The First Half Second: The Microgenesis and Temporal Dynamics of Unconscious and Conscious Visual Processes. MIT Press.   (Google)
Bridgeman, Bruce (1992). Conscious vs unconscious processes: The case of vision. Theory and Psychology 2:73-88.   (Cited by 148 | Google | More links)
Brown, Mark T. & Besner, D. (2004). In sight but out of mind: Do competing views test the limits of perception without awareness? Consciousness and Cognition 13 (2):421-429.   (Google)
Brown, Matthew & Besner, Derek (2002). Semantic priming: On the role of awareness in visual word recognition in the absence of an expectancy. Consciousness and Cognition 11 (3):402-422.   (Cited by 6 | Google | More links)
Cheesman, J. & Merikle, Philip M. (1986). Distinguishing conscious from unconscious perceptual processes. Canadian Journal of Psychology 40:343-67.   (Cited by 165 | Google)
Cheesman, J. & Merikle, Philip M. (1984). Priming with and without awareness. Perception and Psychophysics 36:387-95.   (Cited by 181 | Google)
Clark, Austen (1996). Review of Robert Schwartz, Vision: Variations on some berkeleian themes. Philosophical Psychology 9 (1):147-51.   (Google)
Abstract: The excavation of old battlefields can yield some surprises. The old muskets or catapults turn out to be, for the age, surprisingly lethal devices, and the issues which separated the contestants, as well as the alliances which joined some of them, are often found to differ from those described to us in the official histories, written by the victors. So it is too with intellectual history. Robert Schwartz has provided a delightful example of the joys of excavation in this book on Berkeleian themes in theories of vision. Some of the current battle cries will never again sound quite the same
Damian, M. (2001). Congruity effects evoked by subliminally presented primes: Automaticity rather than semantic processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology 27:154-165.   (Cited by 43 | Google | More links)
Debner, J. A. & Jacoby, Larry L. (1994). Unconscious perception: Attention, awareness, and control. Journal of Experimental Psychology 20:304-17.   (Cited by 138 | Google | More links)
Dehaene, Stanislas; Naccache, Lionel; Cohen, L. Jonathan; Le Bihan, Denis; Mangin, Jean-Francois; Poline, Jean-Baptiste & Rivière, Denis (2001). Cerebral mechanisms of word masking and unconscious repetition priming. Nature Neuroscience 4 (7):752-758.   (Cited by 299 | Google | More links)
Dehaene, Stanislas; Changeux, Jean-Pierre; Naccache, Lionel; Sackur, Jérôme & Sergent, Claire (2006). Conscious, preconscious, and subliminal processing: A testable taxonomy. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (5):204-211.   (Cited by 29 | Google | More links)
Dehaene, Stanislas (2005). Imaging conscious and subliminal word processing. In Ulrich Mayr, Edward Awh & Steven W. Keele (eds.), Developing Individuality in the Human Brain: A Tribute to Michael I. Posner. American Psychological Association.   (Google)
Dell'Acqua, Robert & Grainger, Jonathan (1999). Unconscious semantic priming from pictures. Cognition 73 (1).   (Cited by 31 | Google | More links)
Dijksterhuis, Ap; Aarts, Henk & Smith, Pamela K. (2005). The power of the subliminal: On subliminal persuasion and other potential applications. In Ran R. Hassin, James S. Uleman & John A. Bargh (eds.), The New Unconscious. Oxford University Press.   (Cited by 19 | Google)
Dixon, N. F. (1971). Subliminal Perception: The Nature of a Controversy. McGraw-Hill.   (Cited by 139 | Google)
Dixon, N. F. & Henley, S. H. A. (1980). Without awareness. In M. Jeeves (ed.), Psychology Survey 3. Allen and Unwin.   (Google)
Doyle, J. R. (1990). Detectionless processing with semantic activation? A footnote to greenwald, Klinger, and Liu. Mem Cognit 17 (1):35-47.   (Google)
Draine, Sean & Greenwald, Anthony G. (1998). Replicable unconscious semantic priming. Journal Of Experimental Psychology-General 127 (3):286-303.   (Cited by 141 | Google | More links)
Dretske, Fred (2006). Perception without awareness. In Tamar S. Gendler & John Hawthorne (eds.), Perceptual Experience. Oxford University Press.   (Cited by 8 | Google | More links)
Drury, Scott (online). A parallel distributed processing model of unconscious priming.   (Google)
Duscherer, Katia & Holender, Daniel (2002). No negative semantic priming from unconscious flanker words in sight. Journal of Experimental Psychology 28 (4):839-853.   (Cited by 5 | Google)
Eagle, Morris N. (1959). The effects of subliminal stimuli of aggressive content upon conscious cognition. Journal of Personality 27:578-600.   (Cited by 9 | Google)
