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Abstract: Logic and psychology overlap in judgment, inference and proof. The
problems raised by this commonality are notoriously difficult, both from a historical and from a philosophical point of view. Sundholm has for a long time addressed these issues. His beautiful piece of work [A Century of Inference: 1837-1936] begins by summarizing the main difficulty in the usual provocative manner of the author: one can start, he says, by the act of knowledge to go to the object, as the Idealist does; one can also start by the object to go to the act, in the Realist mood; never the
two shall meet. He is himself inclined to accept the first perspective
as the right one and he has eventually developed an original version
of antirealism which starts, not from considerations about the publicity
of meaning, in the manner of Dummett, but from an epistemic
standpoint, trying to search in a non-Fregean tradition of analysis of
judgement and cognate notions a way of founding constructivist semantics.
The present paper ploughes the same field. We concentrate on the significance, for Sundholm’s program, of the perspective that
has been opened by Twardowski in his important essay on acts and
Abstract: A prominent but poorly understood domain of human agency is mental action, i.e., thecapacity for reaching specific desirable mental statesthrough an appropriate monitoring of one's own mentalprocesses. The present paper aims to define mentalacts, and to defend their explanatory role againsttwo objections. One is Gilbert Ryle's contention thatpostulating mental acts leads to an infinite regress.The other is a different although related difficulty,here called the access puzzle: How can the mindalready know how to act in order to reach somepredefined result? A crucial element in the solutionof these puzzles consists in making explicit thecontingency between mental acts and mentaloperations, parallel to the contingency betweenphysical acts and bodily movements. The paper finallydiscusses the kind of reflexivity at stake in mentalacts; it is shown that the capacity to refer tooneself is not a necessary condition of the successfulexecution of mental acts