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8.9f. Unconscious Processes, Misc (Unconscious Processes, Misc on PhilPapers)

See also:
Abrams, R. L. & Greenwald, Anthony G. (2000). Parts outweigh the whole (word) in unconscious analysis of meaning. Psychological Science 11 (2):118-124.   (Cited by 45 | Google | More links)
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Changeux, Jean-Pierre; Dehaene, Stanislas; Naccache, Lionel; Sackura, Jérôme & Sergenta, Claire (2006). Conscious, preconscious, and subliminal processing: A testable taxonomy. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (5):204-211.   (Google)
Abstract: Amidst the many brain events evoked by a visual stimulus, which are specifically associated with conscious perception, and which merely reflect non-conscious processing? Several recent neuroimaging studies have contrasted conscious and non-conscious visual processing, but their results appear inconsistent. Some support a correlation of conscious perception with early occipital events, others with late parieto-frontal activity. Here we attempt to make sense of those dissenting results. On the basis of a minimal neuro-computational model, the global neuronal workspace hypothesis, we propose a taxonomy which distinguishes between vigilance and access to conscious report, as well as between subliminal, preconscious and conscious processing. We suggest that these distinctions map onto different neural mechanisms, and that conscious perception is systematically associated with a sudden surge of parieto-frontal activity causing top-down amplification
Chase, Philip N. & Watson, Anne C. (2004). Unconscious cognition and behaviorism. Journal of Mind and Behavior 25 (2):145-159.   (Google)
Cleeremans, Axel (2006). Conscious and unconscious cognition: A graded, dynamic perspective. International Journal of Psychology.   (Cited by 2 | Google)
Abstract: Consider the following three situations: learning to perform a complex skill such as gymastics (a stunning demonstration of which participants to ICP 2004 experienced during the opening ceremony), learning a complex game such as the ancient Chinese game of Weichi (more widely known as Go), or learning natural language. What these situations have in common, beyond the sheer complexity of the required skills, is the fact that most of what we learn about each appears to proceed in a manner that does not depend so much on the acquisition of explicit, declarative information or on the deployment of intentional strategies, but instead critically depends on repeated practice: Developing the skills needed to execute complex movements in gymnastics, to
Cleeremans, Axel (2001). Conscious and Unconscious Processes in Cognition. International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences.   (Cited by 4 | Google | More links)
Abstract: Characterizing the relationships between conscious and unconscious processes is one of the most important and long-standing goals of cognitive psychology. Renewed interest in the nature of consciousness — long considered not to be scientifically explorable —, as well as the increasingly widespread availability of functional brain imaging techniques, now offer the possibility of detailed exploration of the neural, behavioral, and computational correlates of conscious and unconscious cognition. This entry reviews some of the relevant experimental work, highlights the methodological challenges involved in establishing the extent to which cognition can occur unconsciously, and situates ongoing debates in the theoretical context provided by current thinking about consciousness
Cowan, Nelson & Stadler, Michael A. (1996). Estimating unconscious processes: Implications of a general class of models. Journal of Experimental Psychology 125:195-200.   (Cited by 19 | Google)
de Houwer, Jan (2006). Using the implicit association test does not rule out an impact of conscious propositional knowledge on evaluative conditioning. Learning and Motivation 37 (2):176-187.   (Google)
Dijksterhuis, Ap & Nordgren, Loran F. (2006). A theory of unconscious thought. Perspectives on Psychological Science 1 (2):95-109.   (Cited by 5 | Google | More links)
Dijksterhuis, Ap & van Olden, Zeger (2006). On the benefits of thinking unconsciously: Unconscious thought can increase post-choice satisfaction. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 42 (5):627-631.   (Google)
Dixon, N. F. (1981). Preconscious Processing. Wiley.   (Cited by 137 | Google)
Draine, Sean; Greenwald, Anthony G. & Banaji, Mahzarin R. (1996). Modeling unconscious gender bias in fame judgments. Consciousness And Cognition 5.   (Cited by 1 | Google | More links)
Erdelyi, Matthew H. (1974). A new look at the new look: Perceptual defense and vigilance. Psychological Review 81:1-25.   (Cited by 114 | Google)
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Field, A. (2000). I like it, but I'm not sure why: Can evaluative conditioning occur without conscious awareness? Consciousness and Cognition 9 (1):13-36.   (Cited by 29 | Google | More links)
Abstract: There is good evidence that, in general, autonomic conditioning in humans occurs only when subjects can verbalize the contingencies of conditioning. However, one form of conditioning, evaluative conditioning (EC), seems exceptional in that a growing body of evidence suggests that it can occur without conscious contingency awareness. As such, EC offers a unique insight into what role contingency awareness might play in associative learning. Despite this evidence, there are reasons to doubt that evaluative conditioning can occur without conscious awareness. This paper aims to critically review the EC literature and to draw some parallels to what is known about autonomic conditioning. In doing so, some important general issues about measuring contingency awareness are raised. These issues are illustrated with a brief report of an experiment in which a sensitive measure of contingency awareness is compared against a commonly used measure
Ford, T. & Thompson, Evan (2000). Preconscious and postconscious processes underlying construct accessibility effects: An extended search model. Personality and Social Psychology Review 4:317-336.   (Cited by 9 | Google | More links)
Forgas, Joseph P.; Williams, Kipling D. & Laham, Simon M. (2004). Social Motivation: Conscious and Unconscious Processes. Cambridge University Press.   (Cited by 1 | Google)
Abstract: Ground-breaking research by leading international researchers on the nature, functions and characteristics of social motivation.