Eastwood, John D. (online). From unconscious to conscious perception: Emotionally expressive faces and visual awareness.   (Google)
Ehrenzweig, Anton (1975). The Psychoanalysis of Artistic Vision and Hearing: An Introduction to a Theory of Unconscious Perception. Sheldon Press.   (Google)
Eimer, Martin & Schlaghecken, Friederike (2002). Links between conscious awareness and response inhibition: Evidence from masked priming. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 9 (3):514-520.   (Cited by 19 | Google | More links)
Enns, James T.; Lleras, Alejandro & Di Lollo, Vince (2006). A reentrant view of visual masking, object substitution, and response priming. In gmen, Haluk; Breitmeyer, Bruno G. (2006). The First Half Second: The Microgenesis and Temporal Dynamics of Unconscious and Conscious Visual Processes. (Pp. 127-147). Cambridge, MA, US: MIT Press. Xi, 410 Pp.   (Google)
Erdelyi, Matthew H. (1970). Recovery of unavailable perceptual input. Cognitive Psychology 1:99-113.   (Cited by 9 | Google)
Erdelyi, Matthew H. (2004). Subliminal perception and its cognates: Theory, indeterminacy, and time. Consciousness and Cognition 13 (1):73-91.   (Cited by 18 | Google | More links)
Eriksen, C. W. (1956). An experimental analysis of subception. American Journal of Psychology 69:625-34.   (Cited by 2 | Google | More links)
Eriksen, C. W. (1960). Discrimination and learning without awareness: A metholodological survey and evaluation. Psychological Review 67:279-300.   (Cited by 180 | Google)
Eriksen, C. W. (1956). Subception: Fact or artifact? Psychological Review 63:74-80.   (Cited by 12 | Google)
Farah, Martha J.; Monheit, M. A. & Wallace, M. A. (1991). Unconscious perception of "extinguished" visual stimuli: Reassessing the evidence. Neuropsychologia 29:949-58.   (Cited by 42 | Google)
Filoteo, J. Vincent; Friedrich, Frances J.; Rabbel, Catherine & Stricker, John L. (2002). Visual perception without awareness in a patient with posterior cortical atrophy: Impaired explicit but not implicit processing of global information. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 8 (3):461-472.   (Google)
Fisk, Gary D. & Haase, Steven J. (2006). Exclusion failure does not demonstrate unconscious perception II: Evidence from a forced-choice exclusion task. Vision Research 46 (25):4244-4251.   (Google)
Fisk, Gary D. & Haase, Steven J. (2007). Exclusion failure does not demonstrate unconscious perception. American Journal of Psychology 120 (2):173-204.   (Google)
Fisk, Gary D. & Haase, Steven J. (2005). Unconscious perception or not? An evaluation of detection and discrimination as indicators of awareness. American Journal of Psychology 118 (2):183-212.   (Google | More links)
Forster, Kenneth (1998). The pros and cons of masked priming. Journal Of Psycholinguistic Research 27 (2):203-233.   (Cited by 75 | Google | More links)
Fowler, C. A.; Woldford, G.; Slade, R. & Tassinary, L. (1981). Lexical access with and without awareness. Journal of Experimental Psychology 110:341-62.   (Cited by 73 | Google)
Fuhrer, M. J. & Eriksen, C. W. (1960). The unconscious perception of the meaning of verbal stimuli. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 61:432-9.   (Cited by 6 | Google | More links)
Gaito, J. (1964). Stages of perception, unconscious processes, and information extraction. Journal of General Psychology 70:183-197.   (Cited by 2 | Google)
Goldiamond, Israel (1958). Indicators of perception:. Subliminal Perception, Subception, Unconscious Perception 55:373-411.   (Google)
Greenwald, Anthony G.; Klinger, M. R. & Schuh, E. S. (1995). Activation by marginally perceptible ("subliminal") stimuli: Dissociation of unconscious from conscious cognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology 124:22-42.   (Cited by 96 | Google)
Greenwald, Anthony G.; Spangenberg, E.; Pratkanis, A. R. & Eskenazi, J. (1991). Double blind tests of subliminal self-help audiotapes. Psychological Science.   (Cited by 33 | Google)
Greenwald, Anthony G. & Draine, Sean (1997). Do subliminal stimuli enter the mind unnoticed? Tests with a new method. In Jonathan D. Cohen & Jonathan W. Schooler (eds.), Scientific Approaches to Consciousness. Lawrence Erlbaum.   (Cited by 17 | Google)
Greenwald, Anthony G.; Abrams, R. L.; Naccache, Lionel & Dehaene, Stanislas (2003). Long-term semantic memory versus contextual memory in unconscious number processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology 29 (2):235-247.   (Cited by 25 | Google | More links)
