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8.9c. Conscious and Unconscious Learning (Conscious and Unconscious Learning on PhilPapers)

See also:
Alonso, Diego; Fuentes, Luis J. & Hommel, Bernhard (2006). Unconscious symmetrical inferences: A role of consciousness in event integration. Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):386-396.   (Google)
Bayley, Peter J.; Frascino, Jennifer C. & Squire, Larry R. (2005). Robust habit learning in the absence of awareness and independent of the medial temporal lobe. Nature 436 (7050):550-553.   (Cited by 16 | Google | More links)
Berry, Dianne C. (1997). How Implicit is Implicit Learning? Oxford University Press.   (Cited by 66 | Google)
Berry, Dianne C. (1994). Implicit learning: Twenty-five years on. a tutorial. In Carlo Umilta & Morris Moscovitch (eds.), Consciousness and Unconscious Information Processing: Attention and Performance 15. MIT Press.   (Google)
Berry, Dianne C. & Dienes, Zoltán (eds.) (1993). Implicit Learning: Theoretical and Empirical Issues. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.   (Cited by 372 | Google)
Abstract: This book presents an overview of these studies and attempts to clarify apparently disparate results by placing them in a coherent theoretical framework.
Bogner, Myles; Ramamurthy, Uma & Franklin, Stan (2000). Consciousness and conceptual learning in a socially situated agent. In Kerstin Dauthenhahn (ed.), Human Cognition and Social Agent Technology. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.   (Cited by 21 | Google | More links)
Boyer, Maud; Destrebecqz, Arnaud & Cleeremans, Axel (online). The serial reaction task: Learning without knowing, or knowing without learning?   (Cited by 3 | Google | More links)
Abstract: Maud Boyer Arnaud Destrebecqz Axel Cleeremans
Brody, Nathan (1989). Unconscious learning of rules: Comment on Reber's analysis of implicit learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 118:236-238.   (Cited by 20 | Google)
Brunstrom, J. M. (2004). Does dietary learning occur outside awareness? Consciousness and Cognition 13 (3):453-470.   (Cited by 2 | Google)
Carlson, Richard A. & Dulany, Donelson E. (1985). Conscious attention and abstraction in concept learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 11:45-58.   (Cited by 49 | Google)
Cheng, Dominic T. (2006). Neural Correlates of Response Expression During Fear Learning: Conditioning and Awareness. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin   (Google)
Clark, Robert E.; Manns, Joseph R. & Squire, Larry R. (2002). Classical conditioning, awareness, and brain systems. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (12):524-531.   (Cited by 38 | Google | More links)
Cleeremans, Axel; Destrebecqz, Arnaud & Boyer, Maud (1998). Implicit learning: News from the front. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2 (10):406-416.   (Cited by 201 | Google | More links)
Abstract: 69 Thompson-Schill, S.L. _et al. _(1997) Role of left inferior prefrontal cortex 59 Buckner, R.L. _et al. _(1996) Functional anatomic studies of memory in retrieval of semantic knowledge: a re-evaluation _Proc. Natl. Acad._ retrieval for auditory words and pictures _J. Neurosci. _16, 6219–6235 _Sci. U. S. A. _94, 14792–14797 60 Buckner, R.L. _et al. _(1995) Functional anatomical studies of explicit and 70 Baddeley, A. (1992) Working memory: the interface between memory implicit memory retrieval tasks _J. Neurosci. _15, 12–29 and cognition _J. Cogn. Neurosci. _4, 281–288 61 Bäckman, L. _et al. _(1997) Brain activation in young and older adults 71 Petrides, M. (1994) Frontal lobes and behavior _Curr. Opin. Neurobiol._ during implicit and explicit retrieval _J. Cogn. Neurosci. _9, 378–391
Cleeremans, Axel & JimC)nez, L. (1998). Implicit sequence learning: The truth is in the details. In Michael A. Stadler & Peter A. Frensch (eds.), Handbook of Implicit Learning. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.   (Cited by 69 | Google)
Abstract: Over the past decade, sequence learning has gradually become a central paradigm through which to study implicit learning. In this chapter, we start by briefly summarizing the results obtained with different variants of the sequence learning paradigm. We distinguish three subparadigms in terms of whether the stimulus material is generated either by following a fixed and repeating sequence (e.g., Nissen & Bullemer, 1987), by relying on a complex set of rules from which one can produce several alternative deterministic sequences (e.g., Lewicki, Hill & Bizot, 1988; Stadler, 1989), or by following the output of a probabilistic set of rules such as instantiated by noisy finite-state grammars (Cleeremans & McClelland, 1991; Jiménez, Mendéz & Cleeremans, 1996). Next, we focus on the processes involved in sequence representation and acquisition. We suggest