Gawronski, Bertram; Hofmann, Wilhelm & Wilbur, Christopher J. (2006). Are "implicit" attitudes unconscious? Consciousness and Cognition 15 (3):485-499.   (Cited by 6 | Google)
Gelder, B. (2002). Out of Mind: Varieties of Unconscious Process. Oxford University Press.   (Google)
Greenwald, Anthony G. (1992). New look 3: Unconscious cognition reclaimed. American Psychologist 47:766-79.   (Cited by 165 | Google | More links)
Hassin, Ran R.; Uleman, James S. & Bargh, John A. (2005). The new unconscious. Oxford University Press, USA.   (Cited by 30 | Google | More links)
Höffding, Harald & Lowndes, Mary E. (2004). The conscious and the unconscious: From outlines of psychology (1881). American Imago. Special Issue 1750 (3):379-395.   (Google)
Hoffman, Robert R. (1997). What neural network studies suggest regarding the boundary between conscious and unconscious mental processes. In Dan J. Stein (ed.), Cognitive Science and the Unconscious. American Psychiatric Press.   (Google)
Hommel, Bernhard (2000). Intentional control of automatic stimulus-response translation. In Yves Rossetti & Antti Revonsuo (eds.), Beyond Dissociation: Interaction Between Dissociated Implicit and Explicit Processing. John Benjamins.   (Cited by 13 | Google)
Imanaka, K. & Abernethy, Brad (2000). Distance-location interference in movement reproduction: An interaction between conscious and unconscious processing? In Yves Rossetti & Antti Revonsuo (eds.), Beyond Dissociation: Interaction Between Dissociated Implicit and Explicit Processing. John Benjamins.   (Cited by 6 | Google)
Jacoby, Larry L.; Toth, J. P.; Lindsay, D. . S. & Debner, J. A. (1992). Lectures for a layperson: Methods for revealing unconscious processes. In Robert F. Bornstein & B. Pittman (eds.), Perception Without Awareness: Cognitive, Clinical, and Social Perspectives. Guilford Press.   (Cited by 34 | Google)
Kihlstrom, John F. (1984). Conscious, subconscious, unconscious: A cognitive perspective. In K. S. Bowers & D. Meichenbaum (eds.), The Unconscious Reconsidered. Wiley.   (Cited by 56 | Google)
Kihlstrom, John F. (1987). The cognitive unconscious. Science 237:1445-1452.   (Cited by 12 | Google | More links)
Kihlstrom, John F. (1990). The psychological unconscious. In L. Pervin (ed.), Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research. Guilford Press.   (Cited by 87 | Google)
Kihlstrom, John F.; Barnhardt, T. M. & Tatryn, D. J. (1992). The psychological unconscious: Found, lost, and regained. American Psychologist 47:788-91.   (Cited by 87 | Google | More links)
Kihlstrom, John F. (1995). The rediscovery of the unconscious mind. In Harold J. Morowitz & Jerome L. Singer (eds.), The Mind, the Brain, and Complex Adaptive Systems. Addison-Wesley.   (Google)
Kihlstrom, John F. (1996). Unconscious processes in social interaction. In Stuart R. Hameroff, Alfred W. Kaszniak & A. C. Scott (eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness. MIT Press.   (Cited by 4 | Google)
Klinger, M. R.; Burton, P. & Pitts, G. (2000). Mechanisms of unconscious priming: Response competition, not spreading activation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 26 (2):441-455.   (Cited by 53 | Google)
Kunde, Wilfried; Kiesel, Andrea & Hoffman, Joachim (2003). Conscious control over the content of unconscious cognition. Cognition 88 (2):223-242.   (Cited by 37 | Google | More links)
Kunde, Wilfried; Kiesel, Andrea & Hoffmann, Joachim (2005). On the masking and disclosure of unconscious elaborate processing. A reply to Van opstal, reynvoet, and Verguts (2005). Cognition 97 (1):99-105.   (Cited by 6 | Google | More links)
Laird, John (1922). Is the conception of the unconscious of value in psychology? Mind 31 (124).   (Google)
Lewicki, P. (1986). Nonconscious Social Information Processing. Academic Press.   (Cited by 124 | Google)
Lewicki, P. & Hill, T. (1987). Unconscious processes as explanations of behavior in cognitive, personality, and social psychology. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 13:355-362.   (Cited by 11 | Google)
Libet, Benjamin W. (2000). Conscious and unconscious mental activity. Neuro-Psychoanalysis 2 (1):21-24.   (Google | More links)
Loftus, Elizabeth F. & Klinger, M. R. (1992). Is the unconscious Smart or dumb? American Psychologist 47:761-65.   (Cited by 28 | Google | More links)
Maison D., ; Greenwald, Anthony G. & Bruin, R. H. (2004). Predictive validity of the implicit association test in studies of brands, consumer attitudes, and behavior. Journal of Consumer Psychology 14:405-415.   (Cited by 27 | Google | More links)