Abstract: Subjects classified visible 2-digit numbers as larger or smaller than 55. Target numbers were preceded by masked 2-digit primes that were either congruent (same relation to 55) or incongruent. Experiments 1 and 2 showed prime congruency effects for stimuli never included in the set of classified visible targets, indicating subliminal priming based on long-term semantic memory. Experiments 2 and 3 went further to demonstrate paradoxical unconscious priming effects resulting from task context. For example, after repeated practice classifying 73 as larger than 55, the novel masked prime 37 paradoxically facilitated the “larger” response. In these experiments task context could induce subjects to unconsciously process only the leftmost masked prime digit, only the rightmost digit, or both independently. Across 3 experiments, subliminal priming was governed by both task context and long-term semantic memory
Greenwald, Anthony G.; Klinger, M. R. & Liu, T. J. (1989). Unconscious processing of dichoptically masked words. Memory and Cognition 17:35-47.   (Cited by 82 | Google | More links)
Haase, Steven J. & Fisk, Gary D. (2004). Valid distinctions between conscious and unconscious perception? Perception and Psychophysics 66 (5):868-871.   (Cited by 4 | Google | More links)
Hardaway, R. A. (1990). Subliminally activated symbiotic fantasies: Facts and artifacts. Psychological Bulletin 107:177-95.   (Cited by 27 | Google)
Hasse, Steven J. & Fisk, Gary D. (2001). Confidence in word detection predicts word identification: Implications for an unconscious perception paradigm. American Journal of Psychology 114 (3):439-468.   (Google)
Henley, S. H. A. (1984). Unconscious perception revisited: A comment on Merikle (1992). Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 22:121-4.   (Google)
Holender, Daniel (1986). Semantic activation without conscious identification in dichotic listening, parafoveal vision, and visual masking: A survey and appraisal. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9:1-23.   (Cited by 3 | Google)
Holender, Daniel & Duscherer, Katia (2004). Unconscious perception: The need for a paradigm shift. Perception and Psychophysics 66 (5):872-881.   (Cited by 15 | Google | More links)
Jacquot, Laurence; Monnin, Julie & Brand, Gérard (2004). Unconscious odor detection could not be due to odor itself. Brain Research 1002 (1):51-54.   (Cited by 3 | Google | More links)
Jansen, C. K.; Bonke, B.; Klein, J. Theodore & Bezstarosti, J. (1990). Unconscious perception during balanced anesthesia? In B. Bonke, W. Fitch, K. Millar & 1990 Unconscious perception during balanced anesthesia? (eds.), Memory and Awareness in Anesthesia. Swets & Zeitlinger.   (Cited by 2 | Google)
Kemp-Wheeler, S. M. & Hill, A. B. (1988). Semantic priming without awareness: Some methodological considerations and implications. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 40.   (Cited by 29 | Google | More links)
Khurana, B. (2000). Face representation without conscious processing. In Thomas Metzinger (ed.), Neural Correlates of Consciousness. MIT Press.   (Google)
Kiesel, Andrea; Wagener, Annika; Kunde, Wilfried; Hoffmann, Joachim; Fallgatter, Andreas J. & Stöcker, Christian (2006). Unconscious manipulation of free choice in humans. Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):397-408.   (Google | More links)
Kiesel, Andrea; Kunde, Wilfried & Hoffmann, Joachim (2007). Unconscious priming according to multiple s-r rules. Cognition 104 (1):89-105.   (Google)
Kihlstrom, John F. (2004). Availability, accessibility, and subliminal perception. Consciousness and Cognition 13 (1):92-100.   (Cited by 7 | Google | More links)
Kihlstrom, John F.; Barnhardt, T. M. & Tataryn, D. J. (1992). Implicit perception. In Robert F. Bornstein & T. S. Pittman (eds.), Perception Without Awareness. Guilford.   (Cited by 42 | Google)
Kihlstrom, John F. (1996). Perception without awareness of what is perceived, learning without awareness of what is learned. In Max Velmans (ed.), The Science of Consciousness. Routledge.   (Cited by 18 | Google)
Klauer, K. & Greenwald, Anthony G. (2000). Measurement error in subliminal perception experiments: Simulation analyses of two regression methods. Journal of Experimental Psychology 26:1506-1508.   (Cited by 2 | Google)
Kostandov, E. A. (1994). Subsensory reactions and the problem of unconscious perception. Sensory Systems 7:149-53.   (Google)
Kouider, Sid & Dupoux, Emmanuel (2001). A functional disconnection between spoken and visual word recognition: Evidence from unconscious priming. Cognition 82 (1):35- 49.   (Cited by 23 | Google | More links)
Kouider, Sid & Dehaene, Stanislas (2007). Levels of processing during non-conscious perception: A critical review of visual masking. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B 362 (1481):857-875.   (Google)