that the sensitivity to the sequential structure observed in the probabilistic subparadigm can only be a result of the acquisition of a representation of the statistical constraints of the material, and that this sensitivity emerges through the operation of mechanisms that are well instantiated by connectionist models such as the Simple Recurrent Network (Elman, 1990; Cleeremans, 1993b). We present new simulation work meant to explore to what extent the model can also account for specific data obtained in a paradigmatic instance of deterministic, rule-based sequence learning task: Lewicki et al. (1988)'s situation. Finally, we report on the results of an experiment that compares learning on otherwise similar deterministic and probabilistic structures, and we show that learning of both types of structures is equivalent only under conditions that maximally hinder explicit acquisition. Taken together, these simulation and experimental data lend support to the claim that implicit learning in all three sequence learning subparadigms can amount to a form of statistical sequence learning. They also suggest that distinguishing among several theories of sequence representation and acquisition may require us to analize the data in great detail. Hopefully, however, some truth can be found in such details..
Cleeremans, Axel (1993). Mechanisms of Implicit Learning: Connectionist Models of Sequence Processing. MIT Press.   (Cited by 277 | Google | More links)
Abstract: What do people learn when they do not know that they are learning? Until recently, all of the work in the area of implicit learning focused on empirical questions and methods. In this book, Axel Cleeremans explores unintentional learning from an information-processing perspective. He introduces a theoretical framework that unifies existing data and models on implicit learning, along with a detailed computational model of human performance in sequence-learning situations
Cleeremans, Axel (1997). Principles for Implicit Learning. In Dianne C. Berry (ed.), How Implicit is Implicit Learning? Oxford University Press.   (Cited by 126 | Google | More links)
Abstract: Complete URL to this document:
Conway, Martin A.; Collins, A. F.; Anderson, Stephen J. & Cohen, G. (1998). Changes in memory awareness during learning: The acquisition of knowledge by psychology undergraduates. Journal of Experimental Psychology.   (Google)
Curran, Tim (1995). On the neural mechanisms of sequence learning. Psyche 2 (12).   (Cited by 28 | Google | More links)
Davou, Bettina (2002). Unconscious processes influencing learning. Psychodynamic Practice 8 (3):277-294.   (Cited by 2 | Google | More links)
Destrebecqz, Arnaud & Peigneux, Philippe (2006). Methods for studying unconscious learning. In Steven Laureys (ed.), Boundaries of Consciousness. Elsevier.   (Cited by 1 | Google)
Destrebecqz, Arnaud & Peigneux, Philippe (2005). Methods for studying unconscious learning. Progress in Brain Research 150:69-80.   (Cited by 1 | Google)
Abstract: One has to face numerous difficulties when trying to establish a dissociation between conscious and unconscious knowledge. In this paper, we review several of these problems as well as the different methodological solutions that have been proposed to address them. We suggest that each of the different methodological solutions offered refers to a different operational definition of consciousness, and present empirical examples of sequence learning studies in which these different procedures were applied to differentiate between implicit and explicit knowledge acquisition. We also show how the use of a sensitive behavioural method, the process dissociation procedure, confers a distinctive advantage in brain imaging studies when aiming to delineate the neural correlates of conscious and unconscious processes in sequence learning
Devriese, S.; Winters, W.; van Diest, I. & van den Bergh, O. (2004). Contingency awareness in a symptom learning paradigm: Necessary but not sufficient? Consciousness and Cognition 13 (3):439-452.   (Google)
Dienes, Zoltán & Perner, Josef (1999). A theory of implicit and explicit knowledge. Behavioral And Brain Sciences 22 (5):735-808.   (Cited by 245 | Google | More links)
Dienes, Zoltán & Berry, Dianne C. (1997). Implicit learning: Below the subjective threshold. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 4:3-23.   (Cited by 162 | Google | More links)
Dienes, Zoltán & Scott, Ryan (2005). Measuring unconscious knowledge: Distinguishing structural knowledge and judgment knowledge. Psychological Research/Psychologische Forschung 69 (5):338-351.   (Cited by 8 | Google | More links)
Dienes, Zoltán & Perner, Josef (2003). Unifying consciousness with explicit knowledge. In Axel Cleeremans (ed.), The Unity of Consciousness. Oxford University Press.   (Cited by 17 | Google | More links)