Abstract: Three studies investigated implicit brand attitudes and their relation to explicit attitudes, prod- uct usage, and product differentiation. Implicit attitudes were measured using the Implicit As- sociation Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998). Study 1 showed expected differ- ences in implicit attitudes between users of two leading yogurt brands, also revealing significant correlations between IAT-measured implicit attitudes and explicit attitudes. In Study 2, users of two fast food restaurants (McDonald’s and Milk Bar) showed implicit attitudi- nal preference for their favorite restaurant. In Study 3, implicit attitudes of users of two soft drinks (Coca-Cola and Pepsi) predicted brand preference, product usage, and brand recognition in a blind taste test. A meta-analytic combination of the three studies showed that the use of IAT measures increased the prediction of behavior relative to explicit attitude measures alone
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Neisser, Joseph U. (2006). Unconscious subjectivity. Psyche 12 (3).   (Google)
Abstract: Subjectivity is essential to consciousness. But though subjectivity is necessary for consciousness it is not sufficient. In part one I derive a distinction between conscious awareness and unconscious subjectivity from a critique of Block’s (1995) distinction between access and phenomenal consciousness. In part two I contrast two historically influential models of unconscious thought: cognitive and psychoanalytic. The widely held cognitive model does not cover, as it should, the class of "for me" mental states that remain unconscious. In particular, personalist approaches to emotion require a theory of unconscious subjectivity to handle the case of unconscious emotion
O'Brien, Gerard & Opie, Jonathan (1999). What's doing the work here: Knowledge representation or the HOT theory? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):778-9.   (Google | More links)
Abstract: Dienes and Perner offer us a theory of explicit and implicit knowledge that promises to systematise a large and diverse body of research in cognitive psychology. Their advertised strategy is to unpack this distinction in terms of explicit and implicit representation. But when one digs deeper one finds the HOT theory of consciousness doing much of the work. This reduces both the plausibility and usefulness of their account. We think their strategy is broadly correct, but that consensus on the explicit/implicit knowledge distinction is still a fair way off
Opie, Jon & O’Brien, Gerard (2002). The computational baby, the classical bathwater, and the middle way. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25:348-349.   (Google)
Abstract: We are sympathetic with the broad aims of Perruchet and Vinter’s (P&V’s) “mentalistic” framework. But it is implausible to claim, as they do, that human cognition can be understood without recourse to unconsciously represented information. In our view, this strategy forsakes the only available mechanistic understanding of intelligent behaviour. Our purpose here is to plot a course midway between the classical unconscious, and P&V’s own non-computational associationism
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Abstract: The process-dissociation procedure has been used in a variety of experimental contexts to assess the contributions of conscious and unconscious processes to task performance. To evaluate whether motivation affects estimates of conscious and unconscious processes, participants were given incentives to follow inclusion and exclusion instructions in a perception task and a memory task. Relative to a control condition in which no performance incentives were given, the results for the perception task indicated that incentives increased the participants' ability to exclude previously presented information, which in turn both increased the estimate of conscious processes and decreased the estimate of unconscious processes. However, the results also indicated that incentives did not influence estimates of conscious or unconscious processes in the memory task. The findings suggest that the process-dissociation procedure is relatively immune to influences of motivation when used with a memory task, but that caution should be exercised when the process-dissociation is used with a perception task
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