Kouider, Sid & Dupoux, Emmanuel (2004). Partial awareness creates the "illusion" of subliminal semantic priming. Psychological Science 15 (2):75-81.   (Cited by 14 | Google | More links)
Kreitler, H. & Kreitler, S. (1973). Subliminal perception and extrasensory perception. Journal of Parapsychology 37:163-88.   (Cited by 4 | Google)
Krosnick, J. A.; Betz, A. L.; Jussim, L. J. & Lynn, A. R. (1992). Subliminal conditioning of attitudes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 18:152-62.   (Cited by 62 | Google)
Kunst-Wilson, W. R. & Zajonc, R. B. (1980). Affective discrimination of stimuli that cannot be recognized. Science 207:557-58.   (Cited by 331 | Google | More links)
Kunimoto, Craig; Miller, Jeff G. & Pashler, Harold (2001). Confidence and accuracy of near-threshold discrimination responses. Consciousness and Cognition 10 (3):294-340.   (Cited by 26 | Google | More links)
Abstract: This article reports four subliminal perception experiments using the relationship between confidence and accuracy to assess awareness. Subjects discriminated among stimuli and indicated their confidence in each discrimination response. Subjects were classified as being aware of the stimuli if their confidence judgments predicted accuracy and as being unaware if they did not. In the first experiment, confidence predicted accuracy even at stimulus durations so brief that subjects claimed to be performing at chance. This finding indicates that subjects's claims that they are ''just guessing'' should not be accepted as sufficient evidence that they are completely unaware of the stimuli. Experiments 2-4 tested directly for subliminal perception by comparing the minimum exposure duration needed for better than chance discrimination performance against the minimum needed for confidence to predict accuracy. The latter durations were slightly but significantly longer, suggesting that under certain circumstances people can make perceptual discriminations even though the information that was used to make those discriminations is not consciously available
Kunzendorf, Robert G. (1985). Subconscious percepts as "unmonitored" percepts: An empirical study. Imagination, Cognition and Personality 4:365-73.   (Google)
Kurup, Ravi K. & Kurup, Parameswara A. (2003). A hypothalamic digoxin-mediated model for conscious and subliminal perception. International Journal of Neuroscience 113 (6):815-820.   (Google | More links)
Lazarus, Richard S. (1983). Autonomic discrimination without awareness: A study of subception. Psychological Review 58:113-22.   (Cited by 57 | Google)
Lewicki, P.; Hill, T. & Czyewska, M. (1992). Nonconscious acquisition of information. [Journal (Paginated)] 47 (6):792-801.   (Cited by 177 | Google | More links)
Abstract: We are reviewing and summarizing evidence for the processes of acquisition of information outside of conscious awareness (processing information about covariations, nonconscious indirect and interactive inferences, self-perpetuation of procedural knowledge). A considerable amount of data indicates that as compared to consciously controlled cognition, the nonconscious information-acquisition processes are not only much faster but also structurally more sophisticated in the sense that they are capable of efficient processing of multidimensional and interactive relations between variables. Those mechanisms of nonconscious acquisition of information provide a major channel for the development of procedural knowledge which is indispensable for such important aspects of cognitive functioning as encoding and interpretation of stimuli and the triggering emotional reactions
Lewis, J. L. (1970). Semantic processing of unattended messages using dichotic listening. J Exp Psychol 85 (2):225-8.   (Cited by 27 | Google)
MacLeod, C. (1998). Implicit perception: Perceptual processing without awareness. In K. Kirsner & G. Speelman (eds.), Implicit and Explicit Mental Processes. Lawrence Erlbaum.   (Cited by 7 | Google)
Marcel, Anthony J. (1983). Conscious and unconscious perception: Experiments on visual masking and word recognition. Cognitive Psychology 15:197-237.   (Cited by 479 | Google | More links)
Marcel, Anthony J. (1983). Conscious and unconscious perception: An approach to the relations between phenomenal experience and perceptual processes. Cognitive Psychology 15:238-300.   (Cited by 208 | Google)
Mathis, Don & Mozer, Michael (1996). Conscious and unconscious perception: A computational theory. In Garrison W. Cottrell (ed.), Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Conference of The Cognitive Science Society. Lawrence Erlbaum.   (Cited by 36 | Google | More links)