Dulany, Donelson E.; Carlson, Richard A. & Dewey, G. I. (1984). A case of syntactical learning and judgment: How conscious and how abstract? Journal of Experimental Psychology 113:541-555.   (Cited by 203 | Google)
Dulany, Donelson E. (1968). Awareness, rules, and propositional control: A confrontation with s-r behavior theory. In T. Dixon & Deryck Horton (eds.), Verbal Behavior and General Behavior Theory. Prentice-Hall.   (Cited by 69 | Google)
Dulany, Donelson E.; Carlson, Richard A. & Dewey, G. I. (1985). On consciousness in syntactic learning and judgment: A reply to Reber, Allen, and Regan. Journal of Experimental Psychology 114:25-32.   (Cited by 31 | Google)
Fulcher, Eamon P. & Hammerl, Marianne (2001). When all is considered: Evaluative learning does not require contingency awareness. Consciousness and Cognition 10 (4):567-573.   (Cited by 3 | Google | More links)
Abstract: We argue that the effects of evaluative learning may occur (a) without conscious perception of the affective stimuli, (b) without awareness of the stimulus contingencies, and (c) without any awareness that learning has occurred at all. Whether the three experiments reported in our target article provide conclusive evidence for either or any of these assertions is discussed in the commentaries of De Houwer and Field. We respond with the argument that when considered alongside other studies carried out over the past few decades, our experiments provide compelling evidence for a theory that posits a dissociation between evaluative learning and contingency awareness
Furedy, J.; Damke, B. & Boucsein, W. (2000). Revisiting the learning-without-awareness question in human Pavlovian autonomic conditioning: Focus on extinction in a dichotic listening paradigm. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science 35 (1):17-34.   (Google)
Gardiner, John M. (1996). On consciousness in relation to memory and learning. In Max Velmans (ed.), The Science of Consciousness. Routledge.   (Cited by 2 | Google)
Greene, Anthony J.; Spellman, Barbara; Dusek, Jeffery A.; Eichenbaum, Howard B. & Levy, William B. (2001). Relational learning with and without awareness: Transitive inference using nonverbal stimuli in humans. Memory and Cognition 29 (6):893-902.   (Google)
Haider, Hilde & Frensch, Peter A. (2005). The generation of conscious awareness in an incidental learning situation. Psychological Research/Psychologische Forschung 69 (5):399-411.   (Cited by 1 | Google | More links)
Hammerl, Marianne (2000). I like it, but only when I'm not sure why: Evaluative conditioning and the awareness issue. Consciousness and Cognition 9 (1):37-40.   (Google)
Hammonds, Frank (2006). Toward an "awareness" of the relationship between task performance and own verbal accounts of that performance. Analysis of Verbal Behavior 22:101-110.   (Google)
Jackson, Georgina & Jackson, Stephen (1995). Do measures of explicit learning actually measure what is being learnt in the serial reaction time task? Psyche 2 (20).   (Cited by 4 | Google | More links)
Abstract: Studies of implicit learning have shown that individuals exposed to a rule-governed environment often learn to exploit 'rules' which describe the structural relationship between environmental events. While some authors have interpreted such demonstrations as evidence for functionally separate implicit learning systems, others have argued that the observed changes in performance result from explicit knowledge which has been inadequately assessed. In this paper we illustrate this issue by considering one commonly used implicit learning task, the Serial reaction time task, and outline what we see as an important problem associated with each of the commonly used methods used to assess explicit knowledge. This is that each measure requires a form of response which is dependent on the subjects having some knowledge of the serial-order of the sequence. We argue that such methods, or more specifically their analyses, seriously underestimate other sources of knowledge, which may be available to subjects during their performance of the SRT task. In support of this argument we demonstrate that subjects' serial-order knowledge can, in principle, be independent of subjects' knowledge of the statistical structure of the sequence, and we propose an alternative method for analysing performance on the Generate task which avoids this problem
Jimenez, Luis (ed.) (2003). Attention and Implicit Learning. John Benjamins.   (Cited by 9 | Google)
JimC)nez, L.; MC)ndez, C. & Cleeremans, Axel (1996). Comparing direct and indirect measures of implicit learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology.   (Google)
Jimenez, Luis (2003). Intention, attention, and consciousness in probabilistic sequence learning. In Luis Jimenez (ed.), Attention and Implicit Learning. John Benjamins.   (Cited by 6 | Google)