Matsumoto, Atsushi; Iidaka, Tetsuya; Nomura, Michio & Ohira, Hideki (2005). Dissociation of conscious and unconscious repetition priming effect on event-related potentials. Neuropsychologia 43 (8):1168-1176.   (Cited by 2 | Google)
Merikle, Philip M. & Daneman, M. (2000). Conscious vs. unconscious perception. In Michael S. Gazzaniga (ed.), The New Cognitive Neurosciences: 2nd Edition. MIT Press.   (Cited by 24 | Google)
Merikle, Philip M.; Joordens, S. & Stolz, J. A. (1995). Measuring the relative magnitude of unconscious influences. Consciousness and Cognition 4:422-39.   (Cited by 67 | Google)
Merikle, Philip M. & Reingold, Eyal M. (1992). Measuring unconscious processes. In Robert F. Bornstein & T. S. Pittman (eds.), Perception Without Awareness. Guilford.   (Google)
Merikle, Philip M. & Reingold, Eyal M. (1992). Measuring unconscious perceptual processes. In R.F. Bornstein & T.S. Pittman (eds.), Perception Without Awareness. New York: Guilford Press.   (Cited by 44 | Google)
Merikle, Philip M. & Joordens, S. (1997). Parallels between perception without attention and perception without awareness. Consciousness and Cognition 6:219-36.   (Cited by 73 | Google | More links)
Merikle, Philip M. & Daneman, M. (1997). Psychological investigations of unconscious perception. Journal of Consciousness Studies.   (Cited by 41 | Google | More links)
Merikle, Philip M. (1992). Perception without awareness: Critical issues. American Psychologist 47:792-5.   (Cited by 75 | Google)
Merikle, Philip M. & Smilek, Daniel (2001). Perception without awareness: Perspectives from cognitive psychology. Cognition 79 (1):115-34.   (Cited by 144 | Google | More links)
Merikle, Philip M. & Reingold, Eyal M. (1990). Recognition and lexical decision without detection: Unconscious perception? Journal of Experimental Psychology 16:574-83.   (Cited by 27 | Google)
Merikle, Philip M. (1982). Unconscious perception revisited. Perception and Psychophysics 31:298-301.   (Cited by 38 | Google)
Miller, Jeff G. (2000). Measurement error in subliminal perception experiments: Simulation analyses of two regression methods. Journal of Experimental Psychology 26:1461-1477.   (Cited by 14 | Google)
Miller, Jeff G. (1951). Unconscious Processes and Perception. In R.R. Blake & G.V. Ramsey (eds.), Perception. Ronald Press.   (Google)
Mitroff, Stephen R. & Scholl, Brian J. (2005). Forming and updating object representations without awareness: Evidence from motion-induced blindness. Vision Research 45 (8):961-967.   (Google | More links)
Moore, Timothy E. (1992). Subliminal perception: Facts and fallacies. Skeptical Inquirer 16:273-81.   (Cited by 6 | Google)
Moore, Timothy E. (1995). Subliminal self-help auditory tapes: An empirical test of perceptual consequences. Canadian Journal Of Behavioural Science 27 (1):9-20.   (Cited by 3 | Google)
Naccache, Lionel & Dehaene, Stanislas (2001). The priming method: Imaging unconscious repetition priming reveals an abstract representation of number in the parietal lobes. Cerebral Cortex 11 (10):966-974.   (Cited by 121 | Google | More links)
Naccache, Lionel & Dehaene, Stanislas (2001). Unconscious semantic priming extends to novel unseen stimuli. Cognition 80 (3):215-229.   (Cited by 63 | Google | More links)
Neuberg, S. L. (1988). Behavioral implications of information presented outside of conscious awareness: The effect of subliminal presentation of trait information on behavior in the prisoner's dilemma game. Social Cognition 6:207-30.   (Google)
Niedenthal, Paula M. (1990). Implicit perception of affective information. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 26:505-27.   (Cited by 84 | Google)
Nolan, K. A. & Caramazza, A. (1982). Unconscious perception of meaning: A failure to replicate. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 20:23-26.   (Cited by 17 | Google)
Ortells, Juan J.; Daza, Maria T.; Noguera, Carmen; Carmona, Encarna; Fox, Elaine & Abad, Maria J. F. (2002). Perception without awareness: The qualitative differences approach. In Serge P. Shohov (ed.), Advances in Psychology Research, Vol. 14. Nova Science Publishers.   (Cited by 1 | Google)
Ortells, Juan J.; Daza, María Teresa & Fox, Elaine (2003). Semantic activation in the absence of perceptual awareness. Perception and Psychophysics 65 (8):1307-1317.   (Cited by 5 | Google | More links)
Overgaard, Morten; Rote, Julian; Mouridsen, Kim & Ramsoy, Thomas Zoega (2006). Is conscious perception gradual or dichotomous? A comparison of report methodologies during a visual task. Consciousness and Cognition 15 (4):700-708.   (Google)
Peirce, C. S. & Jastrow, Joseph (1884). On small differences in sensation. Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences 3:75-83.   (Cited by 65 | Google)
Pisella, Laure & Rosetti, Yves (2000). Interaction between conscious identification and non-conscious sensory-motor processing: Temporal constraints. In Yves Rossetti & Antti Revonsuo (eds.), Beyond Dissociation: Interaction Between Dissociated Implicit and Explicit Processing. John Benjamins.   (Google)
Poppel, Ernst; Held, R. & Frost, D. (1973). Residual function after brain wounds involving the central visual pathways in man. Nature 243:295-96.   (Google)
Pratkanis, A. R. & Greenwald, Anthony G. (1988). Recent perspectives on unconscious processing: Still no marketing applications. Psychology and Marketing 5:337-53.   (Cited by 9 | Google)
Price, Mark C. (2001). Now you see it, now you don't: Preventing consciousness with visual masking. In Peter G. Grossenbacher (ed.), Finding Consciousness in the Brain: A Neurocognitive Approach. Advances in Consciousness Research. John Benjamins.   (Cited by 2 | Google)
Purcell, D. G.; Stewart, A. L. & Stanovich, K. K. (1983). Another look at semantic priming without awareness. Perception and Psychophysics 34:65-71.   (Cited by 18 | Google)
Radil, T.; Radilova, J.; Bozkov, V. & Bohdanecky, Z. (1981). Unconscious and conscious processes during visual perception. Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis 41:565-572.   (Google)
Ramsøy, Thomas Zoega & Overgaard, Morten (2004). Introspection and subliminal perception. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 3 (1):1-23.   (Google)
Abstract:   Subliminal perception (SP) is today considered a well-supported theory stating that perception can occur without conscious awareness and have a significant impact on later behaviour and thought. In this article, we first present and discuss different approaches to the study of SP. In doing this, we claim that most approaches are based on a dichotomic measure of awareness. Drawing upon recent advances and discussions in the study of introspection and phenomenological psychology, we argue for both the possibility and necessity of using an elaborated measure of subjective states. In the second part of the article, we present findings where these considerations are implemented in an empirical study. The results and implications are discussed in detail, both with reference to SP, and in relation to the more general problem of using elaborate introspective reports as data in relation to studies of cognition
Reingold, Eyal M. & Merikle, Philip M. (1991). Theory and measurement in the study of unconscious processes. Mind and Language 5:9-28.   (Cited by 24 | Google)
Reingold, Eyal M. & Merikle, Philip M. (1988). Using direct and indirect measures to study perception without awareness. Perception and Psychophysics 44:563-575.   (Cited by 154 | Google)
Reingold, Eyal M. (2004). Unconscious perception: Assumptions and interpretive difficulties. Consciousness and Cognition 13 (1):117-122.   (Cited by 5 | Google | More links)
Abstract: Reingold and MerikleÕs (1988, 1990) critique of the classic dissociation paradigm identified several issues as inherent problems that severely undermine the utility of this paradigm. Erdelyi (2004) extending his prior analysis (Erdelyi, 1985, 1986) points out several additional factors that may complicate the interpretation of empirically obtained dissociations. The goal of the present manuscript is to further discuss some of these commonly neglected interpretive difficulties. Ó 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved
Reingold, Eyal M. (2004). Unconscious perception and the classic dissociation paradigm: A new angle? Perception and Psychophysics 66 (5):882-887.   (Cited by 6 | Google | More links)
Reynvoet, Bert; Gevers, Wim & Caessens, Bernie (2005). Unconscious primes activate motor codes through semantics. Journal of Experimental Psychology 31 (5):991-1000.   (Cited by 6 | Google | More links)
Rossetti, Yves (2001). Implicit perception in action: Short-lived motor representation of space. In Peter G. Grossenbacher (ed.), Finding Consciousness in the Brain: A Neurocognitive Approach. Advances in Consciousness Research. John Benjamins.   (Cited by 16 | Google)
Ruz, María; Madrid, Eduardo; Lupiáñez, Juan & Tudela, Pío (2003). High density ERP indices of conscious and unconscious semantic priming. Cognitive Brain Research 17 (3):719-731.   (Cited by 14 | Google)
Schwarzbach, Jens & Vorberg, Dirk (2006). Response priming with and without awareness. In Haluk Ögmen & Bruno G. Breitmeyer (eds.), The First Half Second: The Microgenesis and Temporal Dynamics of Unconscious and Conscious Visual Processes. MIT Press.   (Google)