Kihlstrom, John F. (1996). Perception without awareness of what is perceived, learning without awareness of what is learned. In Max Velmans (ed.), The Science of Consciousness. Routledge.   (Cited by 18 | Google)
Knight, David C.; Nguyen, Hanh T. & Bandettini, Peter A. (2006). The role of awareness in delay and trace fear conditioning in humans. Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience 6 (2):157-162.   (Google | More links)
Lambert, T. (2003). Visual orienting, learning and conscious awareness. In Luis Jimenez (ed.), Attention and Implicit Learning. John Benjamins.   (Cited by 1 | Google)
Leow, Ronald P. (2000). A study of the role of awareness in foreign language behavior: Aware versus unaware learners. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 22 (4):557-584.   (Cited by 27 | Google | More links)
Lovibond, Peter F. & Shanks, David R. (2002). The role of awareness in Pavlovian conditioning: Empirical evidence and theoretical implications. Journal of Experimental Psychology 28 (1):3-26.   (Cited by 120 | Google)
Manns, James W.; Clark, R. & Squire, L. R. (2000). Awareness predicts the magnitude of single-cue trace eyeblink conditioning. Hippocampus 10 (2):181-186.   (Cited by 23 | Google | More links)
Manns, Joseph R.; Clark, Robert E. & Squire, Larry R. (2001). Single-cue delay eyeblink conditioning is unrelated to awareness. Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience 1 (2):192-198.   (Cited by 9 | Google | More links)
Marton, Ference & Booth, S. A. (1997). Learning and Awareness. Lawrence Erlbaum.   (Cited by 949 | Google | More links)
Abstract: This book presents the psychological basis, methodology, and application of Marton's phenomenographic approach to the theory of learning.
Matthen, Mohan P. (2005). Seeing, Doing, and Knowing: A Philosophical Theory of Sense Perception. Oxford University Press.   (Cited by 50 | Google | More links)
Abstract: Seeing, Doing, and Knowing is an original and comprehensive philosophical treatment of sense perception as it is currently investigated by cognitive neuroscientists. Its central theme is the task-oriented specialization of sensory systems across the biological domain; these systems coevolve with an organism's learning and action systems, providing the latter with classifications of external objects in terms of sensory categories purpose--built for their need. On the basis of this central idea, Matthen presents novel theories of perceptual similarity, content, and realism. His work will be a stimulating resource for a wide range of scholars and students across philosophy and psychology
Neal, A. & Hesketh, B. (1997). Episodic knowledge and implicit learning. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 4:24-37.   (Cited by 42 | Google)
Neal, A. & Hesketh, B. (1997). Future directions for implicit learning: Toward a clarification of issues associated with knowledge representation and consciousness. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 4:73-78.   (Cited by 6 | Google)
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Perruchet, Pierre; Vinter, Annie & Gallego, J. (1997). Implicit learning shapes new conscious percepts and representations. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 4:43-48.   (Cited by 30 | Google | More links)
Perruchet, Pierre & Vinter, Annie (2003). Linking learning and consciousness: The self-organizing consciousness (SOC) model. In Axel Cleeremans (ed.), The Unity of Consciousness. Oxford University Press.   (Cited by 2 | Google)
Perruchet, Pierre (2005). Statistical approaches to language acquisition and the self-organizing consciousness: A reversal of perspective. Psychological Research/Psychologische Forschung. Vol 69 (5-6):316-329.   (Cited by 2 | Google | More links)
Perruchet, Pierre & Pacteau, C. (1990). Synthetic grammar learning: Implicit rule abstraction or explicit fragmentary knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology 119:264-75.   (Cited by 169 | Google)
Perruchet, Pierre & Vinter, Annie (2002). The self-organizing consciousness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (3):297-388.   (Cited by 47 | Google | More links)
Abstract: We propose that the isomorphism generally observed between the representations composing our momentary phenomenal experience and the structure of the world is the end-product of a progressive organization that emerges thanks to elementary associative processes that take our conscious representations themselves as the stuff on which they operate, a thesis that we summarize in the concept of Self-Organizing Consciousness (SOC). Key Words: Associative learning; automatism; consciousness; development; implicit learning; incubation; language; mental representation; perception; phenomenal experience