Schmidt, Thomas (2000). Visual perception without awareness: Priming responses by color. In Thomas Metzinger (ed.), Neural Correlates of Consciousness. MIT Press.   (Cited by 58 | Google)
Shevrin, Howard (1990). Subliminal perception and repression. In Jerome L. Singer (ed.), Repression and Dissociation: Implications for Personality Theory, Psychopathology, and Health. University of Chicago Press.   (Cited by 8 | Google)
Shevrin, Howard (1992). Unconscious perception, memory, and consciousness: Cognitive and dynamic perspectives. In Robert F. Bornstein & T. S. Pittman (eds.), Perception Without Awareness. Guilford.   (Google)
Silverman, L. H. & Weinberger, Jerry (1985). Mommy and I are one: Implications for psychotherapy. American Psychologist 40:1296-1308.   (Cited by 30 | Google)
Simons, Daniel J.; Hannula, Deborah E.; Warren, David E. & Day, Steven W. (2007). Behavioral, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological approaches to implicit perception. In Philip David Zelazo, Morris Moscovitch & Evan Thompson (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Consciousness. Cambridge.   (Google)
Smith, Stephen D. & Bulman-Fleming, M. Barbara (2004). A hemispheric asymmetry for the unconscious perception of emotion. Brain and Cognition 55 (3):452-457.   (Cited by 2 | Google | More links)
Smith, Stephen D. & Bulman-Fleming, M. Barbara (2006). Hemispheric asymmetries for the conscious and unconscious perception of emotional words. Laterality 11 (4):304-330.   (Cited by 1 | Google | More links)
Smith, Stephen D. (ms). Hemispheric specialization for the conscious and unconscious perception of emotional stimuli.   (Google)
Snodgrass, Michael (2002). Disambiguating conscious and unconscious influences: Do exclusion paradigms demonstrate unconscious perception? American Journal of Psychology 115 (4):545-579.   (Cited by 14 | Google | More links)
Snodgrass, Michael (2004). The dissociation paradigm and its discontents: How can unconscious perception or memory be inferred? Consciousness and Cognition 13 (1):107-116.   (Cited by 15 | Google | More links)
Snodgrass, Michael & Shevrin, Howard (2006). Unconscious inhibition and facilitation at the objective detection threshold: Replicable and qualitatively different unconscious perceptual. Cognition 101 (1):43-79.   (Google)
Snodgrass, Michael; Bernat, Edward & Shevrin, Howard (2004). Unconscious perception: A model-based approach to method and evidence. Perception and Psychophysics 66 (5):846-867.   (Cited by 28 | Google | More links)
Snodgrass, Michael; Bernat, Edward & Shevrin, Howard (2004). Unconscious perception at the objective detection threshold exists. Perception and Psychophysics 66 (5):888-895.   (Google)
Stapel, Diederik A. & Koomen, Willem (2006). The flexible unconscious: Investigating the judgmental impact of varieties of unaware perception. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 42 (1):112-119.   (Cited by 2 | Google)
Stenberg, Georg; Lindgren, Magnus; Johansson, Mikael; Olsson, Andreas & Rosén, Ingmar (2000). Semantic processing without conscious identification: Evidence from event-related potentials. Journal of Experimental Psychology 26 (4):973-1004.   (Cited by 8 | Google | More links)
Stone, Anna & Valentine, Tim (2007). Angry and happy faces perceived without awareness: A comparison with the affective impact of masked famous faces. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology 19 (2):161-186.   (Google)
Taylor, John G. (1996). Breakthrough to awareness. Biological Cybernetics 75 (1):59-72.   (Cited by 15 | Google | More links)
Abstract: A neural network model is constructed to mimic the processing involved in semantic and working memory when subliminal effects are involved. These effects involve modifications of reaction time to later inputs, according as to whether or not there has been conscious or unconscious processing of the earlier input. The model is constructed of two separate modules, one (a semantic memory module) allowing for processing at a semantic, but unconscious, level, and the other (a working memory module) for conscious experience. The latter module, although a replica of the earlier one, has different lateral connectivity and output function than the former. The model is shown to give a good fit to the data on the processing of polysemous words obtained by Marcel(1980). Further tests are suggested for the model, and a possible cortical implementation suggested. The relevance of the model to recent approaches to consciousness is also explored
Theus, K. T. (1994). Subliminal advertising and the psychology of processing unconscious stimuli: A review of research. Psychology and Marketing 11:271-290.   (Cited by 11 | Google | More links)
Vaina, L. M. (1995). Akinetopsia, achromatopsia and blindsight: Recent studies on perception without awareness. Synthese 105 (3):253-271.   (Cited by 1 | Google | More links)
Abstract:   The neural substrate of early visual processing in the macaque is used as a framework to discuss recent progress towards a precise anatomical localization and understanding of the functional implications of the syndromes of blindsight, achromatopsia and akinetopsia in humans. This review is mainly concerned with how these syndromes support the principles of organization of the visual system into parallel pathways and the functional hierarchy of visual mechanisms
Varakin, D. Alexander; Levin, Daniel T. & Fidler, Roger (2004). Unseen and unaware: Implications of recent research on failures of visual awareness for human-computer interface design. Human-Computer Interaction 19 (4):389-422.   (Cited by 9 | Google | More links)
Velmans, Max (1999). When perception becomes conscious. British Journal Of Psychology 90 (4):543-566.   (Cited by 9 | Google | More links)
Abstract: The study of preconscious versus conscious processing has an extensive history in cognitive psychology, dating back to the writings of William James. Much of the experimental work on this issue has focused on perception, conceived of as input analysis, and on the relation of consciousness to attentional processing. The present paper examines when input analysis becomes conscious from the perspectives of cognitive modelling, methodology, and a more detailed understanding of what is meant by "conscious processing." Current evidence suggests that perception becomes conscious at a late-arising stage of focal-attentive processing concerned with information integration and dissemination. Reliable criteria for determining when perception becomes conscious combine the evidence of "first-person," phenomenological reports with "third-person" functional dissociations between preconscious and conscious processing. There are three, distinct senses in which a process may be said to be "conscious." It might be "conscious" (a) in the sense that one is conscious of the process, (b) in the sense that the operation of the process is accompanied by consciousness (of its results) and (c) in the sense that consciousness enters into or causally influences the process. Consciousness of familiar stimuli, rather than entering into input analysis, appears to follow it, in human information processing. Processes closely associated with the appearance of consciousness such as information integration and dissemination appear to operate unconsciously. Consequently, perception appears to be "conscious" only in sense (b)
Verleger, Rolf & Jaskowski, Piotr (2006). Effects of masked stimuli on attention and response tendencies as revealed by event-related EEG potentials: Possible application to understanding neglect. In Haluk Ögmen & Bruno G. Breitmeyer (eds.), The First Half Second: The Microgenesis and Temporal Dynamics of Unconscious and Conscious Visual Processes. MIT Press.   (Google)
Vesey, Godfrey N. A. (1960). Unconscious perception, part II. Aristotelian Society 67:67-78.   (Google)
Visser, Troy A. W.; Merikle, Philip M. & Di Lollo, Vincent (2005). Priming in the attentional blink: Perception without awareness? Visual Cognition 12 (7):1362-1372.   (Google | More links)
Walla, Peter; Hufnagl, Bernd; Lehrner, Johann; Mayer, Dagmar; Lindinger, Gerald; Deecke, Lüder & Lang, Wilfried (2002). Evidence of conscious and subconscious olfactory information processing during word encoding: A magnetoencephalographic (MEG) study. Cognitive Brain Research 14 (3):309-316.   (Google)
Weinberger, Jerry & Hardaway, R. A. (1990). Separating science from myth in subliminal psychodynamic activation. Clinical Psychological Review 10:727-56.   (Cited by 21 | Google)
Wikström, Jenny; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar & Westerlund, Joakim (2003). Stroop effects for masked threat words: Pre-attentive bias or selective awareness? Cognition and Emotion 17 (6):827-842.   (Google)
Wynn, Jonathan K. & Green, Michael F. (2006). Backward masking in schizophrenia: Neuropsychological, electrophysiological, and functional neuroimaging findings. In gmen, Haluk; Breitmeyer, Bruno G. (2006). The First Half Second: The Microgenesis and Temporal Dynamics of Unconscious and Conscious Visual Processes. (Pp. 171-184). Cambridge, MA, US: MIT Press. Xi, 410 Pp.   (Google)
Young, Andrew W. & Ellis, H. (2000). Overt and Covert face recognition. In Yves Rossetti & Antti Revonsuo (eds.), Beyond Dissociation: Interaction Between Dissociated Implicit and Explicit Processing. John Benjamins.   (Cited by 2 | Google)