Purkis, Helena M. & Lipp, Ottmar V. (2001). Does affective learning exist in the absence of contingency awareness? Learning and Motivation 32 (1):84-99.   (Cited by 20 | Google | More links)
Ratcliff, Roger & McKoon, Gail (1995). How should implicit memory phenomena be modeled. Journal Of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory And Cognition 21 (3):777-784.   (Google)
Reber, Arthur S. (1997). How to differentiate implicit and explicit modes of acquisition. In Jonathan D. Cohen & Jonathan W. Schooler (eds.), Scientific Approaches to Consciousness. Lawrence Erlbaum.   (Cited by 12 | Google)
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Reber, Arthur S. (1993). Implicit learning and tacit knowledge: An essay on the cognitive unconscious. Oxford University Press.   (Cited by 1207 | Google | More links)
Abstract: In this new volume in the Oxford Psychology Series, the author presents a highly readable account of the cognitive unconscious, focusing in particular on the problem of implicit learning. Implicit learning is defined as the acquisition of knowledge that takes place independently of the conscious attempts to learn and largely in the absence of explicit knowledge about what was acquired. One of the core assumptions of this argument is that implicit learning is a fundamental, "root" process, one that lies at the very heart of the adaptive behavioral repertoire of every complex organism. The author's goals are to outline the essential features of implicit learning that have emerged from the many studies that have been carried out in a variety of experimental laboratories over the past several decades; to present the various alternative perspectives on this issue that have been proposed by other researchers and to try to accommodate these views with his own; to structure the literature so that it can be seen in the context of standard heuristics of evolutionary biology; to present the material within a functionalist approach and to try to show why the experimental data should be seen as entailing particular epistemological perspectives; and to present implicit processing as encompassing a general and ubiquitous set of operations that have wide currency and several possible applications. Chapter 1 begins with the core problem under consideration in this book, a characterization of "implicit learning" as it has come to be used in the literature. Reber puts this seemingly specialized topic into a general framework and suggests a theoretical model based on standard heuristics of evolutionary biology. In his account, Reber weaves a capsule history of interest in and work on the cognitive unconscious. Chapter 2 turns to a detailed overview of the experimental work on the acquisition of implicit knowledge, which currently is of great interest. Chapter 3 develops the evolutionary model within which one can see learning and cognition as richly intertwining issues and not as two distinct fields with one dominating the other. Finally, Chapter 4 explores a variety of entailments and speculations concerning implicit cognitive processes and their general role in the larger scope of human performance
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Abstract: Can associative learning take place without awareness? We explore this issue in a sequence learning paradigm with amnesic and control participants, who were simply asked to react to one of four possible stimuli on each trial. Unknown to them, successive stimuli occurred in a sequence. We manipulated the extent to which stimuli followed the sequence in a deterministic manner (noiseless condition) or only probabilistically so (noisy condition). Through this paradigm, we aimed at addressing two central issues: first, we asked whether sequence learning takes place in either condition with amnesic patients. Second, we asked whether this learning takes place without awareness. To answer this second question, participants were asked to perform a subsequent sequence generation task under inclusion and exclusion conditions, as well as a recognition task. Reaction times results show that amnesic patients learned the sequence only in the deterministic condition. However, they failed to be able to reproduce the sequence in the generation task. In contrast, we found learning for both sequence structures in control participants, but only control participants exposed to a deterministic sequence were successful in performing the generation task, thus suggesting that the acquired knowledge can be used consciously in this condition. Neither amnesic nor control participants showed correct old/new judgments in the recognition task. The results strengthen the claim that implicit learning is at least partly spared in amnesia, and the role of contextual information available for learning is discussed. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved
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